Un ballo in maschera
Un ballo in maschera (A Masked Ball) is an opera in three acts by Giuseppe Verdi with text by Antonio Somma. However, Somma's libretto was itself based on the five act libretto which playwright Eugène Scribe had written for Daniel Auber's 1833 opera, Gustave III, ou Le bal masqué.
Although it was to take over two years between the time of the commission and its premiere performance, that took place at the Teatro Apollo in Rome on 17 February 1859.
Scribe wrote about the assassination in 1792 of King Gustav III of Sweden who was killed as the result of a political conspiracy against him. He was shot while attending a masked ball and died 13 days later of his wounds.
In order to become the Un ballo in maschera which we know today, Verdi's opera (and his libretto) was forced to undergo a significant series of transformations, caused by a combination of censorship regulations in both Naples and Rome, as well as by the political situation in France in January 1858.
- For a full account of the evolution of the opera which eventually became Un ballo in maschera, see Gustavo III (Verdi)
1857: From Gustavo III to Una vendetta in dominò
A commission by the Teatro San Carlo in Naples in early 1857 led Verdi to begin to oversee the finalization of the libretto (also by Somma) for Re Lear with the aim of presenting the finished opera during the 1858 carnival season. When this proved to be impracticable, Verdi turned to the subject of King Gustav III's assassination as portrayed in Scribe and Auber's opera, albeit not an historically accurate narrative. That subject was well known and had been used by other composers, including Saverio Mercadante for his Il reggente in 1843.
For the libretto, Scribe retained the names of some of the historical figures involved (including fortune teller Ulrica Arfvidsson, the conspiracy, and the killing at the masked ball, but, as noted by Budden, "it was a simple case of 'cherchez la femme'": for the rest of the play Scribe invented the romance between the King and the fictional Amélie the wife of the king's secretary and best friend, and adds characters and situations such as Oscar, the page boy.
Somma's new libretto, known as Gustavo III, was presented to the censors in Naples by late 1857. By November, Verdi informed Somma that objections had been raised and revisions demanded by the censors, the most significant of which was the refusal to allow the depiction of a monarch on the stage - and especially the monarch's murder. As had happened with Rigoletto, changes in characters' names and titles were proposed (the King of Sweden became the Duke of Pomerania; Anckarström became Count Renato) and the location was moved from Stockholm to Stettin.
Working together with Somma over Christmas, Verdi accommodated these changes. Somma was asked to change the names of the characters on the Gustave libretto while Verdi worked on completing sketches of the music. The name of the opera became Una vendetta in dominò.
By 9 January 1858, prior to setting out for Naples, Verdi wrote from his home the San Carlo that "the opera is done and even here I am working on the full score". The composer then travelled to Naples and rehearsals of Una vendetta were about to begin when, on 14 January 1858, three Italians attempted to assassinate Emperor Napoleon III in Paris, an event which was to affect the opera's production.
1858: The censor blocks Una vendetta
The imposition of still further, more stringent requirements by the censor incurred Verdi's wrath. He broke his contract, returned to Sant'Agata in April, and was sued by the management of the San Carlo house. This provoked him to lodge a counter-claim against the theatre for damages and, eventually, the legal fight ended.
It was during this period of turmoil that Verdi was to describe the previous sixteen years of his composing life: in a letter to Countess Clara Maffei, he states: "From Nabucco, you may say, I have never had one hour of peace. Sixteen years in the galleys!"
1859: Una Vendetta becomes Un ballo in maschera
When the legal issues were resolved within a few months, Verdi was free to present the libretto and musical outline of Gustave III (which was basically Una vendetta with characters' names and locations changed) to the Rome Opera. There, the censors demanded further changes. Removing the action from Europe, the location became Boston during the British colonial period and the leading character became Riccardo, the Count (or Earl) of Warwick. At this point, the opera became Un ballo in maschera set in North America.
Un ballo in maschera received its premiere performance at the Teatro Apollo in Rome on 17 February 1859 and was immediately successful. The opera was first seen in New York its US premiere on 11 February 1861 and in the UK on 15 June of that year.
20th century and beyond
In the 20th century, especially after a 1935 production in Copenhagen, many modern stagings have restored the original Swedish setting and characters´ names. On 1 January 1955, Marian Anderson, singing the role of Ulrica, broke the "color barrier" at the Metropolitan Opera, becoming the first African-American vocal soloist to appear with that company.
A "hypothetical reconstruction" of Gustavo III, based on the unorchestrated original and much of Una vendetta "grafted" onto Un ballo's score, occurred in a production by the Gothenburg Opera in Gothenburg, Sweden in 2002.
The opera has become a staple of the repertoire and is now performed frequently.
BO: Original Boston setting and characters
SW: Swedish setting and characters
|Voice type||Premiere Cast (Boston setting),
17 February 1859
(Conductor: - )
|BO: Gustavo, Earl of Warwick and governor of Boston
SW: Gustavo, King of Sweden
|BO: Amelia, wife of Renato, in love with Gustavo
SW: Amelia, wife of Anckarström, in love with Gustavo
|BO: Renato, husband of Amelia and Gustavo's secretary, best friend and confidant
SW: Count Anckarström, husband of Amelia and Gustavo's secretary, best friend and confidant
|BO: Oscar, Gustavo's page
SW: Oscar, Gustavo's page
|coloratura soprano||Pamela Scotti|
SW: Madame Arvidson, a fortune-teller
|A judge||tenor||Giuseppe Bazzoli|
|Amelia's servant||tenor||Luigi Fossi|
SW: Count Ribbing
SW: Count Horn
- Place, Stockholm, Sweden or Boston, Massachusetts.
- Time, Sweden: March 1792, or Boston: the end of the 17th century.
Scene 1: A public audience at Riccardo's palace, attended by his supporters, but also by his enemies who hope for his downfall
Riccardo (Gustavo) reviews the list of guests who will attend an upcoming masked ball. He is elated to see on the list the name of the woman he loves – Amelia, the wife of his friend and advisor, Renato (Count Anckarström). (Aria: La rivedrà nell'estasi / "With rapture I shall look upon her"). When Renato arrives, he tries to warn Riccardo about the growing conspiracy against him (aria: Alla vita che t'arride / "To the life with which you are favoured"), but Riccardo refuses to listen to his words.
Next, Riccardo is presented with a complaint against a fortune-teller named Ulrica (Madame Arvidson), accused of witchcraft. A magistrate calls for her banishment, but Oscar the page defends her (Aria: Volta la terrea / "That tense countenance"). Riccardo resolves to investigate for himself and tells the members of the court to disguise themselves and to meet him at Ulrica's lodging later that day.
Scene 2: At Ulrica's dwelling
Ulrica summons her magical powers: Re dell'abisso, affrettati / "King of the abyss make haste". Disguised as a fisherman, Riccardo arrives before the others. He makes the fortune of a sailor named Silvano come true by spiriting a document of promotion into his pouch, convincing the crowd of the truth of Ulrica's powers. When he realizes that Amelia is coming to see Ulrica, he hides and watches. Alone with Ulrica, Amelia confesses that she is tormented by her love for Riccardo, and asks for a means to bring peace to her heart. Ulrica tells her to gather a certain herb with magical powers; Riccardo resolves to be there when she does so. Amelia leaves.
Now Riccardo presents himself again, along with all of the courtiers, and asks to have his fortune told. (Aria: Di' tu se fedele / "Say whether the sea Awaits me faithfully"). Ulrica reveals that he will be killed by the next man who shakes his hand. He laughingly dismisses her prophecy and offers his hand to the courtiers, who refuse to take it. Renato arrives and shakes Riccardo's hand in greeting. Riccardo's true identity is now revealed and he is acclaimed by the people.
On the outskirts of the town, at the gallows-place. Midnight
Amelia, conquering her fears, has come here alone to pick the herb of which Ulrica told her (Aria: Ma dall'arido stelo divulsa / " If through the arid stalks"). She is surprised by Riccardo, who has come to meet her, and the two finally declare their love for each other.
Unexpectedly, Renato arrives, and Amelia covers her face with her veil before he can recognize her. Renato explains to Riccardo that the conspirators are pursuing him, and his life is in danger. Riccardo leaves, making Renato promise to escort the veiled woman safely back to town, not asking her identity. When the conspirators arrive, they confront Renato; in the struggle, Amelia's veil drops. Renato assumes that Amelia and Riccardo have been involved in an adulterous love affair. He asks the two leaders of the conspiracy, Samuel and Tom, to meet him the next day.
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Scene 1: Renato's house
Renato has resolved to kill Amelia for the dishonor she has brought on him. She protests her innocence and begs to see her son one last time. (Aria: Morrò, ma prima in grazia / "I shall die - but one last wish"). Renato relents, and declares that it is Riccardo, not Amelia, who deserves to die (Aria: Eri tu che macchiavi quell'anima / "It was you who stained this soul").
Samuel (Count Ribbing) and Tom (Count Horn) arrive, and Renato asks to join their plot, pledging the life of his son as proof of his sincerity. They agree to draw lots to decide who will kill Riccardo. Amelia is forced to draw the winning name – Renato.
Oscar, the page, arrives with invitations to the masked ball; Samuel, Tom and Renato agree that this is where the assassination will take place.
Scene 2: The ball
Riccardo, torn between love and duty, has resolved to renounce his love for Amelia and send her and Renato back to England (Aria: Ma se m'è forza perderti / "But if I am forced to lose you").
At the ball, Renato tries to learn from Oscar what costume Riccardo is wearing. Oscar at first refuses to tell (Aria: Saper vorreste / "You want to know How he is dressed"), but finally answers: a black cloak and a red ribbon. Riccardo manages to identify Amelia and tells her of the decision he has made. As they say goodbye, Renato stabs Riccardo. The wounded Riccardo discloses that though he loved Amelia, she never broke her marriage vows. He pardons all the conspirators, bidding farewell to his friends and his country as he dies.
The opera is scored for flute, piccolo, two oboes, cor anglais, two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, cimbasso, timpani, cymbals, bass drum, harp and strings, together with offstage wind band, offstage bell and small onstage string orchestra (four to six first violins, two second violins, two violas, two cellos and two double basses).
- Baldini, p. 248: Roger Parker, as editor and translator of The Story of Giuseppe Verdi challenges Baldini's statement that Gustave was a play, and he asserts that it was only an opera libretto written for Auber's opera.
- Budden, p. 363. Verdi to Torelli: "I'm scaling down a French drama, Gustavo III di Svezia, libretto by Scribe, performed at the Opéra twenty years ago"
- Patrick Dillon, "Unlucky Lady: Who is Amelia?", Opera News, December 2012, Vol. 77, #6, p. 20: Dillon notes that "it doesn't matter that there was, historically, no "real" Amelia" and further that, for Scribe, "convention demanded a leading lady" therefore "Amélie, comtesse d'Ankastrom" in Auber's opera.
- Budden, p. 364
- Gossett, p.497
- Verdi to Somma, 7 February 1858, Werfel and Stefan, p.207: "I'm drowning in a sea of troubles. It's almost certain that the censors will forbid our libretto."
- Verdi to Clara Maffei, 12 May 1858, in Phillips-Matz, p. 379
- Philip Gossett, "Giuseppe Verdi and the Italian Risorgimento", Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 156, No. 3, September 2012: Gossett notes: "Yet Verdi's only use of the expression is in a letter of 1858 to his Milanese friend Clarina Maffei, where it refers to all his operas through Un ballo in maschera: it laments the social circumstances in which Italian composers worked in the mid-nineteenth century, rather than judging aesthetic value."
- Gossett, p.499
- David Kimbell, in Holden, p. 999
- "Marian at the Met (1955): The Story" on metoperafamily.org. Retrieved 3 July 2011.
- Parker, p. 179
- Gossett, pp. 491 to 513: the complete history of Gustave III has been outlined by the musicologist.
- Operabase shows 464 performances of 97 productions in 73 cities performed or planned since January 2011 Retrieved 3 August 2013
- List of singers taken from Budden, p. 360
- Melitz, adaptation of the synopsis from 1921
- Baldini, Gabriele (1970), (trans. Roger Parker, 1980), The Story of Giuseppe Verdi: Oberto to Un Ballo in Maschera. Cambridge, et al: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29712-5
- Budden, Julian (1984), The Operas of Verdi, Volume 2: From Il Trovatore to La Forza del Destino. London: Cassell. ISBN 9780195200683 (hardcover) ISBN 9-78019520450-6 (paperback).
- Gossett, Philip (2006), Divas and Scholar: Performing Italian Opera, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-30482-5
- Kimbell, David (2001), in Holden, Amanda (Ed.), The New Penguin Opera Guide, New York: Penguin Putnam, 2001. ISBN 0-14-029312-4
- Melitz, Leo (1921), The Opera Goer's Complete Guide.
- Osborne, Charles (1994), The Complete Operas of Verdi, New York, Da Capo Press, ISBN 0-306-80072-1.
- Phillips-Matz, Mary Jane (1993), Verdi: A Biography, London & New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-313204-4
- Parker, Roger (1998), "Un ballo in maschera", in Stanley Sadie, (Ed.), The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, Vol. One. London: MacMillan Publishers, Inc. 1998 ISBN 0-333-73432-7 ISBN 1-56159-228-5
- Parker, Roger (2007), in The New Grove Guide to Verdi and his Operas, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007 ISBN 978-0-19-531314-7
- Verdi, Giuseppe, Un ballo in maschera, Full score, Milan: Ricordi, 1976.
- Werfel, Franz and Stefan, Paul (1973), Verdi: The Man and His Letters, New York, Vienna House. ISBN 0844300888
- Chusid, Martin, (Ed.) (1997), Verdi’s Middle Period, 1849 to 1859, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-10658-6 ISBN 0-226-10659-4
- De Van, Gilles (trans. Gilda Roberts) (1998), Verdi’s Theater: Creating Drama Through Music. Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-14369-4 (hardback), ISBN 0-226-14370-8
- Martin, George, Verdi: His Music, Life and Times (1983), New York: Dodd, Mead and Company. ISBN 0-396-08196-7
- Pistone, Danièle (1995), Nineteenth-Century Italian Opera: From Rossini to Puccini, Portland, OR: Amadeus Press. ISBN 0-931340-82-9
- Toye, Francis (1931), Giuseppe Verdi: His Life and Works, New York: Knopf
- Walker, Frank, The Man Verdi (1982), New York: Knopf, 1962, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-87132-0
- Warrack, John and West, Ewan, The Oxford Dictionary of Opera New York: OUP: 1992 ISBN 0-19-869164-5
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Un ballo in maschera.|
- Un ballo in maschera: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project
- Libretto in Italian on www.giuseppeverdi.it
- aria list from aria-database.com
- Libretto in Italian and English on murashev.com.
- San Diego OperaTalk! with Nick Reveles: A Masked Ball