|Headquarters||Houston, Texas, USA|
|Key people||Patrick E. Gottschalk, CEO & President|
|Revenue||US$7.33 billion (2009)|
|Parent||Dow Chemical Company|
Union Carbide Corporation is a wholly owned subsidiary (since 2001) of Dow Chemical Company. It currently employs more than 2,400 people. Union Carbide produces chemicals and polymers that undergo one or more further conversions by customers before reaching consumers. Some are high-volume commodities and others are specialty products meeting the needs of smaller markets. Markets served include paints and coatings, packaging, wire and cable, household products, personal care, pharmaceuticals, automotive, textiles, agriculture, and oil and gas. The company is a former component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.
Founded in 1917, the company's researchers developed an economical way to make ethylene from natural gas liquids, such as ethane and propane, giving birth to the modern petrochemical industry. Before divesting them, the chemical giant owned consumer products Eveready and Energizer batteries, Glad bags and wraps, Simoniz car wax, and Prestone antifreeze. The company divested other businesses before being acquired by Dow Chemical on February 6, 2001, including electronic chemicals, polyurethane intermediates, industrial gases and carbon products.
The Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation was formed in 1917 from the merger of the former Union Carbide founded in 1898 and the National Carbon Company founded in 1886. These companies made carbon rods for arc lights and electrodes for electric arc furnaces, and produced aluminium. Other companies merged included Linde Air Products, maker of liquid oxygen, Prest-O-Lite, manufacturer of calcium carbide, and Electro Metallurgical. In 1920 the company set up a chemicals division which manufactured ethylene glycol for use as automotive antifreeze. The company continued to acquire related chemical producers, for example, the Bakelite Corporation became a division in 1939. The company changed its name to "Union Carbide Corporation" in 1957 and was often referred to as Carbide. It operated Oak Ridge National Laboratory from 1947 until the late 1970s.
Ucar batteries was Carbide's industrial and consumer zinc chloride battery business. The business including Energizer alkaline batteries was sold to Ralston Purina in 1986, following a hostile takeover attempt.
After the Bhopal disaster, Union Carbide was the subject of repeated takeover attempts. In order to pay off its debt, Carbide was forced to sell many of its most familiar brands such as Glad Trashbags and Eveready Batteries. Eventually, Carbide was bought by Dow Chemical in 1999 for $8.89 billion in stock.
Hawks Nest Tunnel disaster
The Hawks Nest Tunnel disaster took place between 1927 and 1932 in a West Virginia tunnel project led by Union Carbide. During the construction of the tunnel, workers found the mineral silica and were asked to mine it for use in electroprocessing steel. The workers were not given masks or breathing equipment to use while mining. Due to silica dust exposure, many workers developed silicosis, a debilitating lung disease. According to a marker on site, there were 109 admitted deaths. A congressional hearing placed the death toll at 476.
Asbestos mining and 'Calidria' brand fibers
In the early 1960s, Union Carbide Corporation began mining a newly identified outcrop of chrysotile asbestos fibers near King City and New Idria, California. The fibers were sold under the brand name "Calidria", a combination of "Cal" and "Idria." These fibers were sold in large quantities for a wide variety of purposes, including addition into joint compound or drywall accessory products. Union Carbide sold the mine to its employees under the name KCAC ("King City Asbestos Mine") in the 1980s, but it only operated for a few more years.
The Bhopal disaster was an industrial disaster that took place at a Union Carbide India Limited pesticide plant in the Indian city of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. Around midnight on 3 December 1984, methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas was accidentally released from the plant, exposing more than 500,000 people to MIC and other chemicals. The government of Madhya Pradesh confirmed a total of 3,787 deaths related to the gas release. It left an estimated 40,000 individuals permanently disabled, maimed, or suffering from serious illness, making it one of the world's worst industrial disasters in history. Union Carbide was sued by the Government of India and agreed to an out-of-court settlement of US$470 million in 1989. The plant site has not yet been cleaned up.
Union Carbide in Australia
Union Carbide's operations in Australia commenced in 1957 when they purchased the plant of the Australian owned company Timbrol Ltd. The Tibrol factory was on the shore of Homebush Bay in the Sydney suburb of Rhodes. Homebush Bay is a bay on the Parramatta River which flows into Sydney Harbour. At that time Tibrol had been producing Synthetic Phenol, the insecticides Chlorobenzene/Chlorophenol/DDT, and the herbicides 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T. Union Carbide continued the production of the 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T until 1976 and Chlorobenzene/Chlorophenol/DDT until 1983. Union Carbide also commenced the production of Bisphenol in 1960 and Phenol Formaldehyde in 1964.:9
Union Carbide had been "reclaiming" land on neighbouring properties by depositing spent lime and ash, which were waste by-products of their chemical manufacturing processes, into the adjacent marshes in Homebush Bay. One of these neighbouring properties was the property of Allied Feeds who was operating a flour mill on the site. This practice, which had been approved by the Maratime Services Board (MSB), ceased in 1970. (In 2002 at the inquiry into the "Redevelopment and Remediation of the Rhodes peninsula the Chief Executive Officer of the NSW Waterways Authority gave in evidence: "... the old MSB did give those approvals but in those days we did not have the legislation that we now have and people did those sorts of things without knowing what it was they were doing, essentially"):52 Contaminated stormwater was also allowed to run off the site into Homebush bay until 1970 when it was intercepted to comply with the NSW Clean Water Act. In 1970 Union Carbide commenced storing dioxin waste in drums for off-site storage after international research identified trace quantities of dioxin in the 2,4,5-T production. (Chemical companies in the USA had privately known since 1965 that production of the herbicide 2,4,5-T was contaminated by a "surprisingly high" amount of dioxin, and that this dioxin likely presented a serious health risk - but this information had been suppressed by the Chemical companies)
In 1978 the Sydney Morning Herald reported that between 1970 and 1974 Union Carbide had dumped drums containing dioxin condensed on the surface of activated charcoal at tips in Concord, Homebush Bay and Menai. Union Carbide's manager for research said that the total quantity of dioxin dumped in this four-year period "would amount to a few kilograms", and that although the drums would rust the company felt it was a very safe method of disposal. The operators of the tips advised the Herald that they would never have allowed the dumping of toxic waste. After regulations were introduced in 1974 requiring toxic materials to be stored until they could be satisfactorily destroyed Union Carbide commenced storing drums containing Dioxin waste at it factory in Rhodes. On 11 March 1987 the Sydney Morning Herald reported that in 1986 the State Pollution Control Commission had issued an order prohibiting the disruption of sites where the Union Carbide dioxin waste was believed to be buried. Locations given were parkland adjoining Majors Bay in Concord, sections beneath the State abattoirs and sports ground at Homebush Bay, and an isolated site in Menai. A spokesman for the SPCC said that he knew of no testing having been done at the Concord or Menai sites and that the general policy was to leave the sites undisturbed. In 1988 the Age reported that dioxin had been found at former dumps at Homebush Bay, where Sydney was proposing to stage the Olympic Games.
Union Carbide ceased operations in Australia in 1985. In 1987 the NSW Pollution Control Commission ordered Union Carbide to remediate the site. This work, which cost Union Carbide approximately $30 million, was conducted between 1988 and 1993. The work involved excavation and encapsulation of the contaminated soil. A bentonite cut off wall was constructed approximately 15 meters inside the existing sea wall, to prevent ground water flows, to continue to contaminate Homebush Bay. Neither the contaminated sediments in Homebush Bay, or the contaminated material between the sea wall and the bentonite cut off wall was remediated. Union Carbide Australia Ltd. was renamed Lednez Industries Ltd in 1991.
In 1991 the owners of the Allied Feeds site were directed not to disturb the site without the approval of the State Pollution Control Commission because of contamination introduced by industrial wastes deposited by Union Carbide. These contaminants included: dioxin, chlorinated benzenes and phenols, herbicides and organochloride pesticides.:13
Because dioxin from contaminated sediments can enter the food chain, NSW Fisheries banned all fishing in Homebush Bay in September 1989. A year latter in October 1990 this ban was extended to a ban on commercial fishing upstream of the Gladesville Bridge. This restriction was further extended in 2006 to a ban on all commercial fishing in Sydney Harbour. Whilst recreational fishing is still allowed NSW Fisheries recommends that no fish caught west of the Sydney Harbour Bridge should be eaten. They suggest that for fish caught east of the Sydney Harbour Bridge that generally no more than 150 grams per month should be consumed. It is expected that these restrictions will last for several decades because the dioxin contaminants introduced by Union Carbide have now washed over an area too large to remediate.
On 19 June 1997 the Hon. Carl Scully announced to the NSW Parliament that newly developed technology will be used to destroy the contaminants in Homebush Bay. This involves involves removing the sediments, extracting the concentrated contaminants and destroying them. Mr Scully said that this technology had been developed by two Australian companies. The government will be inviting tenders from both local and overseas companies. He expected that the NSW Government's share of the clean up cost would be $21 million. In 1999 the Department of Urban Affairs and Planning rezoned land on the western side of the Rhodes Peninsula as residential. This rezoning included the land which was still contaminated by Union Carbide.
On 24 October 2001 the Hon. Ian Cohen announced to the NSW Parliament that because of community concerns regarding plans for redevelopment of the Rhodes Peninsula an inquiry would be held. In particular local residents had major concerns about the intended management of toxic soils and sediments in the proposed development area. Matters the inquiry would examine include: the extent of contamination at Rhodes, the necessity and cost of remediation, liability for the cost and risks to current and future residents.
On 27 June 2002 The Standing Committee on State Development reported to Parliament the findings of their inquiry into the "Redevelopment and Remediation of the Rhodes Peninsula". In relation to the contamination by Union Carbide the committee advised:
- Under the "polluter pays" principle of Contaminated Land Management Act 1997 Union Carbide has a responsibility to remediate the contamination. However legal recourse was not considered practical because Union Carbide ceased business operations in Australia. Accordingly the current owners had the option voluntarily accept responsibility to remediate their land.:41
- Burying and capping of contaminated soil had made the land suitable for industrial use but not Residential Use.:14 Remediation would allow residential use of the land and allow public access to the foreshore.:48
- Contamination had continued to migrate from the site into the Bay and this posed a significant risk to human health and the environment.:39 The fishing ban would remain in place until it was demonstrated that contaminant levels in fish are reduced to acceptable levels.:76
- Orica had remediated their precinct at a cost of $24 million. There was concern that the budget of $21 million committed by the state government may not be sufficient.:56 It was anticipated that remediation for residential development and remediation of Homebush Bay would be approximately $75 to $90 million if the indirect thermal desorption process along with the base catalysed decomposition process was utilised.:57
On 4 May 2004 the minister for planning granted consent for the remediation of the former Union Carbide site to proceed. This approval included parts of Homebush Bay, Thiess Services commenced work on the Allied Feeds and Union Carbide sites in 2005. Approximately 900,000 tons of soil were excavated from the Union Carbide site, 190,000 tons of soil from the Allied Feeds site and approximately 50,000 tons of sediment from the bay. Organic contaminants were removed from the soil using a directly heated thermal descorption plant. Remediation of the Allied Feeds Site was completed in August 2009, Homebush Bay sediments in August 2010, and the Union Carbide site in March 2011. The value of the remediation work was $35M for the Allied Feeds site and $100 million for Union Carbide site and Homebush Bay sediments.
- Robert T. Beall (1940). "Rural Electrification" (PDF). United States Yearbook of Agriculture. United States Department of Agriculture. pp. 790–809. Retrieved 2012-01-08. "Of the more than 6.3 million farms in the country in January 1925, only 204,780, or 3.2 percent, were receiving central-station electrical service."
- Union Carbide Corporation, About Us. Accessed May 31, 2011.
- History of DJIA, globalfinancialdata.com
- Union Carbide Corporation, History, Accessed July 9, 2008.
- Themistocles D'Silva, The Black Box of Bhopal: A Closer Look at the World's Deadliest Industrial Disaster,Trafford Publishing, 2006 ISBN 1-4120-8412-1, page 27
- See the Oak Ridge National Laboratory article.
- Warren, Susan (5 Aug 1999). "Dow Chemical to Acquire Union Carbide --- Deal, Valued at $8.89 Billion, Would Position Firm to Challenge DuPont". Wall Street Journal A3.
- "Hawk's Nest Tunnel Disaster". West Virginia Department of Culture and History. Retrieved 2008-11-25.
- LA Times, "Case Hinges on Material Witness", Lisa Gurion, September 26, 2004
- Eckerman, Ingrid (2001) Chemical Industry and Public Health — Bhopal as an example. Accessed 8 November 2010
- Eckerman, Ingrid (2005). The Bhopal Saga—Causes and Consequences of the World's Largest Industrial Disaster. India: Universities Press. ISBN 81-7371-515-7.
- "Redevelopment and Remediation of the Rhodes Peninsula". NSW Leglisative Council. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- "Transcript of 7 February 2002 - Inquiry into Redevelopment and Remediation of the Rhodes Peninsula". Parliment of NSW. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
- "Remediation of the Lednez Site, Rhode sand Homebush Bay - Technical Paper 2". Parsons Brinckerhoff. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
- Burnham, David. "1965 memos show Dow's anxiety on Dioxin". New York Times. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
- "Tip search for drums of highly poisonous waste.". Sydney Morning Herald. 28 April 1978. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- "Inquiry wanted on dioxin disposal". Sydney Morning Herald. 11 March 1987. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- Abjorensen, Norman (15 November 1988). "Sydney Olympic Bid on former chemical dump". The Age. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
- "Union Carbide Australia Ltd. (1950-1985)". National Library of Australia. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
- "Environmental Impact Statement - Remediation of the Lednez site, Rhodes and Homebush Bay". Parsons Brinckerhoff. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
- "Mending Holes in the Green Safety Net". Precedent (113): 5. November–December 2012. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
- "Fishing in Sydney Harbour". NSW Department of Primary Industries. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
- Davies, Anne (30 October 2010), The poison that got away, Sydney Morning Herald (Sydney, Australia)
- Scully, Carl. "Homebush Bay Remediation". Hansard - NSW Leglislative Assembly. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
- "Remediation of Lednez Site, Rhodes and Homebush Bay - Main Report". Parsons BrincherHoff. p. 1.5. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
- Cohen, Ian. "Rhodes Peninsula Redevelopment". NSW Legislative Council - Hansard. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
- "Assessment Report". NSW Government - Department of Planning. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
- "Former Lednez/Union Carbide Site & Homebush Bay Remediation". Thiess Services. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
- "Former Allied Feeds Site Remediation". Theiss Services. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- The Bhopal Story - The Complete coverage of 1984 Bhopal Gas Disaster
- UnionCarbide.com - Union Carbide Corporation homepage