Umami

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Ripe tomatoes, which are rich in umami components

Umami /ˈmɑːmi/, a savory taste,[1][2][3] is one of the five basic tastes (together with sweet, sour, bitter and salty).

A loanword from the Japanese (うま味?), umami can be translated as "pleasant savory taste".[4] This particular writing was chosen by Professor Kikunae Ikeda from umai (うまい) "delicious" and mi (味) "taste". The kanji 旨味 are used for a more general sense of a food as delicious.

People taste umami through receptors for glutamate, commonly found in its salt form as the food additive monosodium glutamate (MSG).[5] For that reason, scientists consider umami to be distinct from saltiness.[6]

Background[edit]

Scientists have debated whether umami was a basic taste since Kikunae Ikeda first proposed its existence in 1908.[7] In 1985, the term umami was recognized as the scientific term to describe the taste of glutamates and nucleotides at the first Umami International Symposium in Hawaii.[8] Umami represents the taste of the amino acid L-glutamate and 5’-ribonucleotides such as guanosine monophosphate (GMP) and inosine monophosphate (IMP).[9] It can be described as a pleasant "brothy" or "meaty" taste with a long lasting, mouthwatering and coating sensation over the tongue. The sensation of umami is due to the detection of the carboxylate anion of glutamate in specialized receptor cells present on the human and other animal tongues.[10][11] Its effect is to balance taste and round out the overall flavor of a dish. Umami enhances the palatability of a wide variety of foods.[12] Glutamate in acid form (glutamic acid) imparts little umami taste, whereas the salts of glutamic acid, known as glutamates, can easily ionize and give the characteristic umami taste. GMP and IMP amplify the taste intensity of glutamate.[11][13]

Discovery of umami taste[edit]

Kikunae Ikeda

Glutamate has a long history in cooking.[14] Fermented fish sauces (garum), which are rich in glutamate, were used in ancient Rome.[15] In the late 1800s, chef Auguste Escoffier, who opened restaurants in Paris and London, created meals that combined umami with salty, sour, sweet and bitter tastes.[6] He did not know the chemical source of this unique quality, however.

Umami was first scientifically identified in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda,[16] a professor of the Tokyo Imperial University. He found that glutamate was responsible for the palatability of the broth from kombu seaweed. He noticed that the taste of kombu dashi was distinct from sweet, sour, bitter and salty and named it umami.

Professor Shintaro Kodama, a disciple of Ikeda, discovered in 1913 that dried bonito flakes contained another umami substance.[17] This was the ribonucleotide IMP. In 1957, Akira Kuninaka realized that the ribonucleotide GMP present in shiitake mushrooms also conferred the umami taste.[18] One of Kuninaka's most important discoveries was the synergistic effect between ribonucleotides and glutamate. When foods rich in glutamate are combined with ingredients that have ribonucleotides, the resulting taste intensity is higher than the sum of both ingredients.

This synergy of umami explains various classical food pairings, starting with why Japanese make dashi with kombu seaweed and dried bonito flakes, and continuing with various other dishes: the Chinese add Chinese leek and Chinese cabbage to chicken soup, as in the similar Scottish dish of cock-a-leekie soup, and the Italians combine Parmesan cheese on tomato sauce with mushrooms.

Properties of umami taste[edit]

Umami has a mild but lasting aftertaste that is difficult to describe. It induces salivation and a sensation of furriness on the tongue, stimulating the throat, the roof and the back of the mouth.[19][20] By itself, umami is not palatable, but it makes a great variety of foods pleasant especially in the presence of a matching aroma.[21] But like other basic tastes, with the exception of sucrose, umami is pleasant only within a relatively narrow concentration range.[19] The optimum umami taste depends also on the amount of salt, and at the same time, low-salt foods can maintain a satisfactory taste with the appropriate amount of umami.[22] In fact, Roininen et al. showed that ratings on pleasantness, taste intensity and ideal saltiness of low-salt soups were greater when the soup contained umami, whereas low-salt soups without umami were less pleasant.[23] Some population groups, such as the elderly, may benefit from umami taste because their taste and smell sensitivity is impaired by age and medicine. The loss of taste and smell can contribute to poor nutrition, increasing their risk of disease.[24]

Foods rich in umami[edit]

Many foods that may be consumed daily are rich in umami. Naturally occurring glutamate can be found in meats and vegetables, whereas inosinate comes primarily from meats and guanylate from vegetables. Thus, umami taste is common to foods that contain high levels of L-glutamate, IMP and GMP, most notably in fish, shellfish, cured meats, mushrooms, vegetables (e.g., ripe tomatoes, Chinese cabbage, spinach, celery, etc.) or green tea, and fermented and aged products (e.g., cheeses, shrimp pastes, soy sauce, etc.).[25]

Many humans' first encounter with umami is breast milk.[26] It contains roughly the same amount of umami as broths.

There are some distinctions among stocks from different countries. In dashi, L-glutamate comes from sea kombu (Laminaria japonica) and inosinate from dried bonito flakes (katsuobushi) or small dried sardines (niboshi).

Taste receptors[edit]

Most taste buds on the tongue and other regions of the mouth can detect umami taste, irrespective of their location. The tongue map in which different tastes are distributed in different regions of the tongue is a common misconception. Biochemical studies have identified the taste receptors responsible for the sense of umami as modified forms of mGluR4, mGluR1 and taste receptor type 1 (T1R1 + T1R3), all of which have been found in all regions of the tongue bearing taste buds.[27][28][29] A 2009 review corroborated the acceptance of these receptors, stating, "Recent molecular biological studies have now identified strong candidates for umami receptors, including the heterodimer T1R1/T1R3, and truncated type 1 and 4 metabotropic glutamate receptors missing most of the N-terminal extracellular domain (taste-mGluR4 and truncated-mGluR1) and brain-mGluR4."[10]

Receptors mGluR1 and mGluR4 are specific to glutamate whereas T1R1 + T1R3 are responsible for the synergism already described by Akira Kuninaka in 1957. However, the specific role of each type of receptor in taste bud cells remains unclear. They are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with similar signaling molecules that include G proteins beta-gamma, PLCb2 and PI3-mediated release of calcium (Ca2+) from intracellular stores.[30] Calcium activates the selective cation channel transient receptor potential melastatin 5 (TrpM5) that leads to membrane depolarization and the consequent release of ATP and secretion of neurotransmitters including serotonin.[31][32][33][34]

Cells responding to umami taste stimuli do not possess typical synapses, but ATP conveys taste signals to gustatory nerves and in turn to the brain that interprets and identifies the taste quality.[35][36]

In popular culture[edit]

Umami has become popular with food manufacturers such as Nestlé, the Campbell Soup Company and Frito-Lay. Farmers promote their produce as a way to boost umami taste, and chefs create "umami bombs", which are dishes made of several umami ingredients.[37]

Malcolm Gladwell discussed umami as a key factor accounting for the sustained formulation and popularity of ketchup.[38]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ Heidi Blake (9 February 2010). "Umami in a tube: 'fifth taste' goes on sale in supermarkets". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 10 February 2011. 
  2. ^ "Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary". Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 1 January 2011. 
  3. ^ "Merriam-Webster English Dictionary". Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. Retrieved 1 January 2011. 
  4. ^ Jim Breen. "EDICT's entry for umami". Retrieved 31 December 2010. 
  5. ^ "Umami taste receptor identified". Nature. Retrieved 26 June 2013. 
  6. ^ a b Sweet, Sour, Salty, Bitter ... and Umami, NPR
  7. ^ Lindemann, B; Ogiwara, Y; Ninomiya, Y. "The Discovery of Umami". Oxford Journals. 
  8. ^ Y. Kawamura and M.R. Kare, ed. (1987). Umami: A basic taste. New York,NJ: Marcel Dekker. 
  9. ^ Yamaguchi S, Kumiko N (April 2000). "Umami and Food Palatability". Journal of Nutrition 130 (4): 921S–26S. PMID 10736353. 
  10. ^ a b Thomas E. Finger, ed. (2009). International Symposium on Olfaction and Taste, Volume 1170. Hoboken,NJ: The Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 
  11. ^ a b Chandrashekar J, Hoon MA, Ryba NJ, Zuker CS (November 2006). "The receptors and cells for mammalian taste". Nature 444 (7117): 288–94. doi:10.1038/nature05401. PMID 17108952. 
  12. ^ Beauchamp G (September 2009). "Sensory and receptor responses to umami: an overview of pioneering work". Am J Clin Nutr 90 (3): 723S–7S. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27462E. PMID 19571221. 
  13. ^ Yasuo T, Kusuhara Y, Yasumatsu K, Ninomiya Y (October 2008). "Multiple receptor systems for glutamate detection in the taste organ". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 31 (10): 1833–7. doi:10.1248/bpb.31.1833. PMID 18827337. 
  14. ^ Lehrer, Jonah (2007). Proust was a Neuroscientist. Mariner Books. ISBN 978-0-547-08590-6. 
  15. ^ Smriga M, Mizukoshi T, Iwata D, Sachise E, Miyano H, Kimura T, Curtis R (August 2010). "Amino acids and minerals in ancient remnants of fish sauce (garum) sampled in the "Garum Shop" of Pompeii, Italy". Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 23 (5): 442–446. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2010.03.005. 
  16. ^ Ikeda K (November 2002). "New seasonings". Chemical Senses 27 (9): 847–9. doi:10.1093/chemse/27.9.847. PMID 12438213.  (partial translation of Ikeda, Kikunae (1909). "New Seasonings[japan.]". Journal of the Chemical Society of Tokyo 30: 820–836. )
  17. ^ Kodama S (1913). Journal of the Chemical Society of Japan 34: 751. 
  18. ^ Kuninaka A (1960). Journal of the Agricultural Chemical Society of Japan 34: 487–492. 
  19. ^ a b Yamaguchi S (1998). "Basic properties of umami and its effects on food flavor". Food Reviews International 14 (2&3): 139–176. doi:10.1080/87559129809541156. 
  20. ^ Uneyama H, Kawai M, Sekine-Hayakawa Y, Torii K (August 2009). "Contribution of umami taste substances in human salivation during meal". Journal of Medical Investigation 56 (supplement): 197–204. doi:10.2152/jmi.56.197. PMID 20224181. 
  21. ^ Edmund Rolls (September 2009). "Functional neuroimaging of umami taste: what makes umami pleasant?". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 90 (supplement): 804S–813S. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27462R. PMID 19571217. 
  22. ^ Yamaguchi S, Takahashi; Takahashi, Chikahito (1984). "Interactions of monosodium glutamate and sodium chloride on saltiness and palatability of a clear soup". Journal of Food Science 49: 82–85. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1984.tb13675.x. 
  23. ^ Roininen K, Lahteenmaki K, Tuorila H (September 1996). "Effect of umami taste on pleasantness of low salt soups during repeated testing". Physiology & Behavior 60 (3): 953–958. doi:10.1016/0031-9384(96)00098-4. PMID 8873274. 
  24. ^ Yamamoto S, Tomoe M, Toyama K, Kawai M, Uneyama H (July 2009). "Can dietary supplementation of monosodium glutamate improve the health of the elderly?". Am J Clin Nutr 90 (3): 844S–849S. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27462X. PMID 19571225. 
  25. ^ Ninomiya K (1998). "Natural Occurrence". Food Reviews International 14 (2&3): 177–211. doi:10.1080/87559129809541157. 
  26. ^ Agostini C, Carratu B, Riva E, Sanzini E (August 2000). "Free amino acid content in standard infant formulas: comparison with human milk". Journal of the American College of Nutrition 19 (4): 434–438. doi:10.1080/07315724.2000.10718943. PMID 10963461. 
  27. ^ Chaudhari N, Landin AM, Roper SD (2000). "A metabotropic glutamate receptor variant functions as a taste receptor". Nature Neuroscience 3 (2): 113–119. doi:10.1038/72053. PMID 10649565. 
  28. ^ Nelson G, Chandrashekar J, Hoon MA et al. (2002). "An amino-acid taste receptor". Nature 416 (6877): 199–202. doi:10.1038/nature726. PMID 11894099. 
  29. ^ San Gabriel A, Uneyama H, Yoshie S, Torii K (2005). "Cloning and characterization of a novel mGluR1 variant from vallate papillae that functions as a receptor for L-glutamate stimuli". Chem Senses 30 (Suppl): i25–i26. doi:10.1093/chemse/bjh095. PMID 15738140. 
  30. ^ Kinnamon SC (2011). "Taste receptor signaling — from tongues to lungs". Acta Physiol: no–no. doi:10.1111/j.1748-1716.2011.02308.x. PMID 21481196. 
  31. ^ Perez CA, Huang L, Rong M, Kozak JA, Preuss AK, Zhang H, Max M, Margolskee RF (2002). "A transient receptor potential channel expression in taste receptor cells". Nat Neurosci 5 (11): 1169–76. doi:10.1038/nn952. PMID 12368808. 
  32. ^ Zhang Y, Hoon MA, Chandrashekar J, Mueller KL, Cook B, Wu D, Zuker CS, Ryba NJ (2003). "Coding sweet, bitter, and umami tastes: different receptor cells sharing signaling pathways". Cell 112 (3): 293–301. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00071-0. PMID 12581520. 
  33. ^ Dando R, Roper SD (2009). "Cell-to-cell communication in intact taste buds through ATP and signalling from pannexin 1 gap junction hemichannels". J Physiol 587 (2): 5899–906. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2009.180083. 
  34. ^ Roper SD (August 2007). "Signal transduction and information processing in mammalian taste buds". Pflügers Archiv 454 (5): 759–76. doi:10.1007/s00424-007-0247-x. PMID 17468883. 
  35. ^ Clapp TR, Yang R, Stoick CL, Kinnamon SC, Kinnamon JC (2004). "Morphologic characterization of rat taste receptor cells that express components of the phospholipase C signaling pathway". J Comp Neurol 468 (3): 311–321. doi:10.1002/cne.10963. PMID 14681927. 
  36. ^ Iwatsuki K, Ichikawa R, Hiasa M, Moriyama Y, Torii K, Uneyama H (2009). "Identification of the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) in taste cells". Biochem Bhiphys Res Commun 388 (1): 1–5. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.07.069. PMID 19619506. 
  37. ^ Katy McLaughlin. (Dec 8, 2007). "A New Taste Sensation.". Wall Street Journal. Weekend Journal. 
  38. ^ Gladwell M (September 6, 2004). "Taste technologies: The ketchup conundrum". http://newyorker.com. The New Yorker. Retrieved 8 March 2014. 

Citations

  • Flavor Chemistry: Thirty Years of Progress By Roy Teranishi, Emily L. Wick, Irwin Hornstein; Article: Umami and Food Palatability, by Shizuko Yamaguchi and Kumiko Ninomiya. ISBN 0-306-46199-4
  • Barbot, Pascal; Matsuhisa, Nobu; and Mikuni, Kiyomi. Foreword by Heston Blumenthal. Dashi and Umami: The Heart of Japanese Cuisine. London: Eat-Japan / Cross Media, 2009

External links[edit]