The Union of Baptist Churches in the Netherlands (Unie van Baptisten Gemeenten in Nederland) is a union of Baptist churches formed by seven congregations in 1881. The first Baptist church in the Netherlands was formed by Englishman John Smyth. The present work is not historically connected to Smyth's congregation. The modern Baptist movement can be traced to the work of Julius Köbner in 1845. The Union of Baptist Churches in the Netherlands is a member of the European Baptist Federation and the Baptist World Alliance. In 1998, the Union had 12,253 members in 88 congregations. The Seminarium van de Unie van Baptisten Gemeenten Ned is affiliated with the Union. Most Baptists not in the Union fellowship in the Brotherhood of Baptist Churches (Broederschap van Baptistengemeenten), formed in 1981.