Union Township, Union County, New Jersey
- Not to be confused with Union Township, Hunterdon County, New Jersey and Union City, New Jersey in Hudson County.
|Union Township, New Jersey|
|Township of Union|
Map of Union Township in Union County. Inset: Location of Union County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of Union Township, Union County, New Jersey
|Coordinates: Coordinates: |
|Incorporated||November 23, 1808|
|• Body||Township Committee|
|• Mayor||Clifton People, Jr. (term ends December 31, 2014) (D)|
|• Administrator||Ronald Manzella|
|• Clerk||Eileen Birch|
|• Total||9.092 sq mi (23.548 km2)|
|• Land||9.071 sq mi (23.494 km2)|
|• Water||0.021 sq mi (0.055 km2) 0.23%|
|Area rank||219th of 566 in state
3rd of 21 in county
|Elevation||125 ft (38 m)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|• Estimate (2013)||57,542|
|• Rank||25th of 566 in state
2nd of 21 in county
|• Density||6,244.3/sq mi (2,410.9/km2)|
|• Density rank||80th of 566 in state
9th of 21 in county
|Time zone||Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)|
|GNIS feature ID||0882212|
Union is a township in Union County, New Jersey, United States. In the 18th century, the area that is now Union was then called Connecticut Farms. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township population was 56,642, the highest recorded in any decennial census, reflecting an increase of 2,237 (+4.1%) from the 54,405 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 4,381 (+8.8%) from the 50,024 counted in the 1990 Census.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Government
- 5 Education
- 6 Transportation
- 7 Notable buildings
- 8 Notable people
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Union Township was the site of the Battle of Connecticut Farms, one of the last battles between British and American forces during the American Revolutionary War. On June 6, 1780, British troops, led by Hessian General Wilhelm von Knyphausen, boarded boats on Staten Island bound for Elizabeth, New Jersey. At midnight, 5,000 troops started to land. They expected the Continental Army to give little resistance, believing that they were tired of the war and were poorly fed and paid. They also expected the citizens of New Jersey to welcome them. They were wrong on both counts and were unable to make their way to and through the Hobart Gap.
Union Township was incorporated as a township by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on November 23, 1808, from portions of Elizabeth Township, while the area was still part of Essex County. It became part of the newly formed Union County on March 19, 1857. Portions of the township have been taken to form Linden Township (March 4, 1861), Roselle Park, (March 22, 1901), Kenilworth (May 13, 1907) and Hillside (April 3, 1913).
The Township of Union is located on the northern-central edge of Union County and is bordered by eight municipalities: Hillside to the east, Elizabeth to the southeast, Roselle Park and Kenilworth to the south and Springfield Township to the west. Northwest of the township lies Millburn, to the north lies Maplewood and to the northeast lies Irvington, all in Essex County.
Union Township is located at United States Census Bureau, Union township had a total area of 9.092 square miles (23.548 km2), of which, 9.071 square miles (23.494 km2) of it is land and 0.021 square miles (0.055 km2) of it (0.23%) is water.(40.695266,-74.269078). According to the
- Five Points, area around the junction of Galloping Hill Road, Chestnut Street, Salem Road, Delaware Avenue, Walton Avenue, and Tucker Avenue.
- Brookside Heights (Curreyville), west of Vauxhall Road.
- Vauxhall, area of Union north of I-78 and west of Stuyvesant Avenue,with its own ZIP code 07088.
- Union Center, area around the intersection of Morris and Stuyvesant Avenues.
- Putnam Ridge, a section between Suburban Road, Morris Avenue, Twin Oaks Road, and Colonial Avenue.
- Putnam Manor, an historic section between Colonial Avenue and Salem Road.
- Orchard Park
- Parkside Manor, a three-road section off of Union Terrace, featured in the movie She Devil with Roseanne Barr.
- Larchmont Estates, area bordered by Larchmont Reservation (NW and NE edges), Morris Avenue (SW), Liberty Avenue (SE), and Joe Collins Park/Larchmont Reservation (NE edge).
- Green Lane, new community between Kean University and Union Station.
- Fairway Drive, community bordering the Galloping Hill Golf Course.
1850-1870 1850 1870
1880-1890 1890-1910 1910-1930
1930-1990 2000 2010
* = Lost territory in previous decade.
At the 2010 United States Census, there were 56,642 people, 19,556 households, and 14,276 families residing in the township. The population density was 6,244.3 per square mile (2,410.9 /km2). There were 20,250 housing units at an average density of 2,232.4 per square mile (861.9 /km2). The racial makeup of the township was 53.78% (30,464) White, 28.98% (16,417) Black or African American, 0.14% (80) Native American, 10.60% (6,003) Asian, 0.04% (24) Pacific Islander, 4.06% (2,297) from other races, and 2.40% (1,357) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 14.94% (8,465) of the population.
There were 19,556 households, of which 31.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.7% were married couples living together, 14.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 27.0% were non-families. 23.0% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.82 and the average family size was 3.35.
In the township, 21.1% of the population were under the age of 18, 10.7% from 18 to 24, 26.0% from 25 to 44, 28.2% from 45 to 64, and 14.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.6 years. For every 100 females there were 89.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.6 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $73,722 (with a margin of error of +/- $4,858) and the median family income was $86,705 (+/- $3,822). Males had a median income of $54,811 (+/- $1,998) versus $47,144 (+/- $2,316) for females. The per capita income for the township was $31,135 (+/- $1,104). About 3.7% of families and 4.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.7% of those under age 18 and 5.6% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2000 United States Census of 2000, there were 54,405 people, 19,534 households, and 14,162 families residing in the township. The population density was 5,968.1 people per square mile (2,303.3/km²). There were 20,001 housing units at an average density of 2,194.1 per square mile (846.8/km²). An example of a diverse city in the United States, the racial makeup of the township was 67.66% White, 19.76% African American, 0.15% Native American, 7.72% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 2.44% from other races, and 2.24% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.93% of the population.
There were 19,534 households out of which 32.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.5% were married couples living together, 13.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 27.5% were non-families. 23.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.25.
In the township the population was spread out with 22.3% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 29.3% from 25 to 44, 22.3% from 45 to 64, and 17.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 87.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.2 males.
The median income for a household in the township was $59,173, and the median income for a family was $68,707. Males had a median income of $45,299 versus $35,604 for females. The per capita income for the township was $24,768. About 3.0% of families and 4.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.6% of those under age 18 and 5.5% of those age 65 or over.
Union Township is governed under the Township form of government with a five-member Township Committee. The Township Committee is elected directly by the voters in partisan elections to serve three-year terms of office on a staggered basis, with one or two seats coming up for election each year. At an annual reorganization meeting, the Township Committee selects one of its members to serve as Mayor. The Mayor, in addition to voting as a member of the Township Committee, presides over the meetings of the committee and carries out ceremonial duties.
As of 2014[update], members of the Union Township Committee are Mayor Clifton People, Jr. (D, term ends December 31, 2016), Deputy Mayor Manuel T. Figueiredo (D, 2015), Suzette Cavadas (D, 2016), Joseph M. Florio (D, 2014) and Anthony L. Terrezza, Jr. (D, 2015).
Mayors of Union
|#||Mayor||Years in Office||Party||Terms||Notes|
|1||John Leonard||1879–1883||1-4||First term|
|2||James A. Burnett||1884–1885||5-6|
|3||John Leonard||1886||7||Second term|
|4||James B. Woodruff||1887–1891||8-12||Five Consecutive Terms|
|5||John Tunison||1892–1893||13-14||Two consecutive terms|
|6||Daniel H. Beach||1894–1895||15-16||Two consecutive terms|
|7||William P. Bonnell||1896||17|
|8||John H. Doremus||1897||18||First term|
|9||Daniel H. Beach||1898||19||Third term|
|10||William A. Bainbridge||1899||20|
|11||John H. Doremus||1900||21||Second term|
|12||Daniel H. Beach||1901||22||Fourth term|
|13||John H. Doremus||1902–1903||23-24||Third and fourth terms|
|14||Walter A. Miller||1904–1905||25-26||Two consecutive terms|
|15||Daniel B. Wade||1906||25||First Term|
|16||John H. Doremus||1907||26||Fourth term|
|17||Daniel H. Beach||1908||27|
|18||Daniel B. Wade||1909||28|
|20||Daniel H. Beach||1911||30|
|21||Howard B. Kline||1912||31|
|22||Daniel H. Beach||1914||33|
|23||Cornelius E. Blanchard||1915||34|
|24||George A. Bashford||1916||35|
|25||Daniel H. Beach||1917||36|
|27||George A. Bashford||1919||38|
|28||Daniel H. Beach||1920–1921||39-40||Two consecutive terms|
|29||George A. Bashford||1922||41|
|30||Ambrose B. Kline||1923||42|
|31||Charles W. Wink||1924–1926||43-45||Three consecutive terms|
|32||Ambrose B. Kline||1927–1928||46-47||Two consecutive terms|
|33||Gustav Hummel, Jr.||1929–1931||48-50||Three consecutive terms|
|34||Max A. Schoenwalder||1932–1933||51-52||Two consecutive terms|
|35||Charles Schramm||1934–1939||53-58||Six consecutive terms. Resigned in 1939.|
|36||Fred Edward Biertuempfel||1939–1973||Republican||59-93||Thirty-four consecutive terms.|
|37||Samuel Rabkin||1973||Republican||93||Finished Biertuempfel's term. Rabkin field named after him.|
|38||Anthony E. Russo||1974||Democrat||94|
|39||James C. Conlon||1975||Republican||95|
|40||John S. Zimmerman||1976||Democrat||96|
|42||James C. Conlon||1978–1980||Democrat||98-99||Two consecutive terms|
|44||James C. Conlon||1982||Republican||101|
|45||Anthony E. Russo||1983||Democrat||102|
|49||Diane Heelan||1987||Republican||106||Union's first female mayor|
|53||Anthony E. Russo||1991||Democrat||110|
|60||Anthony L. Terrezza||1998–1999||Democrat||117-118||Two consecutive terms|
|62||Peter A. Capodice||2001||Democrat||120|
|64||Brenda C. Restivo||2003||Democrat||122|
|65||Anthony L. Terrezza||2004||Democrat||123|
|67||Peter A. Capodice||2006||Democrat||125|
|68||Brenda C. Restivo||2007||Democrat||126||Second Term|
|69||Clifton People, Jr.||2008||Democrat||127||Union's first African-American mayor|
|70||Anthony L. Terrezza||2009–2010||Democrat||128-129||Two consecutive terms|
|71||Joseph Florio||2011-2012||Democrat||130-131||Two consecutive terms. Second & third terms as mayor.|
|72||Clifton People, Jr.||2013-2014 (Currently mayor)||Democrat||132-133||Two consecutive terms. Second & third terms as mayor.|
Federal, state and county representation
Union Township is split between the 7th and 10th Congressional Districts and is part of New Jersey's 20th state legislative district. Prior to the 2010 Census, Union Township had also been split between the 7th and 10th Congressional Districts with different boundaries, a change made by the New Jersey Redistricting Commission that took effect in January 2013, based on the results of the November 2012 general elections. The redistricting plan that took effect in 2013 placed 31,611 residents living in the central and western portions of the township into the 7th District, while 25,031 residents in a semicircle that runs along the northern, eastern and southern borders of the township were placed into the 10th District.
New Jersey's Seventh Congressional District is represented by Leonard Lance (R, Clinton Township). New Jersey's Tenth Congressional District is represented by Donald Payne, Jr. (D, Newark). New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Cory Booker (D, Newark; took office on October 31, 2013, after winning a special election to fill the seat of Frank Lautenberg) and Bob Menendez (D, Paramus).
For the 2014-2015 Session, the 20th Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Raymond Lesniak (D, Elizabeth) and in the General Assembly by Joseph Cryan (D, Union) and Annette Quijano (D, Elizabeth). The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham Township). The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).
Union County is governed by a Board of Chosen Freeholders, whose nine members are elected at-large to three-year terms of office on a staggered basis with three seats coming up for election each year, with an appointed County Manager overseeing the day-to-day operations of the county. At an annual reorganization meeting held in the beginning of January, the board selects a Chairman and Vice Chairman from among its members. As of 2014[update], Union County's Freeholders are Chairman Christopher Hudak (D, Linden, term ends December 31, 2014), Vice Chairman Mohamed S. Jalloh (D, Roselle, 2015), Bruce Bergen (D, Springfield Township, 2015), Linda Carter (D, Plainfield, 2016), Angel G. Estrada (D, Elizabeth, 2014), Sergio Granados (D, Elizabeth, 2016) Bette Jane Kowalski (D, Cranford, 2016), Alexander Mirabella (D, Fanwood, 2015) and Vernell Wright (D, Union, 2014). Constitutional officers elected on a countywide basis are County Clerk Joanne Rajoppi (D, Union, 2015), Sheriff Ralph Froehlich (D, Union, 2016) and Surrogate James S. LaCorte (D, Springfield Township, 2014). The County Manager is Alfred Faella.
As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 31,155 registered voters in Union Township, of which 12,061 (38.7% vs. 41.8% countywide) were registered as Democrats, 3,928 (12.6% vs. 15.3%) were registered as Republicans and 15,157 (48.7% vs. 42.9%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 9 voters registered to other parties. Among the township's 2010 Census population, 55.0% (vs. 53.3% in Union County) were registered to vote, including 69.7% of those ages 18 and over (vs. 70.6% countywide).
In the 2012 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 16,423 votes here (70.7% vs. 66.0% countywide), ahead of Republican Mitt Romney with 6,464 votes (27.8% vs. 32.3%) and other candidates with 155 votes (0.7% vs. 0.8%), among the 23,235 ballots cast by the township's 33,589 registered voters, for a turnout of 69.2% (vs. 68.8% in Union County). In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 15,625 votes here (63.8% vs. 63.1% countywide), ahead of Republican John McCain with 8,462 votes (34.5% vs. 35.2%) and other candidates with 189 votes (0.8% vs. 0.9%), among the 24,505 ballots cast by the township's 32,622 registered voters, for a turnout of 75.1% (vs. 74.7% in Union County). In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 12,751 votes here (57.9% vs. 58.3% countywide), ahead of Republican George W. Bush with 8,987 votes (40.8% vs. 40.3%) and other candidates with 174 votes (0.8% vs. 0.7%), among the 22,013 ballots cast by the township's 30,383 registered voters, for a turnout of 72.5% (vs. 72.3% in the whole county).
In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 7,628 ballots cast (53.0% vs. 50.6% countywide), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 5,734 votes (39.8% vs. 41.7%), Independent Chris Daggett with 741 votes (5.1% vs. 5.9%) and other candidates with 113 votes (0.8% vs. 0.8%), among the 14,397 ballots cast by the township's 31,972 registered voters, yielding a 45.0% turnout (vs. 46.5% in the county).
On October 15, 2014 President Barack Obama visited the town at a private fundraiser benefitting the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee.
The Union Public School District serves students in pre-Kindergarten through grade twelve. As of the 2011-12 school year, the district's 10 schools had an enrollment of 7,466 students and 572.0 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 13.05:1.The schools in the district (with 2011-12 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics) are six PreK-4 elementary schools — Battle Hill Elementary School (427 students), Hannah Caldwell Elementary School (701), Connecticut Farms Elementary School (500), Franklin Elementary School (476), Livingston Elementary School (445) and Washington Elementary School (596) — Jefferson Elementary School (262 in grade 5), Burnet Middle School (1,077; 6-8), Kawameeh Middle School (665; 6-8) and Union High School for grades nine through twelve (2,317).
Union was threatened with being the first town north of the Mason-Dixon Line to suffer from penalties as a result of school segregation. The area of Vauxhall was primarily black and Jefferson Elementary School was disproportionately black compared to the rest of the town. Union avoided problems by converting Jefferson Elementary into a sixth-grade only school called Central 6 and bused the Jefferson students to all the other elementary schools. It was later renamed Central 5 and is now Hamilton School, which is used as a one-year school for fifth-grade students.
Union is also home to several private nursery schools and the Deron School, a private school for learning disabled students ages 5–13. St. Michael's School and Holy Spirit School operate under the supervision of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newark.
Kean University, dating back to 1855, serves a total student population of almost 16,000. Called New Jersey State Teachers College when it was located in Newark, the school moved to Union in 1958, was renamed Kean College in 1973 and was granted university status in 1997.
Roads and highways
The township had a total of 145.85 miles (234.72 km) of roadways, of which 120.11 miles (193.30 km) are maintained by the municipality, 11.43 miles (18.39 km) by Union County and 12.46 miles (20.05 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation and 1.85 miles (2.98 km) by the New Jersey Turnpike Authority.
The Parkway connects Kenilworth in the south to Hillside in the north. The Parkway includes interchanges 139A (Chestnut Street) / 139B (Route 82 West Union), interchanges 140 (Route 22 / Route 82 west) / 140A (Route 22 / Route 82 west) and interchange 141 (Vauxhall Road / Union).
New Jersey Transit offers rail service at the Union train station providing service on the Raritan Valley Line (formerly the mainline of the Lehigh Valley Railroad) to Newark Penn Station. The station opened in 2003 and includes a parking lot with over 450 spaces.
NJ Transit also provides bus service to New York City and New Jersey points on the 113, 114 and 117 routes to the Port Authority Bus Terminal in Midtown Manhattan, on the 65, 66 70 and 94 routes to Newark and local service on the 26 and 52.
Former Rahway Valley Railroad freight line, now abandoned, crosses through Union. This line, presently licensed to Morristown and Erie Railway, is in the process of revitalization after which it will link to NJ Transit's Morris and Essex Lines at Summit and connect to Staten Island.
Newark Liberty International Airport is approximately 6 miles (9.7 km) east of Union.
- The Union Watersphere, for many years the tallest water tower of its type in the world, stands 212 feet tall, holds 250,000 gallons of drinking water and is now also used as a cell phone tower. The landmark and icon inspired a former Union resident to create a website and museum (in Austin, Texas) dedicated to it.
- Union is home to several houses constructed totally of poured concrete, an experiment of Thomas Edison. The homes on Ingersoll Terrace include poured concrete interior walls with formed concrete plumbing.
- Union is home to a building in the shape of a ship at 2262 U.S. Route 22. Originally a restaurant and night club, it has changed ownership over the years, becoming a furniture store known as "The Flagship" and later The Wiz Home Electronics. It is currently a P. C. Richard & Son store.
- Union is home to the largest Home Depot store in the United States, covering 217,000 square feet (20,200 m2).
People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise closely associated with Union Township include:
- Aminat Ayinde, the second runner-up from Cycle 12 of America's Next Top Model.
- C. Louis Bassano (born 1942) politician who served in both the New Jersey General Assembly and the New Jersey Senate.
- Freddie 'Red' Cochrane (1915–1993), professional boxer in the welterweight (147lb) division who became World Champion in 1941 in that class.
- Joe Collins (1922–1989), first baseman for the New York Yankees from 1948 to 1957. A park on Liberty Avenue is named after him.
- Joseph Cryan (born 1961), represents the 20th legislative district in the New Jersey General Assembly.
- Jamie Fox (born 1954), political strategist.
- Mildred Barry Hughes (1902–95), the first woman elected to the New Jersey Senate, in 1965.
- Ron Karkovice (born 1963), Major League baseball catcher from 1986 to 1997.
- Amalya Lyle Kearse (born 1937), a judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.
- Larry Kubin (born 1959), linebacker who played with the Washington Redskins from 1981 to 1984.
- Kelly Kulick (born 1977), professional bowler who became the first woman ever to win a regular Professional Bowlers Association tour title.
- Artie Lange (born 1967), comedian, actor, and former Howard Stern Show sidekick.
- Ray Liotta (born 1954), actor.
- Elliott Maddox (born 1947), professional baseball player with both the New York Yankees 1974-76 and the New York Mets 1978-80.
- Matthew John Rinaldo (born 1931), represented New Jersey in the United States House of Representatives for twenty years, in the 12th congressional district (1973–1983) and in the 7th congressional district (1983–1993).
- Karl Schellscheidt (born 1968), soccer player, educator and entrepreneur.
- Manfred Schellscheidt (born 1941) German-American soccer coach and former player and member of the National Soccer Hall of Fame.
- Darnell Stapleton (born 1985), former offensive guard for the Pittsburgh Steelers who was a member of the Steelers' Super Bowl XLIII championship team.
- Robert Wuhl (born 1951), actor.
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- 2005 New Jersey Legislative District Data Book, Rutgers University Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, April 2005, p. 90.
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- Municipalities Grouped by 2011-2020 Legislative Districts, New Jersey Department of State, p. 9. Accessed January 6, 2013.
- Table DP-1. Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2010 for Union township, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed December 7, 2011.
- PEPANNRES - Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013 - 2013 Population Estimates for New Jersey municipalities, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 16, 2014.
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- Cheslow, Jerry. "If You're Thinking of Living in: Union", The New York Times, October 27, 1991. Accessed February 25, 2012. "UNION, the third oldest English settlement in New Jersey after Newark and Elizabeth, is returning to its Colonial roots.... Union was settled in 1667 by Puritans, who left Connecticut fearing religious persecution. Then called Connecticut Farms, the community figured prominently in shipbuilding from the late 17th century, when the Headleys, one of its first European families, established a factory for wooden hoops to hold sails to masts."
- Yesenko, Michael R. "Union historian Yesenko presents 'Remembering General George Washington'", Suburban News, January 20, 2010. Accessed December 7, 2011.
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- Home page, Township of Union. Accessed May 24, 2013. "The Union County municipalities of Elizabeth, Hillside, Springfield, Kenilworth, and Roselle Park, and the Essex County communities of Irvington, Maplewood, and Millburn border the Township."
- Compendium of censuses 1726-1905: together with the tabulated returns of 1905, New Jersey Department of State, 1906. Accessed May 24, 2013.
- Bowen, Francis. American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge for the Year 1843, p. 231, David H. Williams, 1842. Accessed May 24, 2013. Source lists a population of 1,483 for 1840, in conflict with the 1,482 shown in the New Jersey Compendium of censuses 1726-1905.
- Raum, John O. The History of New Jersey: From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time, Volume 1, p. 281, J. E. Potter and company, 1877. Accessed May 24, 2013. "Union had a population in 1860 of 1,812 and in 1870, 2,314."
- Debow, James Dunwoody Brownson. The Seventh Census of the United States: 1850, p. 138. R. Armstrong, 1853. Accessed May 24, 2013.
- Staff. A compendium of the ninth census, 1870, p. 261. United States Census Bureau, 1872. Accessed May 24, 2013.
- Porter, Robert Percival. Preliminary Results as Contained in the Eleventh Census Bulletins: Volume III - 51 to 75, p. 99. United States Census Bureau, 1890. Accessed May 24, 2013.
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- Fifteenth Census of the United States : 1930 - Population Volume I, United States Census Bureau, p. 719. Accessed May 24, 2013.
- New Jersey Resident Population by Municipality: 1930 - 1990, Workforce New Jersey Public Information Network, backed up by the Internet Archive as of May 2, 2009. Accessed May 24, 2013.
- Census 2000 Profiles of Demographic / Social / Economic / Housing Characteristics for Union township, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 24, 2013.
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- Plan Components Report, New Jersey Redistricting Commission, December 23, 2011. Accessed January 6, 2013.
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- Districts by Number for 2011-2020, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 6, 2013.
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