An undersecretary is an executive government official in many countries, frequently a career public servant, who typically acts as a senior administrator or second-in-command to a politically appointed Cabinet Minister or other government official. The title is used in many different political systems.
In Hong Kong, undersecretary is a position created in 2008 to work closely with bureau secretaries and top civil servants to implement the Chief Executive's policy blueprint and agenda in an executive-led government. The appointment of undersecretaries and political assistants is an extension of the Principal Officials Accountability System into today's Political Appointments System.
In India, Undersecretary or Under Secretary is a constitutional and permanent position occupied by officers of the Indian Administrative Service, abbreviated as IAS, and officers in this capacity manage the departments they head within a Ministry or Federal Regulatory body. Post of Under Secretary is a very powerful position and Under Secretaries have direct access to top offices of the Federal and State Governments. Usually after spending 9 years in the IAS, an officer is promoted to the rank of Deputy Secretary to the Federal Government. Under Secretaries are permanent constitutional positions in India, unlike other western democracies, where they are political appointees. Under Secretaries in Indian Government usually carry their business even after a change in the Government. They are independent and fully in charge of the department they are allotted to. Under Secretaries report to the Cabinet Secretary of India.
In Italy, Undersecretary is a second-in-command to a politically appointed Minister. In particular, he/she is appointed with a President of the Republic Decree, on proposal of the Prime Minister, who previously agreed such proposal with the relevant Minister.
In Portugal the level of undersecretary is not a pro-forma echelon in the executive hierarchy. Such posts are created on an ad hoc basis as required. It is the lowest rung in the executive power. There is currently only one undersecretary of State in the present government.
In the Spanish Government, the Undersecretary is a political appointee charged with the daily representation of a ministry, the management of the common services and personnel. The position is equivalent to the British Permanent Secretary. The Undersecretary reports to the Minister, and is appointed by the King on the advice of the Council of Ministers.
The title of Under-Secretary is used in two different contexts in the British political system. A Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State is a junior member of the government, always an MP from the governing party, who is appointed to assist a Secretary of State or other government minister. They rank between a Minister of State and a Parliamentary Private Secretary; the rank is usually seen as a stepping-stone to higher political office. In contrast, a Permanent Under-Secretary is a civil servant employed to head part of a government department and oversee the implementation of policy.
In the United States executive branch, an undersecretary is a senior official in a government department, junior to a departmental Secretary such as the Secretary of State and usually junior to a Deputy Secretary as well. An Undersecretary is typically a career government official, as opposed to a political appointee; they may head specific sub-departments or agencies such as the Defense Intelligence Agency, or be responsible for a specific area of policy within the department, e.g. the Undersecretary for Management within the Department of State. Before 1972, "Undersecretary" (also spelled "Under Secretary") signified the senior deputy to a cabinet Secretary, especially of State and Treasury. The Under Secretary would typically be a political appointee. The office of Under Secretary of State was replaced by the Deputy Secretary of State and the office of Under Secretary of the Treasury was replaced by the Deputy Secretary of the Treasury.
While the Cabinet Secretary provides vision and direction, undersecretaries run the department and are often considered the government equivalent of a chief operating officer, albeit for a specific branch.