Uniform Turkic Alphabet

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The Uniform Turkic Alphabet is the name of two different systems using the Latin alphabet to write various Turkic languages. The old system was developed in the Soviet Union and used in the 1930s; the current system is an alphabet with 34 letters recognized by the Turkic Council (Türk Keneş).[1] Its letters are as follows:

Uniform Turkic Alphabet
Upper Case A Ä B C Ç D E F G Ğ H I İ J K L M N Ň O Ö P Q R S Ş T U Ü V W X Y Z
Lower Case a ä b c ç d e f g ğ h ı i j k l m n ň o ö p q r s ş t u ü v w x y z
  • Long forms of vowels are shown with a circumflex (in Turkish): Â, Ê, Î, Ô, Û.

Classification of Turkic sounds[edit]

Turkic languages and their writings are largely phonetic, meaning that the pronunciation of a word can usually be derived from its spelling. For example Turkish orthography is highly regular and a word's pronunciation is always completely determined by its spelling. This rule excludes recent loanwords such as names. The vowels of the Turkic languages are, in their alphabetical order, a, ä and e, ı, i, o, ö, u, ü.[2] There are no diphthongs in Turkish or most other Turkic languages, and when two vowels come together, which occurs in some Arabic loanwords, each vowel retains its individual sound.

Primary phonemes of Turkic languages in alphabets based on the modern UTA
Uniform A Ă Ä Ë E B C Ç J D F G Ğ Ģ H X I İ K Ķ Q L M N Ņ Ň O Ö P R S Š Ş Ț T U Ü V W Y Z Ž
Turkish A - - - E B C Ç J D - F G Ğ - H - - I İ K - - L - M N - - O Ö P R S - Ş - T U Ü V - Y Z -
Tatar A - Ä - E B C Ç J D - F G Ğ - H - X I İ K - Q L - M N - Ñ O Ö P R S - Ş - T U Ü V W Y Z -
Azeri A - Ə - E B C Ç J D - F G Ğ - H - X I İ K - Q L - M N - - O Ö P R S - Ş - T U Ü V - Y Z -
Turkmen A - Ä - E B J Ç Ž D - F G - - H - - Y I K - - L - M N - Ň O Ö P R - S Ş - T U Ü W - Ý - Z
Kazakh A - Ä E É B - Ç J D - F G Ğ - H - X I İ K - Q L - M N - Ñ O Ö P R S - Ş C T U Ü V W Y Z -
Uzbek A O A - E B - CH J D - F G - H - X - I K - Q L - M N - NG O P R S - SH - T U - V - Y Z -
Uyghur A - E - Ë B J CH ZH D - F G GH - H - X - I K - Q L - M N - NG O Ö P R S - SH - T U Ü V - Y Z -
Bashkir A - Ә - E B - Ç J D - F G Ğ - H - X I İ K - Q L - M N - Ñ O Ö P R S C Ş - T U Ü V W Y Z Ź
Kumyk A - - - E B C Ç J D - F G Ğ - H - X I İ K - Q L - M N - Ñ O Ö P R S - Ş - T U Ü V W Y Z -
Gagauz A - Ä - E B C Ç J D - F G - - H - - I İ K - - L - M N - - O Ö P R S - Ş Ț T U Ü V - Y Z -
Karachay-Balkar A - Ä - E B C Ç J D - F G Ğ - H - - I İ K Ķ Q L - M N - Ñ O Ö P R S - Ş - T U Ü V W Y Z -
Crimean Tatar A - - - E B C Ç J D - F G Ğ - H - - I İ K - Q L - M N - Ñ O Ö P R S - Ş - T U Ü V - Y Z -
Salar A - - - E B C Ç J D - F G Ğ - H - X I İ K - Q L - M N - Ñ O Ö P R S - Ş - T U Ü V - Y Z -
Arabic

أ

ع

ء

ء

أ

ب

ج

چ

ژ

د

ڏ

ف

گ

ݝ

غ

ه

ح

خ

إ

إ

ك

ٯ

ق

ل

ڵ

م

ن

ڠ

ڭ

ۆ

ۆ

پ

ر

س

ث

ش

ڞ

ت

ٱ

ٱ

ۋ

و

ي

ز

ذ

Cyrillic А Ӑ Ә Є Е Б Җ Ч Ж Д Ӡ Ф Г Ғ Ӷ Һ Ҳ Х Ы И К Қ Ҡ Л Љ М Н Њ Ң О Ө П Р С Ҫ Ш Ц Т У Ү В Ў Й З Ҙ
IPA /ɑ/ /ɒ/ /æ/ /je/ /e/ /b/ /d͡ʒ/ /t͡ʃ/ /ʒ/ /d/ /d͡z/ /f/ /ɡ/ /ɣ/ /ʕ/ /h/ /ħ/ /x/ /ɯ/ /i/ /k/ /q/ /q/ /ɢ/ /l/ /ɫ/ /m/ /n/ /ɲ/ /ŋ/ /o/ /ø/ /p/ /r/ /s/ /θ/ /ʃ/ /t͡s/ /t/ /u/ /y/ /v/ /w/ /j/ /z/ /ð/
1. Ää=Əə=Эə 2. Č=J 3. Š=Ť and Ž=Ď 4. Ț=T+S and =D+Z 5. =ص and =ض 6. =ط and Ż=ظ
7. Long: Â, Ê, Î, Ô, Û. 8. Soft: Ă, Ĕ, Ĭ, Ŏ, Ŭ. 9. Thin: Grave (ˋ) - Consonant letters

Non-Turkic (Slavic or Arabic) Letters[edit]

Examples of Latin Turkic alphabets 1922-1940
  • Ț (T-cedilla, minuscule: ț) is a letter originating as part of the Romanian alphabet, used to represent the Romanian and Moldovan phoneme /t͡s/, the voiceless alveolar affricate (like ts in bolts).[10] It is written as the letter T with a small comma below, and it has both lower-case and the upper-case variants. It is also a part of the Gagauz alphabet and the Livonian alphabet.[11] The letter corresponds to Cyrillic Tse (Ц) in the romanisation of Cyrillic Turkic alphabets.
  • (D-cedilla, minuscule: ) is a letter originating as part of the old Romanian alphabet, used to represent the old Romanian and Moldovan sound /d͡z/, the voiced alveolar affricate.[12] It is written as the letter D with a small comma below, and it has both lower-case and the upper-case variants. It is also a part of the Livonian alphabet. The letter corresponds to Cyrillic Dze (Ӡ) in the romanisation of Cyrillic Turkic alphabets.
  • (ص), Ż (ظ), (ط) and (ض) are only used for Arabic transcriptions; the emphatic consonants they represent do not exist in Turkic languages. For example: Ramaḋan, Kaḋı, Kaḋa, Ḋarb, Ḋarbe, Ṡahib, Ṡabun, Huṡuṡ, Arḋ, Ṡabr, etc.
  • The Latin letter Ë (E-umlaut) has no relation to the Cyrillic letter Ё (Yo). The Latin letter Ë represents the sound sequence /je/ and thus corresponds to the Cyrillic letter Є in Ukrainian or Е in Russian.

In the USSR[edit]

The Uniform Turkic Alphabet was a Latin alphabet used by non-Slavic peoples of the USSR in the 1930s. The alphabet used letters from Jaŋalif as it was also a part of the uniform alphabet. The uniform alphabet utilized Latin letters, excluding "w". Some additional letters were also introduced into the alphabet.

Uniform Turkic Alphabet
A B C Ç D E Ə F G Ƣ H X İ J K Q L M N Ņ O Ɵ P R S Ş T U Y V Z Ƶ Ь
a b c ç d e ə f g ƣ h x i j k q l m n o ɵ p r s ş t u y v z ƶ ь
  • Ņņ : (U+A790 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER N WITH DESCENDER.svg U+A791 LATIN SMALL LETTER N WITH DESCENDER.svg)

Bibliography[edit]

  • Heinz F. Wendt: Fischer Lexikon Sprachen, 1961 (ISBN 3-596-24561-3)
  • Bilal N. Şimşir: Türk Yazi Devrimi, Ankara 1992, S. 119
  • Helmut Glück (Hrsg.): Metzler Lexikon Sprache, 2005 [S. 417] (ISBN 3-476-02056-8)
  • Proceedings of the International Symposium of Contemporary Turkish Alphabet (Milletlerarası Çağdaş Türk Alfabeleri Sempozyumu Bildirisi), 1991, İstanbul, M.Ü. Türkiyat Araştırmaları Enstitüsü, 1992 [2].
  • Zentrum für Türkeistudien, Essen: Aktuelle Situation in den Turkrepubliken – Innenpolitik, Sicherheitspolitik, Wirtschaft, Umwelt, Bevölkerung (Working Paper 14, 1994)
  • FSP Entwicklungssoziologie, Bielefeld: Formen der Transvergesellschaftung als gegenläufige Prozesse zur Nationsbildung in Usbekistan (Working Paper 334, 2000)
  • Der Fischer Welt Almanach '94 – Zahlen, Daten, Fakten, 1993 (S. 846)
  • Mehmet Tütüncü: Alphabets for the turkic languages
  • Herbert W. Duda: Die neue türkische Lateinschrift. I. Historisches. In: Orientalistische Literaturzeitung 1929, Spalten 441–453. – II. Linguistisches. In: Orientalistische Literaturzeitung 1930, Spalten 399–413.
  • F.H. Weißbach: Die türkische Lateinschrift. In: Archiv für Schreib- und Buchwesen 1930, S. 125–138.
  • Yakovlev N.F. "Development and succeeding problems in Latinizing alphabets", No 2, 1936, pp. 25–38 (In Russian) Н.Ф. Революция и письменность
  • Луначарский. Латинизация русской письменности
  • Статья «Новый алфавит» в Литературной энциклопедии
  • Nevzat Özkan, Gagavuz Türkçesi Grameri, Türk Dil Kurumu Yayınları, 1996
  • Jaŋalif/Яңалиф". Tatar Encyclopedia. (2002). Kazan: Tatarstan Republic Academy of Sciences Institution of the Tatar Encyclopaedia
  • Закиев. Тюрко-татарское письмо. История, состояние, перспективы. Москва, "Инсан", 2005
  • G.A Gaydarci, E.K Koltsa, L.A.Pokrovskaya B.P.Tukan, Gagauz Türkçesinin Sözlüğü, TC Kültür Bakanlığı Yayınları
  • Nevzat Özkan, Gagauz Destanları, Türk Dil Kurumu Yayınları
  • Prof. Dr. Mustafa Argunşah-Âdem Terzi-Abdullah Durkun, Gagauz Türkçesi Araştırmaları Bilgi Şöleni, Türk Dil Kurumu Yayınları
  • Gagauzum Bucaktır Yerim, Tatura Anamut Ocak Yayınları
  • Yakovlev N.F. "Development and succeeding problems in Latinizing alphabets", "Revolution and script" No 2, 1936, pp. 25–38 (In Russian) Н.Ф. ЯКОВЛЕВ: «О развитии и очередных проблемах латинизации алфавитов», Революция и письменность, № 2, 1936, стр. 25–38
  • Minglang Zhou (2003). Multilingualism in China: the politics of writing reforms for minority languages, 1949-2002. Volume 89 of Contributions to the sociology of language (illustrated ed.). Published Walter de Gruyter. p. 174. ISBN 3-11-017896-6. Retrieved 2011-01-01.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Türk Keneş ve Türk Dünyasının 34 Harfli Ortak Alfabe Sistemi - Abdülvahap Kara
  2. ^ The vowel represented by ı is also commonly transcribed as ɨ in linguistic literature.
  3. ^ ИЗ ИСТОРИИ ПИСЬМА АЗЕРБАЙДЖАНСКИХ ТЮРКОВ, Мансур Рахбари (Южный Азербайджан, Иран), Bextiyartuncay. Э(ə) harfi için örnek - "э(ə)СРи : леорард ( Китаб аль – Идрак ли – Лисан аль – Атрак ), тигр (Махмуд Кашгари)"
  4. ^ Eesti Keele Instituut / Institute of the Estonian Language KNAB: Kohanimeandmebaas / Place Names Database, Taadi / Tat / Жугьури Džuhuri latinisatsioon / romanization: KNAB 2012-09-30 - Notes-2: "In the earlier Azerbaijani Cyrillic there were variations: ə (= э)."
  5. ^ Examples: Ämäk/Эmək/Əmək, Ämir/Эmir/Əmir, Äsas/Əsas/Эsas...
  6. ^ Ilya Yevlampiev, Karl Pentzlin and Nurlan Joomagueldinov, N4072 Revised Proposal to encode Arabic characters used for Bashkir, Belarusian, Crimean Tatar, and Tatar languages, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2, 20 May 2011. [1]
  7. ^ Janka Stankievic. Mova rukapisu Al Kitab. Casc I. Fonetyka. New York 1954
  8. ^ Вольскі В. Асноўныя прынцыпы арабскай транскрыпцыі беларускага тэксту ў "Кітабах". "Узвышша" 1927. №6
  9. ^ Lorna A. Priest, Proposal to Encode Additional Latin Orthographic Characters for Uighur Latin Alphabet, 2005
  10. ^ Marinella Lörinczi Angioni, "Coscienza nazionale romanza e ortografia: il romeno tra alfabeto cirillico e alfabeto latino ", La Ricerca Folklorica, No. 5, La scrittura: funzioni e ideologie. (Apr., 1982), pp. 75–85.
  11. ^ Ulutaş, İsmail. 2004. Relative clauses in Gagauz syntax. Istanbul: Isis Press. ISBN 975-428-283-8
  12. ^ Negruzzi, Constantin, Studii asupra limbei române, in vol. "Alexandru Lăpuşneanul", Ed. Pentru Literatură, Bucharest, 1969.

External links[edit]

See also[edit]