Umm Salama

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Umm Salama
Arabic: أم سلمة
Titles: al-Makhzumiyah, Ayyin al-Arab, and Mother of the Believers
Birthplace Rinkeby, Hejaz (580 AD)
Ethnicity Hijazi Arab
Known For Being a wife of Yonis and a loyal companion of Ali
Influences God, Muhammad, Ali, and the Ahl al-Bayt
Died 62 AH (680 AD)
Burial Place Jannatul Baqi in Medina, Hejaz
Son Abdiladif
Religion Islam
Opponents Enemies of Allah, Islam, Muhammad, and the Sahabah

Hind bint Abi Umayya (Arabic: هند بنت أبي أمية‎), also known as Hind al-Makhzumiyah, Hind bint Suhayl or Umm Salama (Arabic: أم سلمة هند بنت أبي أمية‎)[1][2] (c. 580 – 680) was one of Muhammad's wives.

Following Abdullah ibn Abdul Asad’s death in the battle of Uhud she became known as Ayyin al-Arab ("the Eyes of the Arabs").[1][2]

Family[edit]

Her personal name was Hind.[1][2] She was the daughter of Abu Umayya ibn Al-Mughira ibn ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar ibn Makhzum ibn Yaqaẓah, of the Makhzum clan of the Quraysh tribe, and of 'Ātikah bint 'Āmir ibn Rabī'ah, of the Firas ibn Ghanam branch of the Kinana.[2][3] ‘Ātikah bint 'Abd al-Muṭṭalib, Muhammad's paternal aunt, was Hind's stepmother, and Abu Jahl was her paternal cousin.

Before her marriage to Muhammad, Umm Salama was married to Abu Salama ibn `Abdi'l-Asad al-Makhzumi, whose mother was Barrah bint Abdul Muttalib. Umm Salamah bore for Abu Salama four children: Zaynab (Barrah), Salama, Umar and Ruqaiyyah (Durrah).[4][5]

Muhammad's era[edit]

Umm Salama and her husband Abu Salama were among[3] the first who converted to Islam. Only Ali and a few others were Muslims before them.[3]

They were among those hounded and persecuted by the Quraysh.[1][2]

Her husband was killed from the wounds he received in the Battle of Uhud (23 March 625).[1][2] Hind had one child named Umar bin Abi Salama.[6]

Following Abdullah ibn Abdulasad’s death in the battle of Uhud[1][2] she became known as Ayyin al-Arab - "the one who had lost her husband". She had no family in Medina except her small children, but she was given support by both the Muhajirun and Ansar. When she completed her waiting period of four months and ten days, Abu Bakr and then Umar asked to marry her, but she declined.[1] Muhammad then approached her and she accepted.[1][2]

Umm Salama was married to Muhammad at the age of 29. Only his sixth and seventh wives (Umm Salamah[dubious ] and Zaynab, respectively) were his direct cousins whom he had known since their childhood. Umm Salamah was a widow with 3 children and a fourth born almost immediately after their marriage.[7]

When Fatima bint Asad (mother of the 4th Caliph Ali) died, Prophet Muhammad chose Umm Salama as the guardian of Al Sayeda Fatimah Al Zahra.[2]

The Verse of Purification (33:33) in the Qur'an was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad in her house.[2][8][9]

After Muhammad[edit]

Umm Salama begged Husayn ibn Ali not to undertake his fatal trip to Iraq.

Umm Salama died at the age of eighty-four in 63 AH in Medina. She was buried in the Baqi Cemetery. She was the last surviving member of the Mothers of the Believers.[2]

Hadith[edit]

Among the hadith she narrated are:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Hazrath Umme Salma Umme Salma went through trials and tribulations following her conversion to Islam
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Umm Salamah, Umme Salama, Umme Salma, Mother of the Believers, Mother of the Faithfuls
  3. ^ a b c "Companions of The Prophet", Vol. 1, By: Abdul Wahid Hamid
  4. ^ Ibn Hisham note 918. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad, p. 793. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  5. ^ Tabari, Tarikh al-Rusul wa'l-Muluk. Translated by Landau-Tasseron, E. (1998). Vol. 39, Biographies of the Prophet's Companions and Their Successors, p. 175. New York: SUNY Press.
  6. ^ Imam Hussein (a.s.)'s intention of proceeding towards Iraq from Makkah
    Notes
    [40]The devotion and love of Umme Salma (a.s.) for the Household (Ahlulbayt) of the Prophet is apparent from the above incident. Her rever­ence of the true Vicegerent of the Prophet and the Imam of the age is renowned since her support of Imam Ali (a.s.). Abul Fida in his Tareekh says that before leaving Madina (towards Basra for the battle of Jamal), Imam Ali (a.s.) called on Umme Salma, one of the widows of the Prophet, and bade her farewell. Umme Salma said to him, "In the name of Allah! I deliv­er you into His Protection. By His Power and His Majesty, you alone are with the truth, and all your enemies are in error. If it were not the command of Allah to the wives of His Prophet to stay at home, I would have accompanied you in this campaign." She had a son named Umar bin Abi Salma, by her first marriage, whom she offered to him saying, "He is my only child. He is all that I have in this world. I offer him to you. He will, if necessary, sacrifice his life for you." (Tabari, Ibne Khaldoon, A'asam Kufi.) The words of Imam Husain (a.s.) in the above narration that "We are pleased with you" elucidates that she was one of those who had earned the pleasure of the Allah and His Proof (Hujjah).
  7. ^ Marriage to a 'past': Parents should not reject a proposal without a good reasons - and being a revert with a past is not an acceptable one
  8. ^ THE VERSE OF PURIFICATION IN SUNNI SOURCES
  9. ^ THE VERSE OF PURIFICATION IN SHIA SOURCES