|Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity
|Unification Church building in Seoul|
|Classification||Unification Church movement|
Hak Ja Han Moon
Hyung Jin Moon
|Founder||Sun Myung Moon|
|Origin||May 1, 1954
|Official website||Unification Church official website|
The Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity, also known as the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification and commonly called the Unification Church or Unificationism, is a new religious movement founded in South Korea in 1954 by Sun Myung Moon. Since its founding, the church has expanded throughout the world. It is most prominent in East Asia. Moonie is a colloquial term sometimes used to refer to members of the Unification Church, the term being derived from the name of the church's founder.
Unification Church beliefs are based on the Bible and are explained in the church's textbook, Divine Principle. It teaches that God is the creator, whose dual nature combines both masculinity and femininity. The Blessing ceremony of the Unification Church, a wedding or marriage rededication ceremony, is a church practice which has attracted wide public attention. The church has engaged in interfaith activities with other religions, including mainstream Christianity and Islam, despite theological differences.
The Unification Church has sponsored many organizations and projects over the years; including businesses, news media, projects in education and the arts, and political and social activism. The church was led by Moon until his death on September 3, 2012, at which time, it was reported that his wife Hak Ja Han and their American sons Hyung Jin Moon and Kook Jin Moon would assume the leadership of the church.
Moonie is a colloquial term sometimes used to refer to members of the Unification Church. This is derived from the name of the church's founder Sun Myung Moon, and was first used in 1974 by the American media. Church members have used the word "Moonie", including: Moon himself, President of the Unification Theological Seminary David Kim, and Moon's aide and president of The Little Angels Children's Folk Ballet of Korea Bo Hi Pak. In the 1980s and 1990s the Unification Church of the United States undertook an extensive public relations campaign against the use of the word by the news media, including hiring civil rights activist Ralph Abernathy to equate it with the word "nigger". In commentary on the term and its usage, scholars have noted it is both a popular colloquial term, and one that has negative connotations. In his 2000 book Mystics and Messiahs, Philip Jenkins discussed the term's usage, and likened it to "smear words" associated with other religions; giving examples of Shaker, Methodist, and Mormon. Journalistic authorities, including the New York Times and Reuters, now discourage its use in news reporting.
Origins in Korea
|Revised Romanization||Tongil Gyohoe|
Unification Church members believe that Jesus appeared to Mun Yong-myong (his birth name) when Moon was 15 on April 17, 1935, and asked him to accomplish the work left unfinished after his crucifixion. After a period of prayer and consideration, Moon accepted the mission, later changing his name to Mun Son-myong (Sun Myung Moon).
The church's official teachings, the Divine Principle, was first published as Wolli Wonbon in 1946. The second, expanded version, Wolli Hesol, or Explanation of the Divine Principle, was not published until 1957. Sun Myung Moon preached in northern Korea after the end of World War II and in 1946 was imprisoned by the communist regime in North Korea. He was released from prison by the advance of American and United Nations forces during the Korean War, and moved south along with many other North Koreans. He built his first church from mud and cardboard boxes as a refugee in Pusan.
Moon formally founded the Unification Church in Seoul on May 1, 1954, calling it "The Holy Spirit(ual) Association for the Unification of World Christianity." The name alluded to Moon's stated intention for his organization to be a unifying force for all Christian denominations. The phrase "Holy Spirit Association" has the sense in the original Korean of "Heavenly Spirits" and not the "Holy Spirit" of Christianity. "Unification" has political as well as religious connotations, in keeping with the church's teaching that restoration must be complete, both spiritual and physical. The church expanded rapidly in South Korea and by the end of 1955 had 30 church centers throughout the nation.
In 1958, Moon sent missionaries to Japan, and in 1959, to America. Moon moved to the United States in 1971 (although he remained a citizen of the Republic of Korea). Missionary work took place in Washington, D.C., New York, and California. UC missionaries found success in the San Francisco Bay Area, where the church expanded in Oakland, Berkeley, and San Francisco. By 1971, the Unification Church of the United States had about 500 members. By 1973, the church had some presence in all 50 states and a few thousand members.
The church also sent missionaries to Europe. The church entered Czechoslovakia in 1968 and remained underground until the 1990s. In 1975, Moon sent out missionaries to 120 countries to spread the Unification Church around the world and also in part, he said, to act as "lightning rods" to receive "persecution." Unification Church activity in South America began in the 1970s with missionary work. Later, the church made large investments in civic organizations and business projects, including an international newspaper.
In the 1970s, Moon gave a series of public speeches in the United States, including one in Madison Square Garden in New York City in 1974 and two in 1976: in Yankee Stadium in New York City, and on the grounds of the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C., where Moon spoke on "God's Hope for America" to 300,000 people. In 1975, the Unification Church held one of the largest peaceful gatherings in history, with 1.2 million people in Yoido, South Korea.
In 1990, Unification Church founded its $8m Universal Ballet project, with Soviet-born Oleg Vinogradov as its art director and Julia Moon as its prima ballerina. At the opening ceremony, letters of congratulation from President Bush and John Frohnmayer, chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts, were read.
In 1991 Moon announced that church members should return to their hometowns and undertake apostolic work there. Massimo Introvigne, who studied the Unification Church and other new religious movements, said that this confirmed that full-time membership is no longer considered crucial to church members.
Starting in the 1990s, the Unification Church expanded its operations into Russia and other formerly communist nations. Han made a radio broadcast to the nation from the Kremlin Palace of Congresses. As of 1994, the church had about 5,000 members in Russia and the Russian Education Ministry was giving the Unification Church privileged access to thousands of state schools with their captive audiences of impressionable pupils. About 500 Russian students had been sent to USA to participate in 40-day workshops of and by the Unification Church.
Starting in 1992 the church established business ties with communist North Korea and owned an automobile manufacturer (Pyeonghwa Motors), a hotel, and other properties there. In 1998, the Unification Movement launched its operations in North Korea with the approval of the Government of South Korea, which had prohibited business relationships between North and South before; and built a church there. In 2007 it founded a "World Peace Center" in Pyongyang, North Korea's capital city.
As of December 1994, Unification Church had invested $150 million in Uruguay. Members own the country's largest hotel, one of its leading banks, the second-largest newspaper and two of the largest printing plants. In 1996, the Unification Church started the Tiempos Del Mundo, a newspaper in Spanish circulating in 16 countries of Latin America; "a newspaper for half a Hemisphere", The New York Times called it.
Since 2000, Unification Church's Pyeonghwa Motors has invested more than $300 million to the automobile industry of the DPRK. In 2000, "an event of historical importance" occurred, according to a live broadcast for the state-owned Korea Broadcasting System, as 78 North Korean girls and boys arrived at the Unification Church's cross-cultural "ice-breaker" event, where guests such as the minister of unification, Park Jae-Kyu, and the minister of culture, Park Jie Won were present.
In 2000, Unification Church bought the news agency United Press International. At the United Nations Headquarters, Indonesian President Abdurrahman Wahid addressed an event of the Unification Church in collaboration with the Permanent Mission of Indonesia to the United Nations.
The church met with the President of the Marshall Islands Kessai Note and discussed plans to invest US$ 1 million for construction of a new high school. The next year, he attended Moon's birthday party.
In 2003, on notification by the Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan, about 500 Christians, Muslims, Jews and other international and interfaith tourists joined the Unification Church Middle East Peace Initiative "to such a degree that the Old Gates were opened by the Israeli police near the Wailing Wall, and by the Muslim leadership at Al Aqsa, without incident", as the official UN-report says. The Los Angeles Galaxy, which competes in Major League Soccer, played in South Korea during Unification Church's Peace Cup. That same year, Unification Church held the Interreligious Peace Sports Festival between the people of various faiths, which is, according to the UNESCO official data, "an annual sporting event designed to build and promote friendship and peace among people from different cultural and religious backgrounds using the powerful medium of sports competition". The college team of Sun Moon University, which some described as the best in South Korea won the tournament.
In 2005, Chun Doo-hwan, the 5th President of the Republic of Korea, and Chung Mong-joon, the Vice-President of FIFA, attended the opening ceremony of the Unification Church-owned Peace Cup, along with Moon.
In 2006, the President of Sri Lanka Mahinda Rajapaksa, 4th President of Sri Lanka Dingiri Banda Wijetunga, twice Prime Minister of Sri Lanka Ranil Wickremasinghe and the Speaker of the Parliament of Sri Lanka W. J. M. Lokubandara were guest speakers at a UC event. In Korea, in response to a slanderous newspaper article, more than 700 members of the Unification Movement joined a rally and destroyed the office of the newspaper. Later on, the newspaper wrote a rebuttal.
Starting in 2007, the church sponsored a series of public events in various nations under the title Global Peace Festival. One such event was endorsed by Mwai Kibaki, the President of Kenya.
In 2007, Musa Bin Jaafar Bin Hassan, at the time President of the 33rd session of the General Conference, UNESCO's supreme governing body, was granted the title Ambassador for Peace by the Unification Church at the General Conference (United Nations). In 2012, Hassan, Boutros Boutros-Ghali (6th United Nations Secretary-General and current President of the UNESCO Panel on Democracy and Development) gave remarks at the Unification Church event in UNESCO's headquarters in France, along with Akiko Yamanaka (parliamentarian of Diet of Japan, Cambridge University professor and former Deputy-Minister for Foreign Affairs of Japan) and other 300 politicians and religious leaders.
Since 2008, US government has provided aid in planning, development and coordination of the Global Peace Festival of the Unification Church. Georgetown University students took part in it, among many. UC held youth events in collaboration with UN-HABITAT and The Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports of Kenya. Year later, 5 representatives of the Unification Church (Universal Peace Federation) attended an annual (international ministerial-level) session of UN-HABITAT in its headquarters. In April Moon, then 88 years old, appointed his youngest son, Hyung Jin Moon, to be the leader of the church and movement, saying, "I hope everyone helps him so that he may fulfil his duty as the successor of the True Parents."
In 2009, UN spokesmen gave speeches at Church events. Hyung Jin Moon, now President of Unification Movement and a Harvard alumnus, met with the 14th Dalai Lama. That same year, Moon's autobiography, As a Peace-Loving Global Citizen (Korean: 평화를 사랑하는 세계인으로), was published by Gimm-Young Publishers in South Korea. The book became a bestseller in Korea and Japan.
In 2010, Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon spoke at the Unification Church-owned Manhattan Center during Africa Day event, which was also co-sponsored by the Unification Church. In collaboration with US government, the church organized a summer employment program for 250 disadvantaged teens.
In 2011, 48th President of Paraguay Juan Carlos Wasmosy, 49th President of Paraguay Raúl Cubas Grau, 50-th President of Paraguay Luis Ángel González Macchi and the President of the Chamber of Deputies Óscar González Daher participated in the Global Peace Festival of the Unification Church. The church joined with Morehouse College to launch Martin Luther King, Jr. Middle School Leadership Academy. Students enrolled in the Academy "complete community projects, a health fair for the community surrounding the school as well as other service oriented activities". The Unification Movement received the Lifetime Achievement Award from Taiwanese Executive Yuan. That same year, representatives of seven religions from South Korea visited Pyongyang, North Korea, for the first time ever, in their joint efforts to unite the Korean Peninsula; the delegation was headed by members of the Unification Movement.
In December in Pyongyang, to mark the 20th anniversary of Sun Myung Moon's visit to the DPRK, de jure President Kim Yong-nam hosted the new President in the official residence. The latter donated 600 tons of flour to North Korean children of Jeongju Province, the birthplace of Sun Myung Moon. Also, after the 2011 earthquake in Japan, he donated $ 1.7 million to the Japanese Red Cross.
In February 2012, Stavros S. Anthony, the Mayor of Las Vegas, recognized the contributions of Unification Church's Little Angels Children's Folk Ballet of Korea. That year the Movement was constructing 70-storey twin skyscraper in Seoul at an estimated cost of $2 billion USD. A Russian senator who backed the church, invited it to hold its event in Federal Assembly of Russia. Global Peace Women was launched in Malaysia, a chapter of Unification Church-affiliated Global Peace Festival Foundation, with the wife of the Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia as its chair. That same year, the Head of UNEP Achim Steiner and other UN dignataries gave remarks at an environmental event of the affiliate in UNEP Headquarters. The event brought together about 300 people including Keishu Shinso Ito, the highest-ranking minister in Japanese Buddhism, along with other religious leaders. At the opening of Yeosu Expo 2012, Kook Jin Moon, a son of Moon responsible for economic development of the movement, sat in front of the South Korean President Lee Myung-bak among the VIP group.
In 2012, a spokesman of an Unification Church-affiliated tourism-oriented body signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Taleb Rifai, the Secretary-General of UNWTO, "to promote a culture of peace through tourism".
The Key Tenets of the Unification Faith
In an oath of affirmation that was read in unison by 12 newly ordained district pastors at an ordination in Irvington, New York in November 2012, the key tenets of the Unification faith are summarized as follows:
- God, the Heavenly Parent of all humanity.
- True Parents as the eternal and unique ancestors of humankind who represent the consummation of God’s Providence.
- The authority of the “Eight Textbooks” as scriptures of the Unification faith and the Holy Blessing of Marriage as our central sacrament.
- The commitment to building Cheon Il Guk, the Kingdom of God where all humankind will come to live together as one family under God.
The Divine Principle or Exposition of the Divine Principle (Korean 원리강론/原理講論, translit. wonli ganglon) is the main theological textbook of the Unification Church. It was co-written by church founder Sun Myung Moon and early disciple Hyo Won Eu and first published in 1966. A translation entitled Divine Principle was published in English in 1973. The book lays out the core of Unification theology, and is held to have the status of scripture by believers. Following the format of systematic theology, it includes  God's purpose in creating human beings,  the fall of man, and  redemption - the process through history by which God is working to remove the ill effects of the fall and restore humanity back to the relationship and position that God originally intended.
God is viewed as the creator, whose nature combines both masculinity and femininity, and is the source of all truth, beauty, and goodness. Human beings and the universe reflect God's personality, nature, and purpose. "Give-and-take action" (reciprocal interaction) and "subject and object position" (initiator and responder) are "key interpretive concepts", and the self is designed to be God's object. The purpose of human existence is to return joy to God. The "four-position foundation" is "another important and interpretive concept", and explains in part the emphasis on the family.
Eugene V. Gallagher commented: "The Divine Principle's analysis of the Fall sets the stage for the mission of Rev. Moon, who in the last days brings a revelation that offers humankind the chance to return to an Edenic state. The account in the Divine Principle offers Unificationists a comprehensive context for understanding human suffering."
A brief overview with 12 theological statements about the teachings of the Divine Principle was written by thirty eight seminary students.
Creation and Fall
1. God. There is one living, eternal, and true God, a being beyond space and time, who possesses perfect intellect, emotion and will, whose deepest nature is heart and love, who combines both masculinity and femininity, who is the source of all truth, beauty, and goodness, and who is the creator and sustainer of man and the universe and of all things visible and invisible. Man and the universe reflect His personality, nature, and purpose.
2. Man. Man was made by God as a special creation, made in His image as His children, like Him in personality and nature, and created to respond to His love, to be the source of His joy, and to share His creativity.
3. God's Desire for Man and Creation. God's desire for man and creation is eternal and unchanging; God wants men and women to fulfill three things: first, each to grow to perfection so as to be one in heart, will, and action with God, having their bodies and minds united together in perfect harmony centering on God's love; second, to he united by God as husband and wife and give birth to sinless children of God, thereby establishing a sinless family and ultimately a sinless world; and third, to become lords of the created world by establishing a loving dominion of reciprocal give-and-take with it. Because of man's sin, however, none of these happened. Therefore God's present desire is that the problem of sin be solved and that all these things be restored, thus bringing about the earthly and heavenly kingdom of God.
4. Sin. The first man and woman (Adam and Eve), before they had become perfected, were tempted by the archangel Lucifer into illicit and forbidden love. Through this, Adam and Eve willfully turned away from God's will and purpose for them, thus bringing themselves and the human race into spiritual death. As a result of this Fall, Satan [Lucifer] usurped the position of mankind's true father so that thereafter all people are born in sin both physically and spiritually and have a sinful propensity. Human beings therefore tend to oppose God and His will, and live in ignorance of their true nature and parentage and of all that they have lost. God too, grieves for His lost children and lost world, and has had to struggle incessantly to restore them to Himself. Creation groans in travail, waiting to be united through the true children of God.
Incarnation and Redemption
5. Christology. Fallen mankind can be restored to God only through Christ (the Messiah), who comes as a new Adam to become the new head of the human race (replacing the sinful [first] parents), through whom mankind can be reborn into God's family. In order for God to send the Messiah, mankind must fulfill certain conditions which restore what was lost through the Fall.
6. History. Restoration takes place through the paying of indemnity for (making reparations for) sin. Human history is the record of God's and Man's efforts to make these reparations over time in order that conditions can be fulfilled so that God can send the Messiah, who comes to initiate the complete restoration process. When some effort at fulfilling some reparation condition fails, it must be repeated, usually by someone else after some intervening time-period; history therefore exhibits a cyclic pattern. History culminates in the coming of the Messiah, and at that time the old age ends and a new age begins.
7. Resurrection. The process of resurrection is the process of restoration to spiritual life and spiritual maturity, ultimately uniting man with God; it is passing from spiritual death into spiritual life. This is accomplished in part by man's effort (through prayer, good deeds, etc.) with the help of the saints in the spiritual world, and completed by God's activity of bringing man to rebirth through Christ (the Messiah).
8. Predestination. God's will that all people be restored to Him is predestined absolutely [cf. universalism, apokatastasis, contrast damnation and double predestination], and He has elected all people to salvation, but He has also given man part of the responsibility (to be accomplished through man's free will) for the accomplishment of both His original will and His will for the accomplishment of restoration; that responsibility remains man's permanently. God has predestined and called certain persons and groups of people for certain responsibilities; if they fail, others must take up their roles and greater reparations must be made.
9. Jesus. Jesus of Nazareth came as the Christ, the Second Adam, the only begotten Son of God. He became one with God, speaking the words of God and doing the works of God, and revealing God to the people. The people, however, rejected and crucified him, thereby preventing his building the Kingdom of God on earth. Jesus, however, was victorious over Satan in his Crucifixion and Resurrection, and thus made possible spiritual salvation for those who are reborn through him and the Holy Spirit. The restoration of the Kingdom of God on earth awaits the Second Coming of Christ.
10. The Bible. The Old and New Testament Scriptures [in the 66-book version, see Books of the Bible] are the record of God's progressive revelation to mankind. The purpose of the Bible is to bring us to Christ, and to reveal God's heart. Truth is unique, eternal, and unchanging, so any new message from God will be in conformity with the Bible and will illuminate it more deeply. Yet, in these last days, new truth must come from God in order that mankind be able to accomplish what is, yet, undone.
11. Complete Restoration. A proper understanding of theology concentrates simultaneously on man's relationship with God (vertical) and on man's relationship with his fellowman (horizontal). Man's sin disrupted both these relationships, and all the problems of our world result from this. These problems will be solved through restoration of man to God through Christ, and also through such measures as initiating proper moral standards and practices, forming true families, uniting all peoples and races (such as Orient, Occident and Negro), resolving the tension between science and religion, righting economic, racial, political, and educational injustices, and overcoming God-denying ideologies such as Communism.
12. Second Coming or Eschatology. The Second Coming of Christ will occur in our age, an age much like that of the First Advent. Christ will come as before, as a man in the flesh, and he will establish a family through marriage to his Bride, a woman in the flesh, and they will become the True Parents of all mankind. Through our accepting the True Parents (the Second Coming of Christ), obeying them and following them, our original sin will be eliminated and we will eventually become perfect. True families fulfilling God's ideal will be begun, and the Kingdom of God will be established both on earth and in heaven. That day is now at hand.
The Divine Principle upholds a belief in spiritualism, that is communication with the spirits of deceased persons. Moon and early church members associated with spiritualists, including the famous Arthur Ford. The introduction to the Divine Principle says about Moon:
- "For several decades he wandered through the spirit world so vast as to be beyond imagining. He trod a bloody path of suffering in search of the truth, passing through tribulations that God alone remembers. Since he understood that no one can find the ultimate truth to save humanity without first passing through the bitterest of trials, he fought alone against millions of devils, both in the spiritual and physical worlds, and triumphed over them all. Through intimate spiritual communion with God and by meeting with Jesus and many saints in Paradise, he brought to light all the secrets of Heaven."
Returning resurrection is a theological concept explained in the Divine Principle. It posits that departed souls can expiate their sins and achieve spiritual growth by "returning" to earth and cooperating with living people to good deeds. The text cites a scripture justifying the concept: "Apart from us they may not be made perfect".
Unification Church theologian Young Oon Kim explained that returning resurrection is not the same as reincarnation. She emphasized that failure to make the distinction has led many dead people to try to "reincarnate", but wound up only possessing other people - to their mutual detriment.
Indemnity, in the context of Unification Church beliefs, is a part of the process by which human beings and the world are restored to God's ideal. The concept of indemnity is explained at the start of the second half of the Divine Principle, "Introduction to Restoration":
- "What, then, is the meaning of restoration through indemnity? When someone has lost his original position or state, he must make some condition to be restored to it. The making of such conditions of restitution is called indemnity. For example, to recover lost reputation, position or health, one must make the necessary effort or pay the due price. Suppose two people who once loved each other come to be on bad terms; they must make some condition of reconciliation before the love they previously enjoyed can be revived. In like manner, it is necessary for human beings who have fallen from God's grace into corruption to fulfill some condition before they can be restored to their true standing. We call this process of restoring the original position and state through making conditions restoration through indemnity, and we call the condition made a condition of indemnity. God's work to restore people to their true, unfallen state by having them fulfill indemnity conditions is called the providence of restoration through indemnity."
The Divine Principle goes on to explain three types of indemnity conditions. Equal conditions of indemnity pay back the full value of what was lost. The biblical verse "life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth" (Exod.21:23-24) is quoted as an example of an equal indemnity condition. Lesser conditions of indemnity provide a benefit greater than the price that is paid. Faith, baptism, and holy communion are mentioned as examples of lesser indemnity conditions. Greater conditions of indemnity come about when a person fails in a lesser condition. In that case a greater price must be paid to make up for the earlier failure. Abraham's attempted sacrifice of his son Isaac (Gen. 22:1-18) and the Israelite's 40 years of wandering in the wilderness under Moses (Num.14:34) are mentioned as examples of greater indemnity conditions. The Divine Principle then explains that an indemnity condition must reverse the course by which the mistake or loss came about. Jesus' statement that God had forsaken him (Matt.27:46) and Christianity's history of martyrdom are mentioned as examples of this. The Divine Principle then states that human beings, not God or the angels, are the ones responsible for making indemnity conditions.
Christian commentators have criticized the concept of indemnity as being contrary to the Christian doctrine of salvation by faith. Radio and television evangelist Bob Larson said, "Moon's doctrine of sinless perfection by 'indemnity', which can apply even to deceased ancestors, is a denial of the salvation by grace offering through Jesus Christ." Christian historian Ruth Tucker said: "In simple language indemnity is salvation by works." Donald Tingle and Richard Fordyce, ministers with the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) who debated two Unification Church theologians in 1977, wrote: "In short, indemnity is anything you want to make it, since you establish the conditions. The zeal and enthusiasm of the Unification Church members is not so much based on love for God as it is compulsion to indemnify one's own sins." The Unification Church has also been criticized for saying that the First World War, the Second World War, the Holocaust, and the Cold War served as indemnity conditions to prepare the world for the establishment of the Kingdom of God.
The True Family
The True Family, in Unification Church terminology, is the family of church founder and leader Sun Myung Moon and his wife Hak Ja Han. Church members regard Moon as the Second Coming of Christ, and he and his wife as the "True Parents" of humankind, who have realized the ideal of true love as the incarnation of God's Word. The members of the Unification Movement generally address or refer to Rev. and Mrs. Moon as "Father" and "Mother" or "True Father" and "True Mother." Their children are known as the "True Children."
Sun Myung and Hak Ja Han are regarded to have achieved the status of True Parents on January 1, 1968, at the end of their "7-year course" of marriage together, representing the perfection of God's masculine and feminine aspects. Unification theology teaches that Jesus achieved this perfection only on the individual level (a lesser accomplishment than that of Sun Myung Moon and Hak Ja Han). The Unification Church teaches that had Jesus not died on the cross he would have married. It further teaches that, having married, he and his wife would have become "True Parents", created a "True Family", and would have saved humanity and perfected the world. Unfortunately Jesus was unable to complete his mission of perfecting the world and went the way of the cross, but his death was not a complete defeat because Jesus died for our sins giving us spiritual salvation). The primary mission of True Parents is to engraft all people on earth and in the spirit world to the original sinless lineage of God, removing them from the satanic lineage established at the fall of humanity (the original sin in the Garden of Eden).
Sex and marriage
The Unification Church is well known for its wedding or marriage rededication ceremony. It is given to married (or engaged) couples. Through it, members of the Unification Church believe, the couple is removed from the lineage of sinful humanity and engrafted into God's sinless lineage. The Blessing ceremony was first held in 1961 for 36 couples in Seoul, South Korea by the Moons shortly after their own marriage in 1960. All the couples were members of the church. Rev. Moon matched all of the couples except 12 who were already married to each other before joining the church.
Later Blessing ceremonies were larger in scale but followed the same pattern. All participants were Unification Church members and Rev. Moon matched most of the couples. In 1982 the first large scale Blessing (of 2,000 couples) outside of Korea took place in Madison Square Garden, New York City. In 1988, Moon matched 2,500 Korean members with Japanese members for a Blessing ceremony held in Korea, partly in order to promote unity between the two nations. In 1992 Sun Myung Moon gave the wedding blessing for 30,000 couples at the Seoul Olympic Stadium and for 13,000 at the Yankee Stadium. In 2013, four months after the death of Sun Myung Moon, the church held a Blessing ceremony for 3,500 couples in South Korea, while another 24,000 followers took part in other countries via video link. This ceremony was presided over by Hak Ja Han.
Several church-related groups are working to promote sexual abstinence until marriage and fidelity in marriage and to prevent child exploitation; they care for victims of Thailand's massive sex trade as well. In 1996, Unification Church gathered 3,500 signatures during its anti-porn campaign. As a church official said, "pornography makes love seem temporal, pure love goes beyond the sexual relationship."
The Family Pledge of the Unification Church is an eight-part promise of church members to focus on God and His kingdom. Eight verses of the Family Pledge include the phrase "by centering on true love." For the first 40 years of the church's existence, members recited the pledge on Sunday mornings at 5:00 a.m. Now they recite it every 8 days, on Ahn Shi Il: Day of Settlement and Attendance, which is the Unification Church's equivalent of a Sabbath. The first part says, "Our family, the owner of Cheon Il Guk, pledges to seek our original homeland and build the Kingdom of God on earth and in heaven, the original ideal of creation, by centering on true love."
According to church sources, the symbol of Unification Church is created with significant meaning and numbers: Its gold color symbolizes an ideal world of peace; the circle in the center represents God and his True Love, True Life and True Lineage; the twelve lines represent 12 months of the year and twelve types of human personalities; the square represents four directions, North, South East & West, and the four position foundation centered on God; and the circle around represents give and receive action between the visible and invisible worlds.
Scholars, as well as some church critics, have noted that the Unification Church holds some esoteric beliefs, that is secret from nonmembers. In 1979 Tingle and Fordyce commented: "How different the openness of Christianity is to the attitude of Reverend Moon and his followers who are often reluctant to reveal to the public many of their basic doctrines." Since the 1990s many Unification Church texts that were formerly regarded as esoteric have been posted on the church's official websites.
In the 1970s the Unification Church was accused of "brainwashing" by some members of the anticult movement, which was repeated by some of the news media. These accusations were based on theories that for the most part have not gained acceptance among sociologists. Eileen Barker, a sociologist of religion and the founder of INFORM (Information Network Focus on Religious Movements), argues that the Unification Church and other new religious movements of that time "demonstrably did not have access to the irresistible or irreversible techniques they were reputedly wielding". In 1987, scholars with American Psychological Association also rejected the hypotheses of those who accused the Unification church of brainwashing and coercive persuasion, stating that their "conclusions...cannot be said to be scientific in any meaningful sense". Since 1990, U.S. courts have consistently rejected testimonies about brainwashing (mind control) and manipulation, stating that such theories were not part of accepted mainline science according to the Frye Standard of 1923.
Members of the Unification Church reported that they were forcibly "deprogrammed" by those who wanted to pull them out of the Unification Church. In 1977, the Unification Church won a lawsuit in the United States against deprogrammers.
Relations with Judaism
The Divine Principle has been accused of containing antisemitic references. Statements by Moon that Jewish victims of the Holocaust were paying indemnity for the crucifixion of Jesus have also been described as antisemitic. In the 1980s church leaders Mose Durst, Peter Ross, and Andrew Wilson expressed regret over some members' misunderstanding of Judaism and urged better relations with the Jewish community. Since 2003, the church sponsored Middle East Peace Initiative has been organizing group tours of Israel to promote understanding, respect, and reconciliation among Jews, Muslims, and Christians.
Relations with Protestant Christianity
From its beginning, the Unification Church claimed to be Christian and promoted its teachings to mainstream Christian churches and organizations . The Unification Church in Korea was labeled as heretical by Protestant churches in South Korea, including Moon’s own Presbyterian Church. In the United States the church was rejected by ecumenical organizations as being non-Christian. The main objections were theological, especially because of the Unification Church’s addition of material to the Bible.
In the influential book The Kingdom of the Cults (first published in 1965), Walter Ralston Martin disagreed with the Divine Principle on the issues of the divinity of Christ, the virgin birth of Jesus, the Unification Church's belief that Jesus should have married, the necessity of the crucifixion of Jesus, and a literal resurrection of Jesus as well as a literal second coming of Jesus. Protestant Christian commentators have also criticized Unification Church teachings as contrary to the Protestant doctrine of salvation by faith alone.
U.S. Congressional investigation
In 1977 the Subcommittee on International Organizations of the Committee on International Relations, of the United States House of Representatives, found that the South Korean intelligence agency, the KCIA, had used the Unification Church to gain political influence within the United States and that some Unification Church members had worked as volunteers in Congressional offices. Together they founded the Korean Cultural Freedom Foundation, a nonprofit organization which acted as a propaganda campaign for the Republic of Korea. The committee also investigated possible KCIA influence on the Unification Church's campaign in support of Nixon.
United States v. Sun Myung Moon
In 1982, Moon was convicted in the United States of filing false federal income tax returns and conspiracy. His conviction was upheld on appeal in a split decision. Moon was given an 18-month sentence and a $15,000 fine. He served 13 months of the sentence at the Federal Correctional Institution, Danbury before being released on good behavior to a halfway house. The case was the center of national freedom of religion and free speech debates. Prof. Laurence H. Tribe of the Harvard University Law School argued that the trial by jury had "doomed (Moon) to conviction based on religious prejudice." The American Baptist Churches in the U.S.A, the National Council of Churches, the National Black Catholic Clergy Caucus, and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference filed briefs in support of Moon. Many notable clergy, including Jerry Falwell and Joseph Lowery, signed petitions protesting the government's case and spoke out in defense of Moon.
In 1974 Moon founded the Unification Theological Seminary, in Barrytown, New York, partly in order to improve relations of the Unification Church with other churches. Professors from other denominations, including a Methodist minister, a Presbyterian, and a Roman Catholic priest, as well as a rabbi, were hired to teach Unificationist students.
The relationship between the Unification Church and Islam has often been noted, both by scholars and the news media. The Divine Principle lists the “Islamic cultural sphere” as one of the world’s four major divisions (the others are the East Asian, the Hindu, and the Christian spheres). Unification Church support for Islamist anti-communists came to public attention in 1987 when church member Lee Shapiro was killed in Afghanistan during the Soviet war in Afghanistan while filming a documentary. In 1997, Louis Farrakhan, the leader of The Nation of Islam, an African American Islamic organization, served as a "co-officiator" at a blessing ceremony presided over by Moon and Han. In 2000 the Church and the Nation of Islam co-sponsored the Million Family March, a rally in Washington, D.C., to celebrate family unity and racial and religious harmony.
In the 1980s the Unification Church sent thousands of American ministers from other churches on trips to Japan and South Korea to inform them about Unification Church teachings.
In 2009 the Unification Church held an interfaith event in the Peruvian Congress. The President of the Congress of Peru Marcial Ayaipoma and other notable politicians are "Ambassadors for Peace" of the Unification Church.
In 2010, the church built a large interfaith temple in Seoul. Author Deepak Chopra was the keynote speaker at an interfaith event of the Unification Church co-hosted with the United Nations at the United Nations Headquarters.
In 2012, the Unification Church-affiliated Universal Peace Federation held an interfaith dialogue in Italy, which was cosponsored by United Nations. That year, Unification Church affiliated Universal Peace Federation held an interfaith program for representatives of 12 various religions and confessions in the United Nations General Assembly Hall. President of the United Nations General Assembly, Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations, Permanent Observer of the Holy See to the United Nations and other UN officials gave speeches there.
The church and its members own, operate and subsidize organizations and projects involved in political, cultural, commercial, media, educational and other activities. In South Korea, Unification Church manages some 4,600 hectares of land and more than 300 residential and commercial rental properties. Many of the companies and enterprises are profitable and help realize church doctrine. The Unification Church in 2001 persuaded the North Korean government to relax its restrictions and permit Pyeonghwa Motors, a South Korean automaker with ties to the Church, to assemble cars in the DPRK and advertise them to North Koreans. The Unification Church sought to promote private business enterprises that would shift the North Korean economy away from a planned economy to a market economy.
The church-owned conglomerate Tongil Group has four subsidiaries listed on the Korea Exchange. Unification Movement is the largest supplier of U.S. sushi restaurants, supplying most of the 9,000 units in the country. It is the second largest exporter of Korean goods. In some U.S. areas it is the largest employer. For a while the Unification Church was the largest foreign investor in China. It manages the top Asian ballet company, the largest Asian helicopter plant, as well as the only automobile-manufacturing plant in North Korea, Pyeonghwa Motors. Three of its NGOs, namely the Universal Peace Federation, the Women's Federation for World Peace, and Service for Peace, are in consultative status with the UN Economic and Social Council, and one of them (the Universal Peace Federation) co-sponsored a 2010 Africa Day event in New York City where the UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon delivered a speech. Unification Church-owned Yeongpyeong Resort, The Ocean Resort and Pineridge Resort hosted Expo 2012 in May 2012, and will sponsor the 2018 Winter Olympics and Formula One. It also owns the Peace Cup, whose president, Chung Hwan Kwak, is a long-time church member and he holds the positions of Asian Football Confederation Social Responsibility Committee Chairman, President of K-League, President of Korea Football Association, which is part of FIFA. Most notable Peace Cup football clubs are Aston Villa, Juventus, Lyon, Inter Milan, etc.
Economic interests of the Unification Movement include the petrochemical industry, construction of golf courses, non-ferrous metallurgy, automobile industry, avia carriers, yacht building, energy drinks, banking, Hollywood, etc. The church owns a 30-room mansion in Gloucester, Massachusetts that had previously been a retirement home owned by Roman Catholic religious order. The church ranks third in the tourism market in Korea. It provides tours to North Korea for separated families and built a golf course for tourists in Pyongyang. Japanese members of the Unification Church are the largest share of the air travel market in Korea. The movement owns hotels, an airport, and all the necessary tourism infrastructure units. The movement operates medical tourism; thus, CheongShim Hospital is the largest hospital in Korea in terms of internationalization level.
In 2011, the Unification Church's Universal Ballet spent about $10 million on a tour of dozens of countries. In 2013 the ballet will tour with Little Angels Children's Folk Ballet of Korea in the U.S., Canada, Japan, G-20 countries and major cities of Russia. The tour is partially funded by the South Korean government.
The church holds rehabilitation programs for North Korean refugees, holds Middle East peace initiatives aimed to reconcile Jews, Christians and Muslims and other peace initiatives. It supports the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. The movement holds events in the U.S., Korea, Guyana, Philippines, Thailand, India, Malaysia, Brazil, Georgia, Bangladesh and other countries at the governmental level. One of its youth affiliates, the Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles, is active in Cornell University. A UPenn graduate and a member of the Unification Church said his church "helped me achieve stellar academic results".
The Unification Church has been noted for its political activities, especially its support for United States president Richard Nixon during the Watergate scandal, its support for anti-communism during the Cold War, and its ownership of various news media outlets through News World Communications, an international news media conglomerate which publishes The Washington Times newspaper in Washington, D.C., and newspapers in South Korea, Japan, and South America, which tend to support conservatism.
In 2003, Korean Unification Church members started a political party in South Korea. It was named "The Party for God, Peace, Unification, and Home." In an inauguration declaration, the new party said it would focus on preparing for the reunification of the South and North Korea by educating the public about God and peace. A church official said that similar political parties would be started in Japan and the United States.
Moon was a member of the Honorary Committee of the Unification Ministry of the Republic of Korea. The church member Jae-jung Lee had been once a unification minister of the Republic of Korea. Another, Ek Nath Dhakal, is a member of the Nepalese Constituent Assembly, and a first Minister for Co-operatives and Poverty Alleviation Ministry of the Government of Nepal.
In 2013, Zimbabwean Prime Minister Morgan Tsvangirai stated: "I remain greatly inspired by people like Reverend Dr. Sun Myung Moon, whose work and life across continents continue to impact positively on the lives of millions of others in the world."
Observers of the Unification Church, as well as some church members, had speculated about the issue of Unification Church leadership after Moon's death. Among those sometimes mentioned were his wife Hak Ja Han, and their sons Hyun Jin Moon, Kook Jin Moon, and Hyung Jin Moon.
In 2005 Moon appointed Kook Jin Moon chairman of Tongil Group, which represents church-owned businesses in South Korea and other nations. In 2008 Moon appointed Hyung Jin Moon as the international president of the church. At the same time he appointed his daughter In Jin Moon as the president of the Unification Church of the United States. In 2010, Forbes reported that Moon and Han were living in South Korea while their children took more responsibility for the day-to-day leadership of the Unification Church and its affiliated organizations. After Moon's death on September 3, 2012, it was reported that Han, Hyung Jin, and Kook Jin Moon would take over the leadership of the church.
- List of Unification Church members
- Unification Church views on sexuality
- Unification Church of the United States
- Matczak, Sebastian (1982). Unificationism: A New Philosophy and Worldview. New York, NY: New York Learned Publications.
- "Unificationism". The Free Dictionary. Farlex, Inc. 2012.
- Email Us. "'Moonies' founder dies, aged 92 - The Irish Times - Mon, Sep 03, 2012". The Irish Times. Retrieved 2012-09-04.
- Miller, Timothy (1995). America's Alternative Religions. State University of New York Press. pp. 223, 414. ISBN 0-7914-2398-0.
- PacNews staff (February 17, 2006). "Church leaders unite against Moonies". PacNews (Pacific Island News Agency Service).
- Enroth, Ronald M. (2005). A Guide To New Religious Movements. InterVarsity Press. pp. 69, 72. ISBN 0-8308-2381-6.
- Shupe, Anson D.; Bronislaw Misztal (1998). Religion, Mobilization, and Social Action. Praeger. pp. 197, 213, 215. ISBN 978-0-275-95625-7.
- Ofcom (February 20, 2006). "Complaint by Mr Robin Marsh on behalf of The Family Federation for World Peace and Unification – UK (formerly known as the Unification Church)". Broadcast Bulletin (www.ofcom.org.uk) (54). Retrieved 2009-09-28.
- Gorenfeld, John (2008). Bad Moon Rising. PoliPointPress. p. 96. ISBN 0-9794822-3-2.
- Von Dehsen, Christian D. (1999). Philosophers and Religious Leaders. Greenwood. p. 136. ISBN 1-57356-152-5.
- Jenkins, Philip (2000). Mystics and Messiahs: Cults and New Religions in American History. Oxford University Press. pp. 28, 200. ISBN 0-19-512744-7.
- Siegal, Allan M.; William G. Connolly (2002). The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage. Three Rivers Press. p. 344. ISBN 978-0-8129-6389-2.
- excerpt The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Massimo Introvigne, 2000, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7
- Introvigne, 2000
- "Czechs, Now 'Naively' Seeking Direction, See Dangers in Cults", New York Times, February 14, 1996
- "Unification Church Gains Respect in Latin America", New York Times, November 24, 1996
- Lifestyle : Conversations with Members of Unification Church – "Quebedeaux, Richard" – Google Книги. Books.google.kg. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- Dunning, Jennifer (September 8, 1990). "Moon Church Founds Ballet School". The New York Times.
- The Moonies in Moscow: a second coming?, Green Left Weekly, May 28, 1997. "With the dismantling of the Soviet Union in 1991, Moon's anticommunism lost much of its camouflage value. There was, however, the compensating possibility of being able to expand his operations into Russia – both with the bible, and with business. One of Moon's schemes in Russia during the early 1990s was reportedly to rent Red Square for a mass wedding ceremony of the type practised by his sect in many cities around the world, in which scores and perhaps hundreds of couples – selected for one another by church leaders, and introduced only a few days previously --are married simultaneously. This plan came to nothing. The most that was achieved was that Moon's wife was allowed to broadcast from the stage of the Kremlin Palace of Congresses."
- A Less Secular Approach, The Saint Petersburg Times, June 7, 2002
- Schmemann, Serge (July 28, 1993). "Religion Returns to Russia, With a Vengeance". The New York Times.
- Kirk, Don (May 2, 1998). "Reverend Moon's Group Wants to Talk Investment : Seoul Nods At Church's Foray North". New York Times.
- April 15, 2005 (2005-04-15). "Time to Change the Channel? | Media Is A Plural". Roryoconnor.org. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- Dubai Tycoon Scouts Pyongyang Forbes, September 9, 2006
- Luft, Kerry (December 8, 1994). "Unification Church Invests Heavily In Uruguay". Chicago Tribune.
- Sims, Calvin (August 11, 1997). "A Newspaper for Half a Hemisphere?". The New York Times.
- "METRO NEWS BRIEFS: CONNECTICUT; U. of Bridgeport Gets Its Largest Gift". The New York Times. September 29, 1998.
- Kirk, Don (February 16, 2000). "Church Reaches Across Border in Korea Car Venture : Moon's Northward Push". The New York Times.
- Kirk, Don (May 25, 2000). "Chorus Diplomacy Sets Stage for Korean Summit". The New York Times.
- Marquis, Christopher (May 16, 2000). "The Unification Church's News Affiliate Buys U.P.I.". The New York Times.
- "На основе Документов Google". Docs.google.com. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "На основе Документов Google". Docs.google.com. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Rev. Sun Myung Moon Continues to Build Pacific Links". Rickross.com. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "sun+myung+moon"&source=bl&ots=YcK3k_dvmn&sig=3wxbkmJyr1kUNJL2cA6_7Kb-PdA&hl=ru&sa=X&ei=kOJfT9yKLoTwsga5mIW8CQ&ved=0CCEQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Lech Walesa "sun myung moon"&f=false
- "Items-in-KAA: Religious Organizations – general – 2003 -July – sept". Webcache.googleusercontent.com. 2003-10-07. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- Bell, Jack (July 14, 2003). "MetroStars Midfielder Knows About Comebacks". The New York Times.
- "flagship event". .unesco.org. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Korean football fuels dreams of Iraqi refugees". Reuters. July 17, 2007.
- "Feature". Dailynews.lk. 2005-12-25. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "The Island News". Island.lk. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "동아일보 매거진::신동아". Shindonga.donga.com. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "‘신동아’ 통일교 관련보도 불만, 신도들 본사서 폭력시위 : 문화 : 뉴스 : 동아닷컴". News.donga.com. 2006-08-23. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Moonies" stage festival in Mongolia Mongolia Web August 23, 2008
- Kenya asked to back world peace forum Daily Nation, August 31, 2008
- Moonie peace group to hold biggest UK event The Guardian November 21, 2008
- Global Peace Festival This Saturday Solomon Times, November 25, 2008
- "SPEECH BY HIS EXCELLENCY HON. MWAI KIBAKI, C.G.H., M.P., PRESIDENT AND COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF THE DEFENCE FORCES OF THE REPUBLIC OF KENYA DURING THE OFFICIAL OPENING OF THE GLOBAL PEACE CONVENTION, KENYATTA INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE CENTRE, NAIROBI, 18TH NOVEMBER, 2010". Statehousekenya.go.ke. 2010-11-18. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Remise de décorations par Frédéric Mitterrand à Hilton McConnico, Dr Moosa Bin Jaafar Bin Hassan, Olivier Roellinger, et Keisuke Matsushima / Discours 2009–2012 / Frédéric Mitterrand 2009–2012 / Archives / L'histoire du ministère / Ministère / Accueil / www.culturecommunication.gouv.fr / Ministère – Ministère de la culture" (in (French)). Culturecommunication.gouv.fr. 2011-03-16. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "На основе Документов Google". Docs.google.com. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- Demick, Barbara (2008-09-27). "Korean Power Tools: Who gave N. Korea those power tools?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "На основе Документов Google". Docs.google.com. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- Ramon Jordan (2008-10-14). "USNA News and Notes Winter 2008". Usna.usda.gov. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "DC.Gov Citywide Calendar: Clean-Up with Anacostia Watershed Society". App.calendar.rrc.dc.gov. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- ". Youth | News | International Youth Day". Un-Habitat. 2008-08-12. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- ". Feature Stories | News | UN-HABITAT hosts youth meeting". Un-Habitat. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "На основе Документов Google". Docs.google.com. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- Son of Moonies founder takes over as church leader The Guardian, 2008-04-28
- Hyung Jin Moon: Meet the new Moonie messiah The Independent
- by jalagno. "All posts tagged 'international day of families'". Unic.un.org. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Sikhs celebrate Vaisakhi in style". The-star.co.ke. 2012-04-16. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "문선명 총재 막내아들 통일교 회장 취임 : 문화 : 뉴스 : 동아닷컴". News.donga.com. 2008-04-18. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "[주간조선] 통일교의 젊은 회장, 문선명 7남 문형진 – 1등 인터넷뉴스 조선닷컴". News.chosun.com. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "문선명 자서전, 전국 목회자에 발송 :한국 교회의 나침반 뉴스파워". newspower.co.kr. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "mk ´ş˝ş [šŽČźŇ˝Ä] šŽźą¸í ĂŃŔç ŔÚźŔü 100¸¸şÎ ľšĆÄ". News.mk.co.kr. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "mk ´ş˝ş [şŁ˝şĆŽźżˇŻ] ˝Ĺ°ćź÷ źŇźł 3Ŕ§ˇÎ ťó˝Â". News.mk.co.kr. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "▒▒▒ 사천신문 ▒▒▒". 4000news.com. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon's Statements". Un.org. 2011-11-30. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "This Day’s For Africa! | The Official Blog of the UNA-GB". Unagb.wordpress.com. 2011-05-26. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Alliance to Impact the Future | Administration for Children and Families". Transition.acf.hhs.gov. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Ex presidentes de poderes llaman al saneamiento moral del país". Lanacion.com.py. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Martin Luther King, Jr. Day of Service | Administration for Children and Families". Transition.acf.hhs.gov. 2012-01-16. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "mk ´ş˝ş ĹëŔĎął, ´ë¸¸ ÇŕÁ¤żř ĆŻş°°řˇÎťó źöťó". News.mk.co.kr. 2011-10-18. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "::: 뉴스천지 :::". Newscj.com. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- 한겨레 수행·치유 전문 웹진 — 휴심정 — 문선명은 김정일 사망 알았나
- Associated Press Son of Unification Church founder meets with senior North Korean official in Pyongyang, The Washington Post, 15 December 2011 (копия)
- S. Korea says food aid reached intended beneficiaries in N. Korea | YONHAP NEWS
- "Kbs News". Sports.kbs.co.kr. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "はてなブックマーク – たびのわ »UCニュース»日本赤十字社に文総裁からの寄付金を渡された文亨進世界会長". B.hatena.ne.jp. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Family Federation for World Peace and Unification". 22.214.171.124. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "City Council To Celebrate Black History Month (Official City of Las Vegas Web Site)". Lasvegasnevada.gov. 2012-01-31. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "1차전 끝낸 통일교 兄弟의 亂". Monthly.chosun.com. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "인터컨티넨탈, 여의도 ‘파크원’ 호텔 운영 : 경제 : 뉴스 : 동아닷컴". News.donga.com. 2006-01-12. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Interfax-Religion". Interfax-Religion. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Women are natural NGO leaders, says DPM's wife". News.asiaone.com. 2012-04-20. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Remarks by Achim Steiner to the Global Peace Initiative of Women Conference". UNEP. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xz1Y9JN8mqM&feature=share Youtube, Opening of Yeosu [[Expo 2012]]]
- 李대통령, 여수엑스포 개막 선언.."성공 기원"
- IIPT and UNWTO to partner in peace through tourism
- "Foot Washing Ceremony Marks District Pastor Ordination At East Garden"
- Korean Moon: Waxing of Waning?, Leo Sandon Jr., Theology Today, Vol 35, No 2, July 1978, "The movement's official doctrinal statement, and a part of the revelation, is the Divine Principle. Both an oral tradition and a written one and published in several versions, Divine Principle is the Completed Testament. The Rev. Moon claims to have come not to destroy or abrogate the Old and New Testaments, but to fulfill them-to "complete" them. To his Moonist followers, the Rev. Moon is primarily "true father," probably the Messiah, and only secondarily a theologian. In an effort to systematize Moon's teachings, several members of the Unification Church in Korea have put together a developing theological system in Divine Principle which is impressive in its imaginative nature, coherence, and consistency, if not in its Christian orthodoxy. As the most complete expression of Moonist teachings to date, Divine Principle is the basic text of the Unification Church.4 The two major divisions of the system are the doctrines of Creation and Restoration. There are many subsets to these major divisions, but Creation and Restoration are the foci for the Moonist theological system."
- Sontag, Fredrick (1977). Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church. Abingdon. p. 102. ISBN 0-687-40622-6.
- Sontag, Fredrick (1977). Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church. Abingdon. p. 107. ISBN 0-687-40622-6.
- Sontag, Fredrick (1977). Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church. Abingdon. p. 108. ISBN 0-687-40622-6.
- Eugene V. Gallagher, 2004, The New Religious Movement Experience in America, Greenwood Press, ISBN 0313328072, page 23.
- The Moonie Family, Leo Sandon Jr., 1978, Worldview Magazine, published by the Carnegie Council
- Unification Church of America History by Lloyd Pumphrey
- Introduction Exposition of the Divine Principle, 1996 Translation
- "The Providence of Resurrection for Spirits", Chapter 5: Resurrection, Exposition of the Divine Principle, HSA-UWC, 1996 (ISBN 0-910621-80-2).
- Divine Principle analyzes as follows: "All these [saints of the Old Testament Age], though well attested by their faith, did not receive what was promised [permission to enter the Kingdom of Heaven], since God had foreseen something better [the Kingdom of Heaven] for us [earthly people], that apart from us they [spirits] should not be made perfect [citizens of the Kingdom of Heaven]. (Hebrews 11:39-40)" "The Returning Resurrection of the Spirits of Israelites and Christians", Chapter 5: Resurrection, Exposition of the Divine Principle, HSA-UWC, 1996 (ISBN 0-910621-80-2).
- Young Oon Kim, Divine Principle and its application, 1980, The Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity
- Daske, D. and Ashcraft, W. 2005, New Religious Movements, New York: New York University Press, ISBN 0-8147-0702-5 "To restart the process toward perfection, God has sent messiahs to earth who could restore the true state of humanity's relationship with God. Before that can happen, however, humans must perform good deeds that cancel the bad effects of sin. Unificationists call this "indemnity". Showing love and devotion to one's fellow humans, especially within families, helps pay this indemnity." p142
- Yamamoto, J. 1995, Unification Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Press, ISBN 0-310-70381-6 "The doctrine of indemnity. Indemnity is that which people do to restore themselves to God's kingdom. Young Oon Kim describes it this way: 'We atone for our sins through specific acts of penance.' Kwang-Yol Yoo, a Unification teacher, even goes so far as to say that by following the Divine Principle, 'man's perfection must be accomplished by his own effort without God's help.' God does most of the work, but people must still do their part in order to achieve God's plan of salvation: 'Five percent is only to say that man's responsibility is extremely small compared to God's.' "p35 "The doctrine of indemnity is not biblical. 'In simple language.' states Ruth Tucker, 'indemnity is salvation by works.' Bob Larson makes a distinction between Moon's doctrine and biblical theology, saying, 'Moon's doctrine of sinless perfection by "indemnity [forgiveness of sin by works on Moon's behalf], which can apply even to deceased ancestors, is a denial of the salvation by grace offering through Jesus Christ.' 'Farewell,' said John Calvin. 'to the dream of those who think up a righteousness flowing together out of faith and works.'" p40
- THE POWER OF THE PRINCIPLE: WHENCE IT CAME; WHERE IT WENT Richard Quebedeaux, "Rev. Moon calls such a mode of living, such a lifestyle, "restoration through indemnity." With indemnity viewed as a persistent pattern of behavior, not as a mere doctrine to be affirmed or a rational list of rules, God's ideal for human relationships is "restored" through restitution. Restitution-in the sense of a "natural law"-assuages resentment, because it is the means by which the powerful and enfranchised give the people who feel downtrodden and powerless what they believe is rightly theirs. Indemnity means that 'I'm here for you.'"
- Exposition of the Divine Principle 1996 Translation
- Exposition of the Divine Principle
- Daske and Ashcraft
- Tingle, D. and Fordyce, R. 1979, The Phases and Faces of the Moon: A Critical Examination of the Unification Church and Its Principles, Hicksville, New York: Exposition Press p53-55
- Helm, S. Divine Principle and the Second Advent Christian Century May 11, 1977 "Thus, while the two world wars may appear from a human point of view to have been evil, from the point of view of God's plan for restoration they were good and necessary. The defeat of the "satanic side" in each case cleared the path for a more nearly complete foundation for the Kingdom of God. These two cataclysmic conflagrations of our century, which broke the back of the liberal Protestant faith in progress, do not appear to trouble the adherents of Divine Principle, by and large members of a generation conveniently undistressed by stark memories of those 'triumphs" for the heavenly side. This sanguine schematization of the Holocaust has not, understandably, reassured Jewish critics of the movement. There remains, of course, one final conflict, the resolution of which will provide the worldwide unity upon which the last four-position foundation can be perfected. This is the struggle between "Abeltype" democracy and "Cain-type" communism. Divine Principle is indecisive at this point. It may not be necessary for democracy to destroy communism (the sole bearer, in its view, of a "materialistic" philosophy) by force. It may be accomplished in a battle of ideology. The Unification Church seeks to forge the necessary ideology while at the same time supporting a militarily supreme West, just in case. This final conflict is imminent, for the Lord of the Second Advent has appeared in Sun Myung Moon, and the atheistic communist system is the "Antichrist" of the final days."
- Do As I Preach, and Not As I Do, TIME, Asian Edition, September 28, 1998, Vol. 152, NO. 12.
- "1,000 Cheer Rev. Moon in Oakland: Unification Church leader at end of national crusade," by Peter Fimrite, San Francisco Chronicle, Wednesday, September 20, 1995.
- Moon At Twilight: Amid scandal, the Unification Church has a strange new mission, Peter Maass New Yorker Magazine, September 14, 1998. "Moon sees the essence of his own mission as completing the one given to Jesus - establishing a 'true family' untouched by Satan while teaching all people to lead a God-centered life under his spiritual leadership."
- Unifying or Dividing? Sun Myung Moon and the Origins of the Unification Church, by George D. Chryssides, University of Wolverhampton, U.K. A paper presented at the CESNUR 2003 Conference, Vilnius, Lithuania.
- "Sharpton in Ceremonies Of Unification Church," by David Firestone, The New York Times, Friday, September 12, 1997.
- "Messiah" by John Dart, Los Angeles Times, Jan 29, 1976; B1.
- "Stymied in U.S., Moon's Church Sounds a Retreat" by Marc Fisher and Jeff Leen, Washington Post, Monday, November 24, 1997; Page A01.
- "Church's Pistol Firm Exploits a Niche" by John Mintz, Washington Post, Wednesday, March 10, 1999; Page A1. "Justin Moon and his siblings are revered by church members as the Messiah's 'True Children'."
- "Moon stresses importance of family," by Tom Heinen, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, April 5, 2001.
- "REVEREND RULES: A Moonstruck Heaven Taps Favorite Son," by Peggy Fletcher Stack, The Salt Lake Tribune, July 12, 2002; page A1.
- "The Unification Church founded by Rev. Sun Myung Moon," Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance.
- "The Reason The Messiah Is Necessary", by Sun Myung Moon, in Blessing and Ideal Family, (2000), Family Federation for World Peace and Unification ISBN 0-910621-67-5
- "The Messiah: His Advent and the Purpose of His Second Coming," Exposition of the Divine Principle (1996), Family Federation for World Peace and Unification.
- Duddy, Neil Interview: Dr. Mose Durst
- "NEW YORK DAY BY DAY; Wedding Day for 4,000". The New York Times. July 1, 1982.
- Marriage by the numbers; Moon presides as 6,500 couples wed in S. Korea Peter Maass Washington Post October 31, 1988
- Bak Byeong Ryong Unification Church believers around the world three manyeossang joint wedding, MBCNews, 25 August 1992
- "'D' Is For Danger – And For Writer Don Delillo". Chicago Tribune. May 22, 1992.
- http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2280013/Mass-wedding-South-Korea-Astonishing-3-500-couples-200-countries-tie-knot.html. Retrieved 19 February 2013. Missing or empty
- Rosenthal, Elisabeth (2000-09-12). "Group Founded by Sun Myung Moon Preaches Sexual Abstinence in China". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-02-22.
- Southeast Missourian Glenallen resident returns from Thailand after helping victims of human trafficking
- Mo. woman helps victims of human trafficking
- Gruzen, Tara (February 13, 1996). "College Group Preaches A Lesson On Pure Love At Anti-porn Protest". Chicago Tribune.
- Family Pledge Is the Bone Thought of the Unification Church - Rev. Sun Myung Moon - July, 2002
- Significance of the Family Pledge - public speech by Rev. Moon - June 13, 2007
- Tongilgyo.org,  (Unificationism, Symbol)
- Evangelical-Unification Dialogue (Conference series - Unification Theological Seminary ; no. 3) Richard Quebedeaux, Rodney Sawatsky, Paragon House, 1979, ISBN-10: 093289402X, pages 77-99.
- Frederick Sontag,1977, Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church, Abingdon Press, ISBN-10: 0687406226, page 185.
- Irving Louis Horowitz, 1978, Science, Sin, and Scholarship: The Politics of Reverend Moon and the Unification Church, MIT Press, ISBN 0262081008, page 114
- Tingle, D. and Fordyce, R. 1979, The Phases and Faces of the Moon: A Critical Examination of the Unification Church and Its Principles, Hicksville, New York: Exposition Press ISBN 0682492647, p20-21
- George D. Chryssides, "Unificationism: A study in religious syncretism", Chapter 14 in Religion: empirical studies, Editor: Steven Sutcliffe, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2004, ISBN 0-7546-4158-9, ISBN 978-0-7546-4158-2, page 232.
- Lester R. Kurtz, 2007, Gods in the Global Village: The World's Religions in Sociological Perspective, Pine Forge Press, ISBN 1412927153 page 227
- Barker, Eileen (1986). "Religious Movements: Cult and Anti-Cult Since Jonestown". Annual Review of Sociology 12: 329–346. doi:10.1146/annurev.so.12.080186.001553.
- Eileen Barker. Did the Moonies really brainwash millions? Time to dispel a myth. // The Guardian, 4 September 2012
- "Obituary: Sun Myung Moon". BBC News. 2 September 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
- APA Brief in the Molko Case, from CESNUR website, [APA later withdrew the organization from the brief], 1987
[t]he hypotheses ... were little more than uninformed speculation, based on skewed data and that [t]he coercive persuasion theory ... is not a meaningful scientific concept.
- Anthony, D. and Robbins, T. (1992), Law, social science and the “brainwashing” exception to the first amendment. Behav. Sci. Law, 10: 5–29.
- Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor.International Religious Freedom Report 2010 Report.November 17, 2010
- California Court Backs Moonies. // Template:Нп3, 7 October 1977. — P.9
- Sun Myung Moon Is Criticized by Religious Leaders; Jewish Patrons Enraged, David F. White, New York Times, December 29, 1976
- Anti-cult movements in cross-cultural perspective, Anson D. Shupe, David G. Bromley, 1994, p42; Feher, Shoshanah. Passing over Easter: constructing the boundaries of Messianic Judaism, Rowman Altamira, 1998, p. 36.
- Guidelines for Members of The Unification Church in Relations with the Jewish People, Peter Ross and Andrew Wilson, March 15, 1989.
- "Religion: Sun Myung Moon's Goodwill Blitz". Time. April 22, 1985.
- "Unification Church seen as persecuted", The Milwaukee Sentinel, September 15, 1984, page 4
- Universal peace federation, Middle east peace initiative
- Andrea Noble, The Gazette, Bowie resident pushes for peace, Gazette.net, Jan. 8, 2009
- Walter Ralston Martin, Ravi K. Zacharias, The Kingdom of the Cults, Bethany House, 2003, ISBN 0764228218 pages 368-370
- Daske, D. and Ashcraft, W. 2005, New Religious Movements, New York: New York University Press, ISBN 0-8147-0702-5 p142
- Yamamoto, J. 1995, Unification Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Press, ISBN 0-310-70381-6 p40
- Spiritual warfare: the politics of the Christian right, Sara Diamond, 1989, Pluto Press, Page 58
- Ex-aide of Moon Faces Citation for Contempt, Associated Press, Eugene Register-Guard, August 5, 1977
- Moon's Japanese Profits Bolster Efforts in U.S., Washington Post, 16 September 2008.
- "Clerics Urge Pardon For Rev. Moon". Chicago Tribune. 21 August 1985.
- "THE CITY; Arguments Heard In Moon's Appeal". The New York Times. 24 March 1983.
- Raspberry, William, "Did Unpopular Moonie Get a Fair Trial?", Washington Post, 19 April 1984
- "The Unification Church Aims a Major Public Relations Effort at Christian Leaders", Christianity Today, 19 April 1985.
- Moon's financial rise and fall, Harvard Crimson, 11 October 1984.
- Korean Moon: Waxing or Waning Leo Sandon Jr. Theology Today, July 1978, "The Unification Church purchased the estate and now administers a growing seminary where approximately 110 Moonies engage in a two-year curriculum which includes biblical studies, church history, philosophy, theology, religious education, and which leads to a Master of Religious Education degree."
- Dialogue with the Moonies Rodney Sawatsky, Theology Today, April 1978. "Only a minority of their teachers are Unification devotees; a Jew teaches Old Testament, a Christian instructs in church history and a Presbyterian lectures in theology, and so on. Typical sectarian fears of the outsider are not found among Moonies; truth is one or at least must become one, and understanding can be delivered even by the uninitiated."
- Where have all the Moonies gone? K. Gordon Neufeld, First Things, March 2008, "While I was studying theology, church history, and the Bible—taught by an eclectic faculty that included a rabbi, a Jesuit priest, and a Methodist minister—most of my young coreligionists were standing on street corners in San Francisco, Boston, and Miami urging strangers to attend a vaguely described dinner."
- Helm, S. Divine Principle and the Second Advent Christian Century May 11, 1977 "In fact Moon’s adherents differ from previous fringe groups in their quite early and expensive pursuit of respectability, as evidenced by the scientific conventions they have sponsored in England and the U.S. and the seminary they have established in Barrytown, New York, whose faculty is composed not of their own group members but rather of respected Christian scholars."
- Exposition of the Divine Principle 1996 Translation Chapter 3 Eschatology and Human History, accessed September 3, 2010
- Afghanistan: eight years of Soviet occupation, United States Department of State, March 1988, The campaign to target foreign journalists had more tragic results. Two American filmmakers, Lee Shapiro and Jim Lindelof, were apparently killed by a regime attack while traveling with the mujahidin. In 1986, Lindelof had been named paramedic of the year for his efforts training Afghan medical workers. In response to protests, Kabul stated it could not "guarantee the security of foreign subjects" who enter illegally, whose presence it views as "evidence" of "external interference."
- 2 Americans killed in ambush, Pacific Stars and Stripes, October 29, 1987
- From the Unification Church to the Unification Movement, 1994–1999: Five Years of Dramatic Changes Massimo Introvigne, Center for Studies on New Religions "The ceremony in Washington, D.C., included six "co-officiators" from other faiths, including controversial minister Louis Farrakhan from the Nation of Islam. The Blessing ceremony in Seoul on February 7, 1999 also featured seven co-officiators including Orthodox Rabbi Virgil Kranz (Chairman of the American Jewish Assembly), controversial Catholic Archbishop Emmanuel Milingo and the General Superintendent of the Church of God in Christ (a large African American Pentecostal denomination), Rev. T.L. Barrett."
- Million Family March reaches out to all
- Families Arrive in Washington For March Called by Farrakhan, New York Times, October 16, 2000
- Ghouse, Mike (February 21, 2012). "Commitment to Israel-Palestine, Part 2". Huffington Post.
- "Fuero Militar Policial". Fmp.gob.pe. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- Escrito por Imagen Institucional. "David Yamashiro Es Nombrado Embajador Para La Paz". Municportillo.gob.pe. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- ": Espacio de Concertación – Dirección General de Desplazados y Cultura de Paz :". Mimdes.gob.pe. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "mk ´ş˝ş ĹëŔĎął źź°čşťşÎąłČ¸ ťő źşŔü, żëťężĄ żĎ°ř". News.mk.co.kr. 2010-02-18. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "International Day Of Peace 2009 Timeline". Dipity.com. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Incontro per la settimana mondiale per l'armonia interreligiosa a Torino il 4 febbraio". Torinotoday.it. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "United Nations Webcast – "Common ground for the common good" on the occasion of the World Interfaith Harmony Week". Unmultimedia.org. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Deputy Secretary-General, at Interfaith Harmony Week Event, Says Common Cause in Mutual Respect for Shared Values Is Only Way to Unite Nations, Peoples". Un.org. 2012-02-07. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "UN officials underline religions’ role in promoting global harmony". Un.org. 2012-02-07. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "На основе Документов Google". Docs.google.com. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "На основе Документов Google". Docs.google.com. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "The Universal Peace Federation | Asia-Pacific Business and Technology Report". Biztechreport.com. 2012-04-19. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "평창 유치 최대 수혜자는 ‘통일교’? : Save Internet 뉴데일리". Newdaily.co.kr. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "< 코스피.코스닥 > 평창 테마주 하락세 | 연합뉴스" (in (Korean)). Yonhapnews.co.kr. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- The Washington Post http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A6493-2003Sep13?language=printer
|url=missing title (help).
- INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS – INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS – Key Moon Unit Goes Into Default – NYTimes.com
- Monica Eng, Delroy Alexander and David Jackson Sushi and Rev. Moon: How Americans' growing appetite for sushi is helping to support his controversial church, Chicago Tribune, 11 April 2006
- Tooth and Claw | CAA
- "Panda Motor Gets Cash". Chicago Tribune. December 3, 1989.
- Robertson, Allen (July 29, 2001). "DANCE; A Small Place Reaches for Ballet's Big Time". The New York Times.
- "G뉴스플러스 :: 김지사 "아시아 최대 항공단지, 경기도에 우뚝서길"". Gnews.gg.go.kr. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- Donald Kirk No, Not Yet.Palaver in Pyongyang doesn’t signal a northern manufacturing itch from Korea’s conglomerates. Forbes, 29 October 2007
- Barbara Demick Who gave N. Korea those power tools?, Los Angeles Times 27 September 2008.
- Africa Day 2010
- "::: 뉴스천지 :::". Newscj.com. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "D데이, 증시는 이미 '평창'이 대세 :: 파이낸스투데이". Fntoday.co.kr. 2009-01-14. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Cupress.com". Cupress.com. 2008-05-27. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- [dead link]
- "소방방재청 모바일 홈페이지". M.nema.go.kr. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "United Nations Sport for Development and Peace – Biography". Un.org. 2011-10-21. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "▒▒ 현대오일뱅크 K리그 2012 – 열정 놀이터 352 ▒▒". Kleague.com. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- ":::: Korea Football Association ::::". Kfa.or.kr. 2011-01-14. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- A 'Champions League' Lippi Guangzhou reach the quarter-finals in Asia
- [dead link]
- "Перечень предприятий". Bd-stanki.ru. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "통신 뉴스". Webcache.googleusercontent.com. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "사천시사 – 사천시사 – 연혁". Sisa.sacheon.go.kr. 2010-04-15. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- SUB1. "요 약 문". Webcache.googleusercontent.com. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Korea Owns 455 Civil Aircraft". Koreatimes.co.kr. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "JetPhotos.Net » Members » Member Photo Stats". 126.96.36.199. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "농업뉴스". Ares.wando.go.kr. 2011-07-08. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- The Search Engine that Does at InfoWeb.net
- Ottawa Citizen – Google News Archive Search
- "여행신문-Korea's No.1 Travel Trade Newspaper". Traveltimes.co.kr. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "북한선교 네트워크 구성된다:한국 교회의 나침반 뉴스파워". newspower.co.kr. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "‘평양서 골프관광’ 이르면 6월부터 : 국방·북한 : 정치 : 뉴스 : 한겨레". Hani.co.kr. 2008-03-13. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "NO.1 경제포털 :: 매일경제". Vip.mk.co.kr. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "‘인바운드 항공기’ 운항 활성화 물꼬텄다 :: 충청투데이 ::". Cctoday.co.kr. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "[의료관광]개원가 활발...종합병원은 주춤 ::: 건강을 위한 정직한 지식 – 코메디닷컴 :::". Kormedi.com. 2009-06-23. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "mk 뉴스 유니버설발레단, 해외 40여개 도시 순회공연". News.mk.co.kr. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "연합뉴스 : 바른언론 빠른뉴스" (in (Korean)). Yonhapnews.co.kr. 2010-02-17. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- Widea.com.br (2012-01-17). "Reverendo Moon ainda sonha fincar os pés em MS | Cidades". Correio do Estado. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Unification Church will hold seminars, not build boats near airport". Las Vegas Sun. March 8, 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- [dead link]
- "Philippine Information Agency | The development communication arm of the Philippine government". PIA. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Government Information Agency | Guyana". GINA. 2008-09-21. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "The Royal Institute – Thailand". Royin.go.th. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Discurso do(a) Deputado(a) PASTOR MANOEL FERREIRA, PTB-RJ em 01/12/2008 às 15:48". Camara.gov.br. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "UNO Tbilisi celebrates the International Day of Families". Unic.un.org. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- by jalagno. "Dhaka". Unic.un.org. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Ambassador Hamid Al Bayati". Un.int. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Latest news". Unic.un.org. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "На основе Документов Google". Docs.google.com. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Bilirakis Blog". Bilirakis.house.gov. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Cornell CARP". Rso.cornell.edu. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Cornell CARP". Rso.cornell.edu. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Positive experiences with the Unification Church". The Daily Pennsylvanian. Thedp.com. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- FAREZZA HANUM RASHID (2012-05-05). "Get on the ball, stay off the streets – Central – New Straits Times". Nst.com.my. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Kbs News". News.kbs.co.kr. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- 30 April 2012 (2012-04-30). "Liberia: YBB Observes Global Youth Action Day". allAfrica.com. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- 22 January 2013. N. Korea grants rare citizenship to American. AFP
- Introvigne, Massimo, 2000, The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7, excerpt page 16
- SFgate.com, San Francisco Chronicle September 3, 1983
- How to Read the Reagan Administration: The Miskito Case
- Washington 2002: The Other Paper
- Bardach, Ann Louise; David Wallis (2004). Moonstruck: The Rev. and His Newspaper. Nation Books. pp. 137–139, 150. ISBN 1-56025-581-1.
- Washington Times Moves to Reinvent Itself, Alex S. Jones, New York Times, January 27, 1992.
- New business models for news are not that new, Nikki Usher, Knight Digital Media Center, 2008-12-17, "And the Washington Times' conservative stance pursues its agenda from the Rev. Sun Myung Moon's Unification Church."
- 'Moonies' launch political party in S Korea,The Independent (South Africa), March 10, 2003
- "자유게시판". Unikorea.go.kr. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "mk ´ş˝ş ĹëŔĎąłŔ°˝ÉŔÇŔ§ °łĂÖ..łťłâ ĹëŔĎąłŔ° šćÇâ źłÁ¤". News.mk.co.kr. 2006-12-28. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- Nepalese Constituent Assembly
- "News in Nepal: Fast, Full & Factual". Myrepublica.Com. 2012-05-19. Retrieved 2012-09-04.
- 박근혜! 이제 과거를 말합시다!> 제3편: 이제 정치권은 통일교와의 커넥션을 말하라 / <Park Geun-hye! Let's talk about the past!> PART 3: Now the political groups of ROK should talk about the connection with the Unification Church
- FULL TEXT: Tsvangirai Speech In South Korea. By Staff Reporter. Published: February 25, 2013
- "The mantle is passing to Hyun Jin Nim."
- Unification Church pres sees smaller mass weddings, Daily Monitor, 2008-12-30
- Massimo Introvigne, From the Unification Church to the Unification Movement, 1994–1999: Five Years of Dramatic Changes, 1999, Center for Studies on New Religions, "The issue of succession is now of fundamental importance. The Reverend Moon will be eighty years old (by Korean age calculations, he turned eighty in 1999) in 2000. Mrs. Moon is fifty-seven years old. Since 1992 she has taken a more visible role, particularly in three world speaking tours in 1992, 1993, and 1999. Mrs. Moon has also spoken on Capitol Hill, at the United Nations, and in other parliaments around the world. Her relative youth and the respect with which she is held by the membership may be a point of stability for the Unification movement. The ceremony to inaugurate the Reverend and Mrs. Moon's third son, Hyun Jin Moon, as vice president of the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification International (FFWPUI) on July 19, 1998, as well as his responsibility to educate the "second generation," denotes him as the successor. Hyun Jin Moon had represented the Republic of Korea in the Olympic equestrian event in 1988 and 1992. He graduated from the Harvard Business School with an M.B.A. in 1998. The Reverend Moon joked during his address that he is criticized for having "failed in business ventures, but now I have a son with an M.B.A. who will be successful in business." Hyun Jin Moon's blessing to Rev. Chung Hwan Kwak's (the Reverend Moon's assistant and former president of the FFWPUI) daughter, Jun Sook Kwak, is also a significant point of continuity"
- Kim, Hyung-eun (April 12, 2010). "Business engine of a global faith". Joong Ang Daily.
- Kirk, Donald (May 2, 2010). "Sons rise in a Moon’s shadow". Forbes.
- Latest News Pictures Reuters.com
- Sons Rise in a Moon Shadow, Forbes, April 12, 2010
- Unification Church Woos A Second Generation, National Public Radio, June 23, 2010
- Unification Church founder dies, Korea Herald, 2012-9-3
- Sontag, Frederick. 1977. Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church, Abingdon Press. ISBN 0-687-40622-6
- Bryant, M. Darrol, and Herbert Warren Richardson. 1978. A Time for consideration: a scholarly appraisal of the Unification Church. New York: E. Mellen Press. ISBN 978-0-88946-954-9
- Tingle, D. and Fordyce, R. 1979, Phases and Faces of the Moon: A Critical Examination of the Unification Church and its Principles, Hicksville, NY: Exposition Press ISBN 0-682-49264-7
- Kim, Young Oon, 1980, Unification Theology, Barrytown, NY: Unification Theological Seminary, Library of Congress Cataloging number 80-52872
- Matczak, Sebastian, Unificationism: A New Philosophy and World View (Philosophical Questions Series, No 11) (1982) New York: Louvain. The author is a professor of philosophy and a Catholic priest. He taught at the Unification Theological Seminary.
- Barker, Eileen, The Making of a Moonie: Choice or Brainwashing? (1984) Blackwell's, Oxford, UK ISBN 0-631-13246-5.
- Bjornstad, James. 1984. Sun Myung & the Unification Church. Rev. ed. Minneapolis, Minn.: Bethany House Publishers. 57 p. N.B.: Rev. ed. of The Moon Is Not the Sun, which had been published in 1976. ISBN 0-87123-301-0
- Durst, Mose. 1984. To bigotry, no sanction: Reverend Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church. Chicago: Regnery Gateway. ISBN 978-0-89526-609-5
- Bromley, David G. (September 1985). "Financing the Millennium: The Economic Structure of the Unificationist Movement". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 24, No. 3 (Sep., 1985), pp. (Blackwell Publishing on behalf of Society for the Scientific Study of Religion) 24 (3): 253–274. JSTOR 1385816.
- Fichter, Joseph Henry. 1985. The holy family of father Moon. Kansas City, Mo: Leaven Press. ISBN 978-0-934134-13-2
- Gullery, Jonathan. 1986. The Path of a pioneer: the early days of Reverend Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church. New York: HSA Publications. ISBN 978-0-910621-50-2
- Biermans, J. 1986, The Odyssey of New Religious Movements, Persecution, Struggle, Legitimation: A Case Study of the Unification Church Lewiston, New York and Queenston, Ontario: The Edwin Melton Press ISBN 0-88946-710-2
- Sherwood, Carlton. 1991. Inquisition: The Persecution and Prosecution of the Reverend Sun Myung Moon. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Gateway. ISBN 978-0-89526-532-6
- Chryssides, George D., The Advent of Sun Myung Moon: The Origins, Beliefs and Practices of the Unification Church (1991) London, Macmillan Professional and Academic Ltd. The author is professor of religious studies at the University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom.
- Yamamoto, J. Isamu, 1995, Unification Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan ISBN 0-310-70381-6
- Hong, Nansook, In the Shadow of the Moons: My Life in the Reverend Sun Myung Moon's Family. Little Brown & Company; ISBN 0-316-34816-3; (August 1998).
- Introvigne, M., 2000, The Unification Church, Signature Books, ISBN 1-56085-145-7
- Ward, Thomas J. 2006, March to Moscow: the role of the Reverend Sun Myung Moon in the collapse of communism. St. Paul, Minn: Paragon House. ISBN 978-1-885118-16-5
- Hickey, Patrick 2009, Tahoe Boy: A journey back home. John, Maryland: Seven Locks Press. ISBN 0-9822293-6-4 ISBN 978-0982229361
- Moon, Sun Myung, 2009, As a Peace-Loving Global Citizen. Gimm-Young Publishers ISBN 0-7166-0299-7
|Find more about Unification Church at Wikipedia's sister projects|
|Definitions and translations from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Travel information from Wikivoyage|
- Official website of the American Unification Church
- Unification Church Profile of the UC at religionfacts.com.