Ulyanovsk

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For the warship, see Soviet aircraft carrier Ulyanovsk.
Ulyanovsk (English)
Ульяновск (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Ульяновск.jpg
View of Ulyanovsk
Map of Russia - Ulyanovsk Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Ulyanovsk Oblast in Russia
Ulyanovsk is located in Ulyanovsk Oblast
Ulyanovsk
Ulyanovsk
Magnify-clip.png
Location of Ulyanovsk in Ulyanovsk Oblast
Coordinates: 54°19′N 48°22′E / 54.317°N 48.367°E / 54.317; 48.367Coordinates: 54°19′N 48°22′E / 54.317°N 48.367°E / 54.317; 48.367
Coat of arms of Ulyanovsk.png
Flag of Ulyanovsk.svg
Coat of arms
Flag
City Day June 12[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of July 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Ulyanovsk Oblast[1]
Administratively subordinated to city of oblast significance of Ulyanovsk[1]
Administrative center of Ulyanovsk Oblast,[2] city of oblast significance of Ulyanovsk[1]
Municipal status (as of July 2011)
Urban okrug Ulyanovsk Urban Okrug[3]
Administrative center of Ulyanovsk Urban Okrug[3]
Head[citation needed] Alexander Pinkov[citation needed]
Representative body City Duma[citation needed]
Statistics
Area 316.9 km2 (122.4 sq mi)[4]
Population (2010 Census) 613,786 inhabitants[5]
Rank in 2010 20th
Density 1,937 /km2 (5,020 /sq mi)[6]
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[7]
Founded 1648[citation needed]
City status since 1796[citation needed]
Previous names Simbirsk[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[8] 432xxx
Dialing code(s) +7 8422[9]
Official website
Ulyanovsk on WikiCommons

Ulyanovsk (Russian: Ульяновск; IPA: [ʊlʲˈjænəfsk]) is a city and the administrative center of Ulyanovsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Volga River 893 kilometers (555 mi) east from Moscow. Population: 613,786 (2010 Census);[5] 635,947 (2002 Census);[10] 625,155 (1989 Census).[11]

The city, originally founded as Simbirsk (Симби́рск), is the birthplace of Vladimir Lenin (originally named Ulyanov), for whom it was renamed in 1924.

History[edit]

Simbirsk was founded in 1648 by the boyar Bogdan Khitrovo.[citation needed] The fort of "Simbirsk" (alternatively "Sinbirsk") was strategically placed on a hill on the Western bank of the Volga River. The fort was meant to protect the eastern frontier of the Russian Empire from the nomadic tribes and to establish a permanent Imperial presence in the area.

In 1668, Simbirsk withstood a month-long siege by a 20,000-strong army led by rebel Cossack commander Stenka Razin. Also in Simbirsk another country rebel, Yemelyan Pugachev, was imprisoned before execution. At the time Simbirsk possessed a wooden kremlin, which was destroyed by a fire during the 18th century.

As the eastern border of the Russian Empire was rapidly pushed into Siberia, Simbirsk rapidly lost its strategic importance, but nonetheless began to develop into an important regional center. Simbirsk was granted city status in 1796.

Monument to Karamzin

In the summer of 1864, Simbirsk was severely damaged by fire; however, it was quickly rebuilt and continued to grow. The Holy Trinity Cathedral was constructed in a restrained Neoclassical style between 1827–1841. The population of Simbirsk reached 26,000 by 1856 and 43,000 by 1897.

In 1924, the city was renamed Ulyanovsk in honor of Vladimir Ulyanov, better known as Lenin, who was born in Simbirsk in 1870. Two other Russian political leaders, Alexander Kerensky and Alexander Protopopov, were also born in Simbirsk.

The construction of the Kuybyshev hydroelectric plant (completed in 1957) 200 kilometers (120 mi) downstream of Ulyanovsk resulted in the flooding of significant tracts of land both north and south of Ulyanovsk and increasing the width of the Volga by up to 35 kilometers (22 mi) in some places. To this day, some populated neighborhoods of Ulyanovsk remain well below the level of the reservoir, protected from flooding by a dam: it is estimated that its catastrophic failure would submerge parts of the city comprising around 5% of its total population with as much as 10 meters (33 ft) of water.

During the Soviet period, Ulyanovsk was an important tourist center, drawing visitors from around the country because of its revolutionary importance.

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the tourist importance of Ulyanovsk sharply decreased. In the 1990s, the city went through the hardest times—a slump in production in all branches, mass unemployment, and a population impoverishment. Besides the policy of the regional authorities of that time leaning against the grants and the Soviet system of managing, has led to serious crisis of a city infrastructure. In the first decade of the 2000s the economy started to grow.

A major series of explosions occurred at an arms depot of the Russian military near Ulyanovsk on November 13, 2009. At least two people[12] were killed in the explosion and 43 were rescued from a bomb shelter where they had taken refuge.

A heat-wave in the city in July–August 2010 caused the deaths of 300 people.

Politics[edit]

The city is headed by a mayor who is the executive branch, and city council which is the legislative branch. The term of the mayor is 5 years. In 2010 the city council abolished the direct elections to the mayor, replacing it with city manager, appointed by the council. Then again, in April 2013 the city charter was amended to re-introduce the direct mayoral election.[13]

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Ulyanovsk serves as the administrative center of the oblast.[2] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with thirty rural localities, incorporated as the city of oblast significance of Ulyanovsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Ulyanovsk is incorporated as Ulyanovsk Urban Okrug.[3]

Demographics[edit]

In 2008, there were registered 6,774 births and 8,054 deaths in Ulyanovsk.[14]

Ethnic composition[edit]

Climate[edit]

Local history and art museums buildings in the winter. Building - an object of cultural heritage of the Russian Federation. Built in 1913-1916 years as a house-monument to the writer Ivan Goncharov who was born in Simbirsk

Ulyanovsk has a humid continental climate (meaning hot summers and cold winters). Average temperature is −11 °C (12 °F) in January and +19 °C (66 °F) in July. Falls are generally warm, with snow beginning to accumulate by mid-November. Winters tend to be cold but with moderate amounts of snowfall and nighttime lows occasionally dipping below −25 °C (−13 °F). Summer weather arrives in mid-May. Precipitation averages about 480 millimeters (19 in). The city is subject to frequent, but moderate, droughts. Springs and summers are sunny, but fall and winter are usually cloudy. Median annual temperature is +5 °C (41 °F).

Climate data for Ulyanovsk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.7
(42.3)
5
(41)
16.5
(61.7)
30
(86)
36.3
(97.3)
37.5
(99.5)
38.9
(102)
39.3
(102.7)
33.1
(91.6)
25.7
(78.3)
14.6
(58.3)
6.2
(43.2)
39.3
(102.7)
Average high °C (°F) −7.7
(18.1)
−7.1
(19.2)
−0.4
(31.3)
11.4
(52.5)
20.8
(69.4)
24.2
(75.6)
25.4
(77.7)
23.4
(74.1)
17.3
(63.1)
7.5
(45.5)
−0.4
(31.3)
−5.1
(22.8)
9.5
(49.1)
Average low °C (°F) −15.4
(4.3)
−15.5
(4.1)
−9.2
(15.4)
0.9
(33.6)
7.3
(45.1)
12.2
(54)
13.9
(57)
11.7
(53.1)
7.2
(45)
0.2
(32.4)
−5.9
(21.4)
−11.7
(10.9)
0.5
(32.9)
Record low °C (°F) −39.1
(−38.4)
−39.9
(−39.8)
−31.1
(−24)
−23.2
(−9.8)
−6.9
(19.6)
−2.8
(27)
4.4
(39.9)
−1.3
(29.7)
−5
(23)
−19.4
(−2.9)
−28.6
(−19.5)
−36.9
(−34.4)
−39.9
(−39.8)
Precipitation mm (inches) 29
(1.14)
21
(0.83)
19
(0.75)
29
(1.14)
36
(1.42)
66
(2.6)
87
(3.43)
47
(1.85)
53
(2.09)
41
(1.61)
29
(1.14)
27
(1.06)
484
(19.06)
Source: Russian gidrometeocenter

Economy[edit]

The printing plant
The UAZ Building

Ulyanovsk is a major industrial city. The UAZ automobile manufacturing plant, Aviastar-SP Aircraft Company, Scientific and Production Association "Mars" (manufactured industrial control systems for the armed forces), Ulyanovsk Cartridge Works (manufactures ammunition for firearms), Ulyanovsk Motor Plant (russian.Ульяновский моторный завод, UMZ) and Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant (russian.Ульяновский механический завод, UMZ) are based in the city along with a variety of light industry and food-processing enterprises. Also Volga-Dnepr Airlines cargo airline has headquarters in the city.

Also in town are factories foreign companies Mars, Incorporated,[15] Takata-Petri,[16] Anadolu Efes S.K..[17]

Tourism is a growing business in the city and the surrounding area.

The 31st Airborne Brigade of the Russian Airborne Troops of the armed forces is based in Ulyanovsk. An ammunition depot on the outskirts of the city was the scene of a large fatal fire on November 13, 2009.[18]

Transportation[edit]

President Bridge, the new bridge in Ulyanovsk
The Volga River in Ulyanovsk

A railway bridge across the Volga was built in 1912–1916 and two automobile lanes were added to it in 1953–1958, allowing for the city to expand on the Eastern (left) bank of the river and transforming it into a local transport hub.

As the aging Ulyanovsk bridge, the only crossing of the Volga in the 400 km stretch from Kazan to Tolyatti, could no longer cope with the growing needs of the city, the construction of President Bridge, a truss bridge began in the late 1980s. Completion was delayed significantly due to catastrophic economic circumstances following the collapse of the Soviet Union. Its official opening ceremony was on November 24, 2009 by the Russian President Dmitry Medvedev – although traffic was using the bridge a few days earlier due arms depot blasts.[19] The bridge has a total length of 5.5 km, making it one of the longest in Europe.[20]

The city is also divided by the river Sviyaga, a tributary of the Volga but whose confluence with it is about 200 km north of the city. Three bridges cross the Sviyaga are also in a poor condition but are being closed and renovated from 2010 onwards.

Public transportation in the city is provided by 17 tram lines, 7 trolleybus routes (and all tram lines are only in the left-bank part of the city, and all the trolley only on the left bank), 50 municipal bus routes, and about 150 fixed-route taxi (marshrutkas) lines.

Ulyanovsk is served by the Ulyanovsk Vostochny Airport (the international airport) in the left-bank part of the city and Ulyanovsk Baratayevka Airport (Ulyanovsk Central Airport) in the right-bank part of the city.

Education[edit]

  • Ulyanovsk State Technical University, established in 1957 as Ulyanovsk Polytech University. Today Ulyanovsk State Technical University features over 14000 students on different education programs at 10 faculties and 48 departments.
  • Ulyanovsk State University, established in 1988 as a branch of Moscow State University. At the present time, UlSU is one of the largest higher educational institutions in the Volga region, comprising 6 institutes, 6 independent faculties, 2 affiliates, 5 junior colleges, 6 learning centers. UlSU enrolls about 15 thousand students annually, among them 125 foreign citizens from 20 countries of the world.
  • Ulyanovsk State Pedagogical University, established in 1932.
  • Ulyanovsk Higher Civil Aviation School, founded in 1935 as a training center, designed for training and retraining of flight crews of civil aircraft. In 1992, raised its status to the present. Has branches in Krasny Kut, Saratov Oblast and Sasovo, Ryazan Oblast. When it has Main industry museum of cilvil aviation history (Ulyanovsk aircraft museum), established in 1983.

There is also a number of technical and medical colleges in Ulyanovsk.

Architecture[edit]

Regional museum of local lore

During the Soviet period, Ulyanovsk lost much of its historical heritage.[citation needed] All traces of the original wooden fort are gone, as are all the churches of old Simbirsk; only a few 19th century buildings remain in the city, most notably the houses where Lenin lived between 1870–1887. The reconstruction of the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity was considered, but has since been canceled. However, many historical constructions remain. Among them the house in which writer Goncharov was born, Protestant church and other buildings.

Sports[edit]

Volga[21] plays in the Russian Bandy Super League. The other club Simbirsk plays in the 2nd division. An indoor arena for bandy (Russian hockey) is under construction, as one of the first in Russia, and will have a capacity of 5 000.[1][2][3] The outdoor stadium will be modernised and have a capacity of 18 000. The Bandy World Championship 2016 will be played in Ulyanovsk.[4]

In association football, FC Volga plays in "Urals-Volga" zone of the Russian Second Division.

Notable people[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Ulyanovsk is twinned with:

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Law #126-ZO
  2. ^ a b Official website of Ulyanovsk Oblast. About Ulyanovsk Oblast (Russian)
  3. ^ a b c Law #043-ZO
  4. ^ Регионы России. Основные социально-экономические показатели городов 2012
  5. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  7. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  8. ^ http://postindex.delovoigorod.ru/ulyanovsk/center/
  9. ^ http://www.hella.ru/code/city/ulyanovsk_code.htm
  10. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  11. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  12. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8359359.stm
  13. ^ "В Ульяновске вернули прямые выборы мэра". Lenta.ru. April 17, 2013. Retrieved January 26, 2014. 
  14. ^ http://www.regnum.ru/news/1112275.html
  15. ^ http://www.mars.com/global/about-mars/where-we-operate.aspx Where we operate
  16. ^ http://www.takata.com/en/about/locations02.html#l03
  17. ^ http://www.anadoluefes.com/index.php?gdil=in&gsayfa=op&galtsayfa=operasyonlardetay&gicsayfa=rusya&gislem=&gbilgi=
  18. ^ Major fire at Russia arms depot
  19. ^ http://en.rian.ru/trend/artillery_depot_fire/
  20. ^ Minister of Transport Russian Federation Igor Levitin in the course of working trip to Ulyanovsk Region will estimate the possibility of SEZ creation of port type, PRIME-TASS, Saransk, June 17, 2008
  21. ^ Official home page
  22. ^ ru:Славянофильство

Sources[edit]

  • Законодательное Собрание Ульяновской области. Закон №126-ЗО от 3 октября 2006 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ульяновской области», в ред. Закона №182-ЗО от 2 октября 2013 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 10 Закона Ульяновской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ульяновской области"». Опубликован: "Ульяновская правда", №77 (22.513), 6 октября 2006 г. (Legislative Assembly of Ulyanovsk Oblast. Law #126-ZO of October 3, 2006 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Ulyanovsk Oblast, as amended by the Law #182-ZO of October 2, 2013 On Amending Article 10 of the Law of Ulyanovsk Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Ulyanovsk Oblast". ).
  • Законодательное Собрание Ульяновской области. Закон №043-ЗО от 13 июля 2004 г. «О муниципальных образованиях Ульяновской области», в ред. Закона №98-ЗО от 20 июля 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Ульяновской области "О муниципальных образованиях Ульяновской области" и Закон Ульяновской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ульяновской области"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Деловой Вестник", №78(2818), 20 июля 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Ulyanovsk Oblast. Law #043-ZO of July 13, 2004 On the Municipal Formations of Ulyanovsk Oblast, as amended by the Law #98-ZO of July 20, 2012 On Amending the Law of Ulyanovsk Oblast "On the Municipal Formations of Ulyanovsk Oblast" and the Law of Ulyanovsk Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Ulyanovsk Oblast". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication.).

External links[edit]