|Part of the Kurdish–Turkish conflict|
|Location||Uludere, Şırnak Province, Turkey
|Date||December 28, 2011
9:37 PM (UTC+02:00)
|Executed by||Turkish Air Force F-16 Fighting Falcon|
The Roboski strike, also known as the Uludere massacre, Sirnak massacre, or Roboski massacre took place on December 28, 2011 at 9:37 pm local time near Turkish-Iraqi border. Two Turkish F16 jets fired at a group of villagers, acting on an information that PKK militants were crossing the border. According to Turkish government sources 34 cigarette smuggling civilians were killed in the incident. 
A group of 40 Kurdish villagers of Turkish nationality, mostly teenagers, from the Ortasu (in Kurdish: Robozik) and Gülyazı villages in Uludere district of Şırnak Province were moving in the night of December 28, 2011 from Iraqi territory towards Turkish border. The people were on a tour for smuggling cigarettes, diesel oil and the like into Turkey, packed on mules. 
Turkish Armed Forces had received certain information about activities at the region supplied by United States intelligence services that was based on a U.S. drone ten days before the incident. The footage of the unmanned aerial vehicles flying over the terrain was mistakenly evaluated as a group of militants of the outlawed Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK). Pentagon officials were quoted as saying that American drones initially spotted the group, but after alerting the Turks and offering to conduct more detailed surveillance they were denied and “Turkish officers instead directed the Americans who were remotely piloting the drone to fly it somewhere else.” The security forces were criticized in the media for their failure and losses. The ordered two F-16 Fighting Falcons of the Turkish Air Force took off and bombed the area.
The next morning, relatives searched for the missing people, and found the bodies of the victims. 34 people belonging to the group were killed during and shortly after the airstrike. Two civilians escaped to Iraq. Only one survivor, Servet Encü, returned to his village. 28 of the dead were from the Encü family. The bodies, some of them burnt beyond recognition or dismembered, were transported to their hometown on mules due to rough terrain.
Servet Encü told that the people in his village and neighboring settlements are in smuggling business since many years and generations as well because they are financially in need. He added that Iraqi traders bring diesel oil or tea by their vehicles to 2–3 km (1.2–1.9 mi) close to the border, and they buy the goods and bring them home on trails that takes about two and half hours. He alleged that the smuggling action was well known by the security forces at the border.
The funeral of the victims, following an autopsy performed in the Uludere hospital, took place at a newly established cemetery between the villages Ortasu and Gülyazı. The funeral convoy, formed by about 1,000 vehicles and attended by a crowd of about 10,000 people, covered the distance of 20 km (12 mi) between the district center and the cemetery in one hour. The coffins were wrapped with the flag of PKK, even though the victims were members of village guard families, a local militia supported by the state in defense against the PKK guerrilla.
Major protests followed in Turkey's predominantly Kurdish cities, most notably Diyarbakır where protests turned violent and police used batons and tear gas against protesters and protesters threw stones and Molotov cocktails at police. Protests were also held in Ankara and Istanbul, where over 1,000 protesters gathered in Taksim Square and threw stones at police and smashed vehicles before police dispersed the crowds with tear gas and water cannons.
District governor Naif Yavuz, who was from the beginning on together with the smugglers at the autopsy and the funeral service, paid later a visit to house of the relatives of the victims for condolonce. Shortly after his visit, he was attacked by a mob, which attempted to lynch him. He barely escaped the attack with the help of his security guards, however, was hospitalized for his injuries. It turned out to be an act of people, who came outside the village. It has been alleged that BDP deputy Hasip Kaplan was behind this attack.
In Nicosia, around 300 Kurds and Turkish Cypriots marched on the Turkish embassy in Northern Cyprus, where Murat Kanatlı, head of the left-wing New Cyprus Party spoke to the crowd and accused Turkey of escalating tensions in the South-East. The demonstration ended peacefully.
In Arbil, some 500 Iraqi Kurds protested the killing, some of which clashed with Iraqi Kurdistan security forces, although no casualties were reported. Some protesters carried pictures of Abdullah Öcalan and chanted "fight, fight for freedom" and "Erdogan is a terrorist." At the protest, Kurdish activist Ali Mahmoud told the press that "The crime ... is a real genocide, a war crime and a crime against humanity, and breaches international laws, we demand that Turkey be judged in the international courts."
- Bahoz Erdal, the leader of the PKK's military wing, called for a Kurdish uprising in response to the incident, releasing the following statement: "We urge the people of Kurdistan... to react after this massacre and seek a settling of accounts through uprisings." Meanwhile Peace and Democracy Party (BDP) leader Selahattin Demirtaş released a statement claiming that "It’s clearly a massacre of civilians, of whom the oldest is 20," but he called for Kurds to respond through democratic means. He also quoted Erdoğan on Syrian President Bashar al-Assad "A leader who kills his own people has lost his legitimacy" and said "now I say the same thing back to him."
- Prime minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan assured that essential administrative and judicial investigations were initiated. Hüseyin Çelik, the deputy chairman and spokesman of the ruling party AK Party, announced that the families of the victims will be compensated constituting a "material apology". A verbal apology can follow after incident's all details are uncovered, he added.
- The Republican People's Party (CHP), Turkey's largest opposition party, sharply criticized what they perceived as the government's attempt to portray the incident as understandable, collateral damage, with Kurdish CHP deputy Sezgin Tanrikulu saying that "If there are some who think that death of these innocents is just a natural result of the struggle against terror, it means that Turkey has already been divided on moral grounds."
- Graeme Wood at the New York Times blog asked if the Turkish leader Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan is a 'New Assad' dictator, oppressor.
In a MetroPOLL survey which involved 1,174 people, when asked about who was ultimately responsible for the deaths, 14.5% of Turks said the state, 11.5% said the smugglers, 9.5% said the PKK, 5.4% said the prime minister of the government and 4.9% said it was the General Staff. When asked whether the government had fulfilled its responsibilities towards the incident, some 45% said yes, with 38.1% saying no.
- Concerns raised about obscuring evidence in Uludere killings
- Sponsored by (2012-06-09). "The Kurds and Turkey: Massacre at Uludere". The Economist. Retrieved 2012-07-25.
- Reuters, "Turkey strike kills 35, Kurds decry "massacre" Hindustan Times, December 29, 2011, http://www.hindustantimes.com/world-news/RestOfAsia/Turkey-strike-kills-35-Kurds-decry-massacre/Article1-788820.aspx
- "Sirnak Massacre, December 29, 2011. Kurdish American Society, 2011-12-29. In an attack on Wednesday December 29, 2011, in the Kurdish area between Turkey and Iraq, Turkish airplanes killed 35 Kurdish civilians near Uludere in Sirnak province. Once again, with the pretext of “fighting the PKK terrorists,” Kurdish civilians have lost their lives. This latest assault on Kurdish civilians by the Turkish air force is yet another example of the Turkish government’s misguided policy. The Kurdish question cannot be solved through military means. The only means of solving the Kurdish question in Turkey is a democratic approach. Grant the Kurds their national rights. http://www.usakurds.org/index.php?sid=16&location=main
- CDK strongly condemns Sirnak Massacre (The Kurdish Observer), 29 December 2011. http://www.rojhelat.info/english/component/content/article/1930-pcdk-strongly-condemns-sirnak-massacre
- "US Defense: "No comment about intelligence in Roboski massacre", Turkey denies report on U.S. help". Ekurd.net. Retrieved 2012-07-25.
- Beaumont, Peter (29 December 2011). "Turkish air strikes kill dozens of smugglers near Iraq border". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2 January 2012.
- "Uludere'de Sağ Kurtulan Encü Anlattı". Aktif Haber (in Turkish). 2012-01-02. Retrieved 2012-01-06.
- "Questions grow over Uludere intel failure". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 2012-01-06.
- "35 Tabuta Kilometrelerce Gözyaşı". Haberler (in Turkish). 2011-12-30. Retrieved 2012-01-07.
- Entous, Adam; Parkinson, Joe (16 May 2012). "Turkey's Attack on Civilians Tied to U.S. Military Drone". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
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- Rudaw in English The Happening: Latest News and Multimedia about Kurdistan, Iraq and the World - Kurds Mourn Victims of Turkish Air Strike
- Kurdish Protesters Clash With Turkish Authorities Over Civilian Deaths | Middle East | English
- Demo held in Ankara over airstrike in SE - Tehran Times
- Kurds protest over deadly Turkey air raid - Europe - Al Jazeera English
- "Uludere Kaymakamı 'linç girişimi'ni anlattı". Radikal (in Turkish). 2012-01-01. Retrieved 2012-01-07.
- Behind the scenes of Uludere
- Turkish Cypriots and Kurds demonstrate - Cyprus Mail
- PressTV - Iranian Kurds protest Turkey air raid
- "Turkey pledges airstrikes inquiry". The Irish Times.
- Kurdish rebels call for an uprising in Turkey after dozens killed in an air strike
- Graeme Wood, "A Turkish Assad?" New York Times (blog), January 1, 2012, http://newsfeed.time.com/2011/12/12/recep-tayyip-erdogan-peoples-choice-for-times-2011-person-of-the-year/
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- Majority of Turks support education in mother tongue