Ulvophyceae

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Ulvophyceae
Ulvophyceae composite.jpg
Ulvophyceae diversity
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Viridiplantae
Division: Chlorophyta
Class: Ulvophyceae
Stewart & Mattox, 1978[1][2]
Orders[3]

The Ulvophyceae or ulvophytes are a class of green algae,[3] distinguished mainly on the basis of ultrastructural morphology, life cycle and molecular phylogenetic data.[4][5] The sea lettuce, Ulva, belongs here. Other well-known members include Caulerpa and Acetabularia.

The Ulvophytes are diverse in their morphology and their habitat. Most are seaweeds such as those listed above. Others, such as Rhizoclonium, Pithophora and some species of Cladophora live in fresh water and in some areas are considered weeds.

Evolution[edit]

The origin and early diversification of the Ulvophyceae likely took place in the late Neoproterozoic.[6][7] Although most contemporary ulvophytes are marine macroalgae (seaweeds), ancestral ulvophytes may have been freshwater, unicellular green algae. Molecular phylogenetic evidence suggests that macroscopic growth was achieved independently in the various major lineages of Ulvophyceae (Ulvales-Ulotrichales, Trentepohliales, Cladophorales, Bryopsidales and Dasycladales).[7]

Current hypothesis on relationships among the main clades of Ulvophyceae[5][8] are shown below.






Cladophorales



Blastophysa




Dasycladales



Bryopsidales




Trentepohliales




Ignatius clade






Ulvales



Phaeophila, Bolbocolean




Ulotrichales



Desmochloris, Halochlorococcum





Scotinosphaerales



Oltmannsiellopsidales



References[edit]

  1. ^ Stewart KD, Mattox KR (1978). "Structural evolution in the flagellated cells of green algae and land plants". BioSystems 10 (1–2): 145–152. doi:10.1016/0303-2647(78)90036-9. PMID 656563. 
  2. ^ Adl SM, Simpson AGB, Farmer MA, Andersen RA, Anderson OR, Barta JR, Bowser SS, Brugerolle G, Fensome RA, Fredericq S, James TY, Karpov S, Kugrens P, Krug J, Lane CE, Lewis LA, Lodge J, Lynn DH, Mann DG, McCourt RM, Mendoza L, Moestrup Ø, Mozley-Standridge SE, Nerad TA, Shearer CA, Smirnov AV, Speigel FW, Taylor MFJR (2005). "The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 52 (5): 399–451. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2005.00053.x. PMID 16248873. 
  3. ^ a b Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2007). "Class: Ulvophyceae taxonomy browser". AlgaeBase version 4.2 World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. Retrieved 2007-09-23. 
  4. ^ Graham LE, Graham JM, Wilcox LW (2009) Algae. 2nd Edition. Benjamin Cummings (Pearson), San Francisco, CA
  5. ^ a b Leliaert, F., Smith, D.R., Moreau, H., Herron, M.D., Verbruggen, H., Delwiche, C.F. & De Clerck, O. (2012). "Phylogeny and molecular evolution of the green algae" (PDF). Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 31: 1–46. doi:10.1080/07352689.2011.615705. 
  6. ^ Verbruggen, H.; Ashworth, M.; LoDuca, S.T.; Vlaeminck, C.; Cocquyt, E.; Sauvage, T.; Zechman, F.W.; Littler, D.S.; Littler, M.M.; Leliaert, F. (2009). "A multi-locus time-calibrated phylogeny of the siphonous green algae". Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 50: 642–653. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2008.12.018. 
  7. ^ a b Cocquyt, E.; Verbruggen, H.; Leliaert, F.; De Clerck, O. (2010). "Evolution and Cytological Diversification of the Green Seaweeds (Ulvophyceae)". Mol. Biol. Evol. 27 (9): 2052–2061. doi:10.1093/molbev/msq091. ISSN 0737-4038. 
  8. ^ Škaloud, Pavel; Kalina, Tomáš; Nemjová, Katarína; De Clerck, Olivier; Leliaert, Frederik (2013). "Morphology and Phylogenetic Position of the Freshwater Green MicroalgaeChlorochytrium(Chlorophyceae) andScotinosphaera(Scotinosphaerales, ord. nov., Ulvophyceae)". Journal of Phycology 49 (1): 115–129. doi:10.1111/jpy.12021. ISSN 0022-3646.