|Created by||Jean Chalopin
inspired by Homer's Odysseus
|Voices of||Matt Berman
|Country of origin||France
|No. of episodes||26 (List of episodes)|
|Running time||25 min NTSC
24 min PAL
|Original channel||first-run syndication|
|Original run||10 October 1981 – 3 April 1982|
Ulysses 31 (宇宙伝説ユリシーズ31 Uchū Densetsu Yurishīzu Sātīwan , lit. Space Legend Ulysses 31) (French: Ulysse 31) is a Franco-Japanese animated television series (1981) that updates the Greek mythology of Odysseus (known as "Ulysses" in Latin, hence the name) to the 31st century. The show comprised 26 half-hour episodes and was produced by DIC Audiovisuel in conjunction with anime studio Tokyo Movie Shinsha. This is also the first show produced by DiC Entertainment, now Cookie Jar Entertainment.
The plot line of the series, (made by the French Jean Chalopin), describes the struggles of Ulysses and his crew against the divine entities that rule the universe, the ancient gods from Greek mythology. The Gods of Olympus are angered when Ulysses, commander of the giant spaceship, Odyssey, kills the giant Cyclops to save a group of enslaved children, including his son. Zeus sentences Ulysses to travel the universe with his crew frozen until he finds the Kingdom of Hades, at which point his crew will be revived and he will be able to return to Earth. Along the way they encounter numerous other famous figures from Greek mythology given a futuristic twist.
The entire series is available in English in a complete DVD box set in the UK released by Contender Entertainment, and in Australia by Madman Entertainment. In the United States, one DVD entitled Ulysses 31: The Mysteries of Time was released, containing only four selected episodes.
Main characters 
- Ulysses (ユリシーズ Yurishīzu )
- Main character and captain of the Odyssey. He achieved the solar peace before becoming the subject of the Olympian gods' revenge. His weapon of choice is a laser pistol that conceals a blade very similar to the lightsabers in George Lucas' Star Wars, complemented by an energy shield and a belt that allows him to fly. Ulysses is brave, noble, determined, and will stop at nothing to defeat the Gods and the conditions imposed upon himself and his companions.
- Telemachus (テレマーク Teremāku )
- Son of Ulysses and second in command for most of the voyage. Yumi's friend and protector. Very beautiful, as described by Yumi in their first encounter. Courageous, adventurous, and level headed. He is a skilled pilot, and his weapon of choice is a hi-tech, energy-ball shooting slingshot.
- Yumi (ユミ Yumi )
- Thémis in the original French dub (after the name of the ancient Titan). A blue-skinned humanoid alien girl from the white planet, Zotra. She is the younger sister of Numinor and possesses telepathic powers. She is saved from being sacrificed to the Cyclops, along with Telemachus and her older brother, by Ulysses. She also exhibits telekinesis to some extent, as shown in the episodes At the Heart of the Universe and The Lotus Eaters; in addition, she is immune to fire. Although physically very frail, she is very intelligent and courageous. Zotrians, aside from blue skin, have snow-white hair, pointed ears and slanted eyes with cat-like vertical pupils; they are considered extremely beautiful.
- Numinor (ユマイオス Yumaiosu )
- Noumaïos in the original French dub. A Zotrian teenager and older brother of Yumi. He is saved by Ulysses from being sacrificed to the Cyclops. He is in suspended animation along with the rest of the crew for most of the series. Like his sister, he is considered extremely beautiful. He has a sweet and very gentle personality. He is courageous, as well as trustworthy and loyal. He awakes three times before being finally released from the gods' curse in the final episode of the series: The first time in The Lost Planet, where the Odyssey comes across a white Zotrian moon. Secondly, in Mutiny on Board, where the crew are subjected to possession by an alien essence. The third time is in The Magician in Black, when the entire crew is awakened by a powerful spell by the mysterious Magician in Black. Japan name Yumaiosu is the katakana ortography of English pronunciation of Eumaeus, the pig-guardian of Odysseus in Homer's poem.
- Nono (ノノ Nono )
- Small robotic companion of Telemachus. Fond of eating nuts and nails. He is a trusty friend who was given to Telemachus as a birthday present. He is rather timid, but can be relied upon in a crisis. He is skilled at machinery repair and possesses tremendous physical strength.
- Shirka (シルカ Shiruka )
- The Odyssey's main computer. Speaks with a deep female voice. Japan name Shiruka seems a katakana form of the name Circe.
- Zeus (ゼウス Zeusu )
- The god of gods, Ulysses' persecutor.
- Poseidon (ポセイドン Poseidon )
- God of the Seas, he is enraged by Ulysses' killing of his creature, the Cyclops. He wields a trident, the symbol of his power, and his servants pilot ships that are shaped like a trident.
- Hades (アデス Adesu )
- Ruling god of the Underworld. Ulysses must find his realm to find the way back to Earth.
In 1980, Telecom Animation, TMS Entertainment, and DiC Entertainment produced a pilot for the series, simply titled "Ulysses 31". The pilot was released on VHS in Japan along with a couple of episodes by King Records in 1986. The pilot appears to have only been recorded in Japanese.
The story is virtually identical to episode one of the finished series; however, the story was the only thing that was kept. Although all the characters were kept, some underwent major redesigns from a typical anime design to the one seen in the finished series, which is a mix of Japanese anime style and European art based on the appearance of classical Greek sculpture. Renowned Japanese illustrators and animators Shingo Araki and Michi Himeno, who have worked in anime adaptations of famous manga (e.g., Masami Kurumada's Saint Seiya, Fūma no Kojirō, Ring ni Kakero, Riyoko Ikeda's Versailles no Bara, and UFO Grendizer OVA) were responsible for the finished series' character designs, animation routines, and visual style.
Out of all the characters, Telemachus received the largest redesign. Nono was kept identical to the anime design of the pilot, without changes. In the series, Numinor and Yumi are identical to their design in the pilot, only the color of their clothes was changed from purple and dark blue to lilac and yellow, and their hair became slightly longer. Also, their boot length was shortened from knee-high (in the pilot episode) to normal length boots in the final series.
The Odyssey ship also received some redesign work, as in the pilot episode it simply resembled an enormous ring. The design inspired by a human eye shape found in the finished series is reminiscent of the ring design in the pilot episode.
Also, most of the animation sequences from the pilot were not used again, although some scenes were reused in the final version of the first episode.
Most of the original soundtrack was composed by Denny Crockett and Ike Egan. (A popular misconception is that the rock group Devo composed and performed the title song sans credit; when asked about this in 2011, Mark Mothersbaugh said he wasn't even familiar with the series.) Six additional themes were composed by Shuki Levy and Haim Saban: Potpourri, Final Glory, Space Traffic, Ulysse Meets Ulysse, Mermaids, and Change of Time (Theme of Chronos). Unfortunately, due possibly to poor processing, many of the songs are badly distorted throughout the series.
The Japanese version, on the other hand, has a different soundtrack. The music was composed by Wakakusa Kei, who was responsible for the soundtrack in both the series and pilot that was produced in 1980. An official soundtrack was released in conjuncture with the TV airing in 1988 by King Records, which also included a TV-size version of the Japanese intro and outro songs.
Japanese theme songs 
Ginga Densetsu Odyssey (銀河伝説オデッセイ Ginga Densetsu Odissei , Galactic Legend Odyssey) by Tomoaki Taka
Ai. Toki no Kanata ni (愛･時の彼方に Ai. Toki no Kanata ni , Love, Over the Other Side of Time) by Tomoaki Taka
Legal Issues 
During the mid 80's, there was a court ruling against the international producers of Ulysses 31 (Haim Saban) due to copyright infringement via Lucasfilm Ltd. The cue "Battle Theme"/"Ulysse Terrasse le Cyclope" was the case as the piece blatantly used John Williams cue from George Lucas' Star Wars sequel, The Empire Strikes Back (heard in the movie and on the Williams soundtrack album as "The Battle In The Snow"). Under the hearing, it was deemed that existing prints of the show could use this piece of music after damages were paid. Subsequent soundtrack releases would later omit that theme as royalties would have to go to their respective owners of that music.
- Original idea: Nina Wolmark, Jean Chalopin
- Directors: René Borg (Pilot), Shigetsugu Yoshida (Pilot), Tadao Nagahama (Pilot)
- Chief directors: Tadao Nagahama (Episode 1), Bernard Deyriès
- Assistant directors: Pierre Jodon (Pilot), Michel Boulé (Pilot)
- Producer: Tatsuo Ikuechi
- Art director: Morishige Suzuki, Shinji Itoh
- Chief animation director: Shingo Araki
- Mecha designs: Studio Nue, Riyuki Motono
- Music production: TMS Ongakushuppan (Japanese version)
- Music: Kei Wakakusa (Japanese version); Denny Crockett, Ike Egan, Shuki Levy, Haim Saban (International version)
Voice cast 
- Japan (Original cast)
- Japan (1992 NHK BS-2 cast)
- English (Original cast)
TV broadcast history 
|Australia||ABC Television||1983, 1989–2000|
|Costa Rica||Canal 6||1988 approx.|
|Cuba||Canal 6||Mid 1980's|
|El Salvador||Canal Cuatro||1985–1986|
|France||FR3||1981–1982, 1982–1983, 1983–1984|
|Germany||Tele 5||End of 1980s|
|Japan||TV Asahi||1988||First 12 episodes|
|NHK BS-2||1991||All 26 episodes|
|Cartoon Network||2007–2008||Rerun of NHK BS-2 version|
|The Children's Channel||1994–1995|
|United States||first-run syndication||1986–1987||As part of Kideo TV|
Dixième Planète (French magazine) Issue No. 15 (Feb/Mar 2002), 8 pages about the series and toys produced
- Ulysses 31 (anime) at Anime News Network's Encyclopedia
- Ulysses 31 at the Big Cartoon DataBase
- Ulysses 31 website
- TMS official website
- Ulysse 31 Soundtrack Revisited by Parallax