Umrah

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Pilgrims circumambulating the Kaaba, in Mecca (Saudi Arabia) during the Hajj

The Umrah or (Arabic: عمرة‎) is a pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, performed by Muslims that can be undertaken at any time of the year. In Arabic, Umrah means "to visit a populated place". In the Sharia, Umrah means to perform Tawaf round the Kaaba and Sa'i between Al-Safa and Al-Marwah, after assuming Ihram (a sacred state), either from a Miqat like Zu 'l-Hulafa, Juhfa, Qarnu 'l-Manāzil, Yalamlam, Zāt-i-'Irq, Ibrahīm Mursīa, or a place in Hill. It is sometimes called the 'minor pilgrimage' or 'lesser pilgrimage', the Hajj being the 'major' pilgrimage and which is compulsory for every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it. The Umrah is not compulsory but highly recommended.

Umrah rituals[edit]

The pilgrim performs a series of ritual acts symbolic of the lives of Ibrahim (Abraham) and his second wife Hajar, and of solidarity with Muslims worldwide. These acts of faith are:

  • Perform a tawaf "طواف", which consists of circling the Kaaba seven times in an anticlockwise direction. Men are encouraged to do this three times at a hurried pace, followed by four times, more closely, at a leisurely pace.[1]
  • Perform a sa'i "سعي", which means rapidly walking seven times back and forth between the hills of Safa and Marwah. This is a re-enactment of Hajar's frantic search for water. The baby Ishmael cried and hit the ground with his foot (some versions of the story say that an angel scraped his foot or the tip of his wing along the ground), and water miraculously sprang forth. This source of water is today called the Well of Zamzam.
  • Perform a halq or taqsir, meaning a cutting of the hair. A taqsir is a partial shortening of the hair, whereas a halq is a complete shave of the head, except for women, as they cut a little amount of hair instead.

These rituals complete the Umrah, and the pilgrim can choose to go out of ihram. Although not a part of the ritual, most pilgrims drink water from the Well of Zamzam. Various sects of Islam perform these rituals with slightly different methods.

The peak times of pilgrimage are the days before, during and after the Hajj and during the last ten days of Ramadan.

Types of Umrah[edit]

There are two types of Umrah, depending on whether one wishes to combine the Umrah with Hajj: al-Umrat al-mufradah al-mustaqillah 'an al-Hajj (al-Umrat al mufradah) and al-Umrat al-mundammah ila al-Hajj (Umrat al-tammatu).

al-Umrat al mufradah refers to Umrah that is performed independently of Hajj.

Umrat al-tammatu refers to Umrah that is performed in conjunction with Hajj. More precisely, the rituals of the Umrah are performed first and then the Hajj rituals are performed.

Military campaigns during Muhammad's era to establish the right to perform Umrah[edit]

Throughout Muhammad's era the Muslims fought against the Arab pagans to eventually establish the right to perform Umrah and Hajj. During that time Mecca was occupied by Arab Pagans who used to worship idols inside Mecca.[2][3]

The first military camapign related to the Umrah was the Nakhla Raid ordered by Muhammad, Abdullah ibn Jahsh’s was the commander of this expedition. During this raid one of Abdullah ibn Jahsh’s men , Ukkash ibn Mihsan, was shaven in head to hide the real purpose of their journey and to give the Quraysh the impression of lesser Hajj (Umra); for it was the month (Rajab) when hostilities were forbidden. When the Quraysh saw the shaven head of Ukkash, they thought that the group was on its way for pilgrimage and they felt relieved and began to set up camp. They said, "These people seek the `Umrah, so there is no need to fear them." [4][5] The sacred months of the Arab Pagans were the 1st, 7th, 11th and 12th months of the Islamic calendar according to the Muslim scholar Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri.[6]

Muhammad signed the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, which took place in March 628.[7] During this event Muslims March to Mecca to perform the lesser pilgrimage (Umrah)[8]

Muhammad also ordered the Expedition of Abu Qatadah ibn Rab'i al-Ansari (Batn Edam) in December 629 [9] to divert the attention from his intention of attacking Mecca, he despatched 8 men to attack a caravan passing through Edam.[10] During this expedition 1 Muslim was killed by another Muslim[11][12] Muhammad then revealed the verse 4:94.[13][14]Ibn Kathir interprets this as, God asking Muslims to be more careful when fighting "in the way of Allah", as to reduce the chance of killing Muslims accidentally, as happened in this incident.[13]

Finally Muhammad ordered and took part in the Conquest of Mecca in December 629.[9][15] Thus the right to perform Umrah and Hajj were guaranteed.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Mohamed, Mamdouh N. (1996). Hajj to Umrah: From A to Z. Amana Publications. ISBN 0-915957-54-X. 
  2. ^ Hawting, G. R. (1980). "The Disappearance and Rediscovery of Zamzam and the 'Well of the Ka'ba'". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 43 (1): 44–54 (44). JSTOR 616125. 
  3. ^ Islamic World, p. 20
  4. ^ Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005), The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet, Darussalam Publications, pp. 245–246, ISBN 978-9960-899-55-8 
  5. ^ Muhammad Saed Abdul-Rahman, Tafsir Ibn Kathir Juz' 2 (Part 2): Al-Baqarah 142 to Al-Baqarah 252 2nd Edition, p. 139, MSA Publication Limited, 2009, ISBN 1861796765. (online)
  6. ^ Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar (Free Version), p. 129
  7. ^ Emory C. Bogle (1998), Islam: origin and belief, University of Texas Press, p. 19.
  8. ^ Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, pp. 214-215.
  9. ^ a b Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004). Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks. Dar-us-Salam. p. 218. ISBN 978-9960897714.  Note: 6th Month, 8AH = September 629
  10. ^ Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 164. ASIN B0007JAWMK. "THE SARIYYAH OF ABO QATADAH IBN RIB'I AL- ANSARl TOWORDS BATN IDAM." 
  11. ^ Sahih Muslim, 43:7176
  12. ^ Ibn Kathir, Muhammad Saed Abdul-Rahman (translator). Tafsir Ibn Kathir Juz' 5 (Part 5): An-Nisaa 24 to An-Nisaa 147 2nd Edition. p. 94. 
  13. ^ a b Tafsir ibn Kathir Juz, Pg 94, By Ibn Kathir, Translation by Muhammad Saed Abdul-Rahman
  14. ^ Say not to anyone who greets you: "You are not a believer;, Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Text Version
  15. ^ Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. pp. 165–174. ASIN B0007JAWMK. 

References[edit]

  • The Hajj According to the Five Schools of Islamic Fiqh (Part 1), by 'Allamah Muhammad Jawad Mughniyyah (translated from Arabic by Ali Quri Qara'i), al-Tawhid, Vol. II, No.4,

External links[edit]