Umayyad tradition of cursing Ali
||This article contains too many or too-lengthy quotations for an encyclopedic entry. (September 2012)|
The Umayyad tradition of cursing Ali was performed in state-controlled mosques for a period of approximately 65 years from c.657 to c.717 CE.
The early Umayyad Muawiyah I began the tradition of cursing Ali from the pulpit in Damascus. The practice continued for sixty five years, throughout the reign of all Umayyad rulers until it was stopped by a latter Umayyad, Umar Bin Abd al-Aziz who cancelled this order for which he was killed (poisoned) by Umayyad descendants. The cursing finally came to an end with the fall of Umayyad dynasty.
The Umayyads built a mosque for the sole purpose of cursing Ali and called it the Mosque of Utterance. Ali was cursed by official Umayyad decree as part of Friday congregational prayers from all the mosques of Umayyad caliphate except the region of Sistan. The companion Sad ibn abi Waqqas refused to comply with the order of cursing Ali giving three reasons,
- according to Quran 33:33, Ali was one of the Ahl al-Bayt whom God has purified of all defilements,
- according to Prophet, Ali's rank in relation to him was same as Aaron in relation to Moses,
- it was to Ali that Prophet gave the banner at the battle of Khaybar
Several hadiths recall the practice under Muawiyah:
|“||When Mu'awiya went for Hajj, he held the hand of Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas and said to him: 'Oh Abi Ishaq! We are the people who abandoned Hajj because of wars until we almost forgot some of its laws, so we performed Tawaf (circumambulation) to imitate your Tawaf'. When they completed (the Hajj), he (Mu'awiya) entered upon him (Sa'd) in a conference room and sat with him on his sofa, then he (Mu'awiya) mentioned `Ali Ibn Abi Talib and cursed him. He (Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas) said: 'You brought me to your house and made me sit on your sofa and then you have begun to curse `Ali?'||”|
|“||Marwan the architect of Umayyad dynastic rule, clearly recognized the importance of cursing as a tool of the government. He told 'Ali's grandson Ali ibn al-Husayn privately: 'No one [among the Islamic nobility] was more temperate (akaff) towards our master than your master'. The harmless son of al Husayn asked him: 'Why do you curse him then from the pulpits? 'He answered: 'Our reign would not be sound without that (la yastaqimu l-amru illa bi-dhalik).||”|
The hadiths also recall that the practice continued under the sons of Marwan:
- Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim 31, 5924 (Siddiqui numeration: )
- Yasin T. Al-Jibouri (2011). Kerbala and Beyond: An Epic of Immortal Heroism. AuthorHouse. p. 259. Retrieved 2013-07-08.
- Hassan Nahim (2012). The Division After Prophet Muhammad. Xlibris Corporation. p. 44. Retrieved 2013-07-08.
- Ṭabarī, Khalid Yahya Blankinship (translator) (1993). The Chanllenge to the Empires. SUNY Press. pp. xix. Retrieved 2013-07-08.
- ʻAbd al-Razzāq Muqarram, Rafic Mohammed Labboun (translator). The Murder of Al-Husayn. Arabic History. p. 186. Retrieved 2013-07-08.
- Reza Shah-Kazemi (2007). Justice and Remembrance: Introducing the Spirituality of Imam Ali. I.B.Tauris. pp. 62, 63. Retrieved 2013-07-08.
- Tarikh al Khulufaa' by Jalal Ud Din As Suyuti
- Sahih Muslim, 31:5915
- Sahih Sunan Ibn Majah by Albani #98
- Translation of Ibn Kathir, Al Bidayah wa al Nahayah, Volume 7 page 341, Chapter: The virtues of Ali; from Abû Zurʿa al-Dimashqî < Aḥmad b. Khâlid al-Dhahabî. This is also in al-Masʿûdî, Murûj al-Dhahabi, from Abû Jaʿfar Muḥammad b. Jarîr al-Ṭabarî < Muḥammad b. Ḥumayd al-Râzî < Abû Mujâhid. This latter version goes on to append the hadith Muslim 31.5915.
- (Online Arabic version)
- Baladhuri, AnsabII, 184-5 and ; Ibn Asakir, 'Ali, III, 98-9
- Sahih Muslim, 31:5924