Underwater sports

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This article is about competitive underwater sports. For underwater diving techniques and recreational underwater diving activities, see Freediving, Recreational diving, Scuba diving and snorkelling
Underwater sports
Highest governing body Organisations include:
*CMAS
*AIDA International
*World Aquachallenge Association (WAA)
Characteristics
Mixed gender Yes
Type Outdoor
*openwater
*confined water
Indoor
*swimming pool
Presence
Olympic No demonstration events as of July 2013.

Underwater sports is a group of competitive sports using one or a combination of the following underwater diving techniques - breath-hold, snorkelling or scuba including the use of equipment such as diving masks and fins. These sports are conducted in the natural environment at sites such as open water and sheltered or confined water such as lakes and in artificial aquatic environments such as swimming pools. Underwater sports include the following - aquathlon (i.e. underwater wrestling), finswimming, freediving, spearfishing, sport diving, underwater football, underwater hockey, underwater ice hockey, underwater orienteering, underwater photography, underwater rugby, underwater target shooting and underwater video.

The sports[edit]

Aquathlon[edit]

Aquathlon (also known as underwater wrestling) is an underwater sport where two competitors wearing masks and fins wrestle underwater in an attempt to remove a ribbon from each other’s ankle band in order to win the bout. The "combat" takes place in a 5-metre (16 ft) square ring within a swimming pool, and is made up of three 30-second rounds, with a fourth round played in the event of a tie. The sport originated during the 1980s in the former USSR (now Russia) and was first played at international level in 1993. It was recognised by Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques (CMAS) in 2008.[1][2][3][4]

Finswimming[edit]

Further information: Finswimming

Finswimming is an underwater sport consisting of four techniques involving swimming with the use of fins either on the water's surface using a snorkel using either monofins or bifins (i.e. one fin for each foot) or underwater with monofin either by holding one's breathe or underwater using open circuit scuba diving equipment. Events exist over distances similar to swimming competitions for both swimming pool and open water venues. Competition at world and continental level is organised by CMAS. The sport's first world championship was held in 1976. It also has been featured at the World Games as a trend sport since 1981 and was demonstrated at the 2013 Summer Universiade in July 2013.[5][6][7][8]

Freediving[edit]

Further information: Freediving

Competitive freediving is currently governed by two world associations: AIDA International (International Association for Development of Apnea) and CMAS. Most types of competitive freediving have in common that it is an individual sport based on the best individual achievement. An exception to this rule is the bi-annual World Championship for Teams, held by AIDA, where the combined score of the team members makes up the team's total points. There are currently nine disciplines used by official governing bodies and a dozen disciplines that are only practiced locally. In this article, the recognized disciplines of AIDA and CMAS will be described. All disciplines can be done by both men and women and, while done outdoors, no differences in the environment between records are recognized any longer. The disciplines of AIDA can be done both in competition and as a record attempt, with the exception of Variable Weight and No limits, which are both done solely as record attempts.[9]

Spearfishing[edit]

Spearfishing (also known as competition spearfishing) as an underwater sport involves the hunting and capture of fish underwater using breath-hold technique and a tackle system such as a speargun as part of a tournament of fixed duration involving other competitors.[10]

Sport diving[edit]

Further information: Sport diving (sport)

Sport Diving is an underwater sport that uses recreational open circuit scuba diving equipment and consists of a set of individual and team events conducted in a swimming pool that test the competitors’ competency in recreational scuba diving technique. The sport was developed in Spain during the late 1990s and is currently played mainly in Europe. It is known as Plongée Sportive in French and as Buceo De Competición in Spanish.[11]

Underwater football[edit]

Further information: Underwater football

Underwater football is a two-team underwater sport that shares common elements with underwater hockey and underwater rugby. As with both of those games, it is played in a swimming pool with snorkelling equipment (mask, snorkel, and fins).[12]

Underwater hockey[edit]

Further information: Underwater hockey

Underwater hockey (UWH; also called Octopush and Water Hockey locally) is a globally played limited-contact sport in which two teams compete to manoeuvre a puck across the bottom of a swimming pool into goals.[13]

It originated in England in 1954 when the founder of the newly formed Southsea Sub-Aqua Club invented the game as a means of keeping the club's members interested and active over the cold winter months when open-water diving lost its appeal. Underwater hockey was first played as a world championship in Canada in 1980 after a false start brought about by international politics in 1979. CMAS is the world governing body for this sport.[citation needed]

Underwater ice hockey[edit]

Further information: Underwater ice hockey

Underwater ice hockey (also called sub-aqua ice hockey) is a minor extreme sport that is a variant of ice hockey. It is played upside-down underneath frozen pools or ponds. Participants wear diving masks, fins and wetsuits and use the underside of the frozen surface as the playing area for a floating puck. Competitors do not utilize any breathing apparatuses, but instead surface for air every 30 seconds.[14][15]

Underwater orienteering[edit]

Further information: Underwater orienteering

Underwater orienteering is an underwater sport that uses recreational open circuit scuba diving equipment and consists of a set of individual and team events conducted in both sheltered and open water that test the competitors’ competency in underwater navigation. The competition is principally concerned with the effectiveness of navigation technique used by competitors to swim an underwater course following a route marked on a map prepared by the competition organisers, a compass and a counter meter to measure the distance covered. The sport was developed in the USSR during the late 1950s and is currently played mainly in Europe. It is known as Orientation Sub in French and as La Orientación Subacuática in Spanish. Historically, the sport has also been known as Technical Disciplines.[16]

Underwater photography[edit]

Further information: Underwater photography (sport)

Underwater photography is an scuba-based underwater sport governed by CMAS where teams of competitors using digital underwater camera systems all dive at the same saltwater ocean sites at the same time over a two-day period. The submitted digital images are then assessed and ranked by a jury using a maximum of five photographic categories as well as an overall score. The sport was developed prior to 1985 as a photographic film-based event and is currently mainly practised in non-English speaking countries.[17]

Underwater rugby[edit]

Further information: Underwater rugby

Underwater rugby (UWR) is an underwater sport whose play involves two teams seeking to gain control of a slightly negatively buoyant ball (filled with saltwater) and passing it into a heavy metal bucket serving as the opponents’ goal at the bottom of a swimming pool. It originated from within the physical fitness training regime existing in German diving clubs during the early 1960s and has little in common with rugby football except for the name. It was recognised by CMAS in 1978 and was first played as a world championship in 1980.[18]

Underwater target shooting[edit]

Further information: Underwater target shooting

Underwater target shooting is an underwater sport that tests a competitors’ ability to accurately use a speargun via a set of individual and team events conducted in a swimming pool using free diving or Apnoea technique. The sport was developed in France during the early 1980s and is currently practised mainly in Europe. It is known as Tir sur cible subaquatique in French and as Tiro al Blanco Subacuático in Spanish.[19]

Underwater video[edit]

Underwater video is an scuba-based underwater sport governed by CMAS where teams of competitors using digital underwater video systems all dive at the same saltwater ocean sites at the same time over a two-day period. The submitted digital video are then assessed and ranked by a jury.[20][21]

Governance[edit]

The majority of the sporting disciplines listed above are governed by CMAS. Other organisations involved in governance of underwater sports include AIDA International[22] and the World Aquachallenge Association[23] which also respectively govern Freediving and Underwater Hockey in competition with CMAS while the Manitoba Underwater Council governs Underwater Football.[24] As of July 2013, it is not known who governs Underwater Ice Hockey.

Competition at international level[edit]

Olympic Games[edit]

As of 2013, there has been no competition at an Olympic Games by any underwater sport, even as a demonstration, although the following breath-hold events have been conducted as part of the swimming competition - underwater swimming event at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris and a plunge for distance event at the 1904 Summer Olympics in St. Louis, Missouri.[25] During the 1950s and the 1960s, various parties including the Amateur Athletic Union of the United States and the International Underwater Spearfishing Association lobbied for the admission of spearfishing to the Olympics. It is reported that in 1968, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) voted in favour of synchronized swimming over spearfishing.[26][27][28] Underwater sports was one of the sports considered for addition to the programme of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, China by the IOC in 2002. It and eight other sports were declined admission on the basis of:[29]

Statistics reviewed on federation affiliation, nations competing in major events and broadcast and press coverage of major events for most requested sports did not indicate a higher level of global participation and interest than sports currently in the Programme, and therefore could not be considered to bring additional value.

Paralympic Games[edit]

As August 2013, there has been no Paralympic competition by any underwater sport, even as a demonstration.[citation needed]

World championships and world cups[edit]

Sport Body Year Event type Location Nations
Aquathlon CMAS 2009 World Cup Not known Not known
Finswimming CMAS 1976 World Championship GermanyHanover, Germany[30] Not known
Freediving AIDA 1996 World Championship FranceNice, France[citation needed] Not known
Spearfishing CMAS 1957 World Championship Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Mali Losinj, Yugoslavia[31] Not known
Sport Diving CMAS 2013 World Championship Russia Kazan, Russia[32] 8
Underwater football MUC not known not known not known not known
Underwater hockey CMAS 1980 World Championship Canada Vancouver, Canada[33] 5
Underwater Ice Hockey Not known 2007 World Cup AustriaWeissensee, Austria[34] 8
Underwater orienteering CMAS 1973 World Championship Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Lokve, Yugoslavia [35] Not known
Underwater photography CMAS 1985 World Championship Italy Genoa, Italy[36] Not known
Underwater rugby CMAS 1980 World Championship Germany Mullheim, Germany [37] Not known
Underwater target shooting CMAS 1999[38] World Championship Not known Not known
Underwater video CMAS 2010 World Championship Spain Fuerteventura, Canary Island, Spain[39] 7

World Games[edit]

Further information: Finswimming at the World Games

Finswimming has been featured at the World Games as a trend sport since the inaugural games in 1981.[7][40]

Commonwealth Games[edit]

As of August 2013, no underwater sport has been conducted at a Commonwealth Games or is currently listed as an optional sport. However, a group of countries belonging to the Commonwealth of Nations has conducted at least one finswimming championship under the title of the Commonwealth Finswimming Championships and which was held in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia during February 2007.[41][citation needed]

Universiade[edit]

Finswimming became the first underwater sport to be demonstrated at an Universiade with an appearance at the 27th Summer Universiade in July 2013.[8]

Other multi-sport events[edit]

The following underwater sports has been offered at the following multi-sport events:

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Championships and other international events[edit]

Equipment[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "’Competition Area’". Aquathlon Rules, Version 2012/01. Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. 
  2. ^ "’Individual equipment’". Aquathlon Rules, Version 2012/01. Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. 
  3. ^ "’Combat’". Aquathlon Rules, Version 2012/01. Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 2 April 2013. 
  4. ^ "Aquatlon". History of CMAS. Retrieved 2 April 2013. 
  5. ^ "About finswimming". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 5 August 2013. 
  6. ^ "1st World Championship". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 12 August 2013. 
  7. ^ a b "World Games, Kolendra rules fin swimming". Ellensburg Daily Record, Washington USA. July 28, 1981. p. 8. Retrieved 12 August 2013. 
  8. ^ a b "Taking part in the Universiade, Finswimming entered a new era". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 12 August 2013. 
  9. ^ "About Apnoea". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 17 August 2013. 
  10. ^ "About Spearfishing". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 17 August 2013. 
  11. ^ "About Sport Diving". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 17 August 2013. 
  12. ^ ’ Where is it Played’, [1], retrieved 02/09/2012.
  13. ^ "About Underwater Hockey". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 17 August 2013. 
  14. ^ "Realized projects". Christian Redl. Retrieved 14 August 2013. 
  15. ^ derStandard.at GmbH "Hockey with wetsuit and flippers". Retrieved 14 August 2013. 
  16. ^ "About Orienteering". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 17 August 2013. 
  17. ^ "About Underwater Photography". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 17 August 2013. 
  18. ^ "About Underwater Rugby". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 14 August 2013. 
  19. ^ "About Target Shooting". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 17 August 2013. 
  20. ^ Documents of the Visual Commission - Underwater Video Rules. Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. 2010. 
  21. ^ "1st CMAS World Championship Underwater Video 2010". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 17 August 2013. 
  22. ^ "Aida International". AIDA International. Retrieved 29 July 2013. 
  23. ^ "WAA World AquaChallenge Association Underwater Hockey". The World AquaChallenge Association. Retrieved 29 July 2013. 
  24. ^ "UNDERWATER FOOTBALL RULES AND REGULATIONS". Sean Ennis. Retrieved 29 July 2013. 
  25. ^ Mallon, Bill; Heijmans, Jeroen (2011). Historical dictionary of the Olympic movement (4th ed.). Plymouth (UK): Scarecrow Press. p. 362. 
  26. ^ "Skindivers Seek Place in Olympics". The Spokesman- Review, Spokane Washington. 16 November 1958. p. 67. Retrieved 22 November 2013. 
  27. ^ "SPEARFISHING HISTORY, International Underwater Spearfishing Association, Competition Spearfishing Historical Timeline 1947-2004". International Underwater Spearfishing Association. Retrieved 22 November 2013. 
  28. ^ McLellan, Dennis (20 June 2001). "OBITUARIES: Ralph Davis; Pioneer in Sport Spearfishing". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 22 November 2013. 
  29. ^ Carraroc, Franco (2002). REVIEW OF THE OLYMPIC PROGRAMME AND THE RECOMMENDATIONS ON THE PROGRAMME OF THE GAMES OF THE XXIX OLYMPIAD, BEIJING 2008 - REPORT BY THE COMMISSION CHAIRMAN,. International Olympic Committee. pp. 16–17. 
  30. ^ "1st World Championship". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 18 August 2013. 
  31. ^ "1st World Spearfishing Championship". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 21 November 2013. 
  32. ^ "Results - Sport Diving (1st World Championship)". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 8 December 2013. 
  33. ^ "1980 World Underwater Hockey Championship Finals - Vancouver, Canada". www.underwaterhockey-archive.com. Retrieved 8 June 2013. 
  34. ^ Symes, Peter. "Try something different; Hockey Under Ice". X-Ray Mag. p. 60. Retrieved 4 March 2013. 
  35. ^ "A book about History of UW orienteering". CMAS. p. 8. Retrieved 16 May 2013. 
  36. ^ "1st World Championship". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 28 June 2013. 
  37. ^ "1st World Championship". CMAS. Retrieved 4 June 2013. 
  38. ^ FFESSM "HISTORY OF THE FFESSM". Retrieved 14 February 2013. 
  39. ^ "1st CMAS World Championship Underwater Video 2010". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 13 August 2013. 
  40. ^ "Underwater Sports: Fin Swimming". the International World Games Association. Retrieved 18 August 2013. 
  41. ^ "SPORTS PROGRAMME". Commonwealth Games Federation. Retrieved 13 August 2013. 
  42. ^ "Finswimming (25 m) Macau 2007, 2nd Asian Indoor Games". Macao 2nd Asian Indoor Games Organising Committee. Retrieved 18 August 2013. 
  43. ^ "Actividades Subacuáticas". Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  44. ^ a b "(2013 Bolivarian Games) Actividades Subacuáticas". 2013 Bolivarian Games. Retrieved 9 January 2014. 
  45. ^ "2006 Micronesian Games - Spearfishing". http://www.sportingpulse.com/. Retrieved 18 August 2013. 
  46. ^ "2010 Micronesian Games". http://www.sportingpulse.com/. Retrieved 18 August 2013. 
  47. ^ Rodríguez III, Ernesto (2010), LIBROS DEL CICLO OLÍMPICO ARGENTINO - Libro I de los Juegos Odesur 1978-2010 (in Spanish) (1st ed.), Buenos Aires: Alarco Ediciones, p. 192, ISBN 978-987-1367-18-4, retrieved June 2, 2012