Ulysses Guimarães

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Ulysses Guimarães
Ulysses Guimarães.jpg
President of the Chamber of Deputies
In office
2 February 1985 – 2 February 1989
President João Figueiredo
Tancredo Neves
José Sarney
Preceded by Flávio Portela Marcílio
Succeeded by Paes de Andrade
In office
2 February 1956 – 2 February 1958
President Juscelino Kubitschek
Preceded by Flores da Cunha
Succeeded by Ranieri Mazzilli
Minister of Development, Industry and Trade
In office
8 September 1961 – 18 September 1962
Prime Minister Tancredo Neves
Brochado da Rocha
Preceded by Artur Bernardes Filho
Succeeded by Dias Carneiro
Federal Deputy of Brazil
In office
1 February 1951 – 12 October 1992
Constituency São Paulo
State Deputy of São Paulo
In office
1 February 1948 – 31 January 1951
Constituency São Paulo
Personal details
Born Ulysses Silveira Guimarães
(1916-10-06)October 6, 1916
Itirapina, São Paulo, Brazil
Died October 12, 1992(1992-10-12) (aged 76)
Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Nationality Brazilian
Political party PSD (1947-1965)
MDB (1965-1979)
PMDB (1979-1992)
Spouse(s) Ida de Almeida Guimarães
Alma mater University of São Paulo
Occupation Lawyer
Politician
Professor

Ulysses Silveira Guimarães (Portuguese pronunciation: [uˈɫisisːiwˈvejɾɐ ɡimɐˈɾɐ̃js], Itirapina, October 6, 1916 — Angra dos Reis, October 12, 1992) was a Brazilian politician and lawyer who had a great role on opposing the military dictatorship in Brazil and on the fight for restore democracy in the country. He died on a helicopter accident by the shore near Angra dos Reis, on the south of Rio de Janeiro.[1]

Biography[edit]

Childhood and youth[edit]

Ulysses Silveira Guimarães was born in the village of Itaqueri da Serra, today a district of Itirapina, who was then part of Rio Claro, São Paulo State. He had an active academic life, participating in the Centro Acadêmico XI de Agosto (August XI Academic Center) and exercising vice president of the União Nacional de Estudantes. Guimarães has graduated in Law and Social Sciences, at the School of Law of University of São Paulo (USP).

Professional life[edit]

He was a teacher for several years at the Mackenzie University School of Law of, where he eventually became Professor of Public International Law. He taught yet Municipal Law at the Law Faculty of Itu, and Constitutional Law at the Law School of Bauru. He exercised professionally the legal profession, specializing in Tax Law. Ulysses Guimarães worked at Santos Futebol Clube, starting on January 10, 1941.[2] In 1942, he was appointed chief executive of the club's offices in São Paulo (city), a position he took back in 1945. In 1944, he was elected vice president of the club.

He was elected state deputy for São Paulo, for Constituent Assembly of 1947, by the Social Democratic Party (PSD). Since then, Guimarães was elected for the role of federal deputy for the State for eleven consecutive terms from 1951 to 1995 (not having finished the last term).

Guimarães held the Ministry of Industry and Trade at the office of Tancredo Neves, during the short parliamentary experience in Brazil (1961-1962). He supported initially the military movement that in 1964 overthrew President João Goulart, but soon moved to the opposition. With the introduction of bipartisanship (1965), he joined the Brazilian Democratic Movement, which he would be vice president and then president.He was president of the Latin American Parliament, from 1967 to 1970.

Struggle for political opening[edit]

In 1973, he launched his symbolic "anticandidature" to the presidency as a form of repudiation of military regime, having as vice the journalist and former governor of Pernambuco, Barbosa Lima Sobrinho. On November 29, 1976, at the Plenary Tiradentes of the Legislative Assembly of São Paulo, he founded OPB - Order of Parliamentarians of Brazil, an class association without partisan, religious or social ties, of which he is patron. Ahead of the party, he has participated in all campaigns for a return to democracy, including the struggle for broad, general and unrestricted amnesty. With the end of bipartisanship (1979), the MDB became Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), of which he would be national president.

Political activism[edit]

Ulysses Guimarães holding the final draft of the 1988 Constitution.

Together with Tancredo Neves, Orestes Quércia and Franco Montoro, Guimarães led new campaigns by democratization such as direct elections, popularly known by the slogan: Diretas Já. Ulysses Guimarães was almost the candidate for president of the Republic in 1985 by PMDB, when elections were held in the electoral college. The political articulations of the era ultimately led to the election of a "mixed" ticket with Tancredo Neves as PMDB presidential candidate and José Sarney, ex-PDS/Frente Liberal, as running mate.

Guimarães was president of the Chamber of Deputies in three periods (1956-1957, 1985-1986 and 1987-1988), chairing the National Constituent Assembly in 1987-1988. The new constitution, in which he was instrumental, was promulgated on October 5, 1988, and was by him called Citizen Constitution, by the social advances that incorporated in the text. Due to his great popularity, he ran for president for PMDB in the 1989 direct elections, won by Fernando Collor.

Death[edit]

He died in a helicopter crash off the coast of Angra dos Reis, in Rio de Janeiro on October 12, 1992, with his wife D. Mora, former Senator Gomes, and the wife of this pilot. The body of Guimarães never was found.

Written Works[edit]

  • Vida Exemplar de Prudente de Morais, 1940
  • Navegar é preciso, Viver não é preciso, 1973
  • Socialização do Direito, 1978
  • Esperança e Mudança, 1982
  • Tentativa, 1983
  • Diretas Já, 1984
  • PT Saudações, 1988
  • Da Fé fiz Companheira, 1989
  • Ou Mudamos ou seremos Mudados, 1991
  • Parlamentarismo – Além de ser mais forte, substitui um regime fraco,fevereiro de 1992.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Brooke, James. Ulysses Guimaraes, 'Grandfather' Of Brazilian Democracy, Is Dead. The New York Times. October 14th, 1992. https://www.nytimes.com/1992/10/14/world/ulysses-guimaraes-grandfather-of-brazilian-democracy-is-dead.html Retrieved in 10-30-2012.
  2. ^ "A história de Ulysses Guimarães, o Senhor Diretas, no Santos FC". Santosfc.com.br. Retrieved 2012-11-07.