Rai, di tutti di più
|Type||Società per Azioni|
|Genre||Public Broadcasting Service|
|Headquarters||Viale Mazzini 14, Rome, Italy|
|Revenue||€2.825 millions (2011)|
|Operating income||€23.5 millions (2011)|
|Net income||€39.3 millions (2011)|
|Owner(s)||99.56% Ministry of Economy and Finance
0.44% Italian Authors and Publishers Association
Rai Way S.p.A.
Rai World S.p.A.
Rai Cinema S.p.A.
01 Distribution S.r.l.
RAI — Radiotelevisione italiana S.p.A. (commercially styled Rai; known until 1954 as Radio Audizioni Italiane) is Italy's national public broadcasting company, owned by the Ministry of Economy and Finance.
RAI operates a large number of television channels and radio stations, broadcasting via digital terrestrial transmission (15 television and 7 radio channels nationwide) and from several satellite and IPTV platforms. It is the second biggest country broadcaster after Mediaset and also competes with Telecom Italia Media, and Sky Italia – as well as commercial radio networks. RAI has a relatively high television audience share of 42.3%.
In 1950, RAI became one of the 23 founding broadcasting organizations of the European Broadcasting Union.
- 1 History
- 2 Management
- 3 TV channels
- 4 Radio channels
- 5 News
- 6 Headquarters and Centers of Television Production
- 7 Logos
- 8 See also
- 9 Footnotes
- 10 External links
The Unione Radiofonica Italiana (URI) was formed in 1924 with the backing of the Marconi Company following a model adopted in other European countries. URI made its inaugural broadcast — a speech by Benito Mussolini at Teatro Costanzi — on 5 October. Regular programming began the following evening, with a quartet performing Haydn's Quartet No. 7 in A major from the Palazzo Corradi. At 21.00 CET, Ines Donarelli Viviani announced for the first time: "URI—Unione Radiofonica Italiana Rome station 1RO 425 meters wavelength. To all those who are listening our greetings, good evening." Guglielmo Marconi's S.A. Radiofono—Società Italiana per le Radiocomunicazioni Circolari (Radiofono) held 85% of URI shares and Western Electric's Società Italiana Radio Audizioni Circolari (SIRAC) held the remaining 15%.
Under the provisions of Royal Decree No. 1067 of 8 February 1923, wireless broadcasting became a state monopoly under the control of the Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs; URI was commissioned to provide services for a minimum of six years pursuant to Royal Decree No. 2191 of 14 October 1924 "Concessione dei servizi radioauditivi circolari alla Società Anonima Unione Radiofonica Italiana". However, when URI's contract expired in 1927, it was succeeded under Royal Decree Law No. 2207 of 17 November 1927 by the partially nationalised Ente Italiano per le Audizioni Radiofoniche (EIAR), which beaome Radio Audizioni Italiane S.p.A. (RAI) with investment from Società Idroelettrica Piemontese (SIP) in 1944.
During the reconstruction following World War II, much of RAI's early programming was influenced by the "Reithian" style of the BBC. The emphasis was on educational content. Programs like Non è mai troppo tardi and Un viaggio al Po introduced people to what life was like in other parts of the country, at a time when most people couldn't afford to travel.
Over the following years RAI made various changes to its services. Rai reorganized its radio stations in November 1946 into two national networks, Rete Rossa and Rete Azzurra. Rai added the culture-based Terzo Programma in October 1950. On 1 January 1952 the Rete Rossa became the Programma Nazionale (focusing on informational content) and the Rete Azzurra became the Secondo Programma (with a greater emphasis on entertainment). The three radio channels eventually became today's Rai Radio 1, Rai Radio 2, and Rai Radio 3.
Start of the television service
In 1954 the state-owned holding company Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale (IRI) became the sole shareholder and RAI – now renamed RAI—Radiotelevisione italiana to reflect its extended responsibilities – finally began a regular television service. On 3 January at 11.00 CET, the first RAI television announcer presented the day's schedule, which was broadcast from the service's Milan headquarters and relay stations in Turin and Rome. At 14.30, the first regular programme in Italian television history was broadcast: Arrivi e partenze, hosted by Armando Pizzo and Mike Bongiorno. The evening's entertainment was a theatre performance, L'osteria della posta, written by Carlo Goldoni. 23.15 saw the start of the day's concluding programme, La Domenica Sportiva – the first edition of a weekly series which continues to this day.
In 2005, the government of Silvio Berlusconi proposed partial privatization of RAI by selling 20% ownership. This proposal was very controversial, in part because Berlusconi was the head of the leading private broadcaster Mediaset. Some critics claimed that Mediaset could become the buyer and thus increase its dominant position. However, after the revelation that RAI would lose €80m ($96m, £54m) in 2006, the privatization plan was suspended in October 2005.
On 17 May 2010, Raisat received a major upgrade and re-branded with a new logo and a new name. It and all of the sister channels dropped the sat part from the name and became Rai YoYo, Rai 5 (formerly known as Rai Extra), Rai Premium, and Rai Movie (formerly known as Raisat Cinema).
RAI was originally the subsidiary of RAI Holding S.p.A. RAI Holding was absorbed into RAI as of 1 December 2004, per Article 21 of Law 112/04.
RAI is governed by a nine member Administrative Council. Seven of members are elected by a committee of the Italian Parliament. The other two (one of which is the President) are nominated by the largest shareholder: the Ministry of Economic Development. The Council appoints the Director-General. The Director-General and the members of the Administrative Council are appointed for a renewable three year term.
|Name||Took office||Left office|
|Arturo Carlo Jemolo||April 20, 1945||August 9, 1946|
|Giuseppe Spataro||August 9, 1946||May 17, 1951|
|Cristiano Ridomi||May 17, 1951||March 11, 1954|
|Antonio Carrelli||June 3, 1954||January 4, 1961|
|Novello Papafava||January 4, 1961||March 25, 1964|
|Pietro Quaroni||May 29, 1964||April 12, 1969|
|Aldo Sandulli||April 23, 1969||February 18, 1970|
|Umberto delle Fave||March 24, 1970||April 22, 1975|
|Beniamino Finocchiaro||May 23, 1975||January 20, 1977|
|Paolo Grassi||January 20, 1977||June 12, 1980|
|Sergio Zavoli||June 12, 1980||October 23, 1986|
|Enrico Manca||October 23, 1986||February 19, 1992|
|Walter Pedullà||February 19, 1992||July 13, 1993|
|Claudio Demattè||July 13, 1993||July 12, 1994|
|Letizia Moratti||July 12, 1994||April 24, 1996|
|Giuseppe Morello||April 24, 1996||July 10, 1996|
|Enzo Siciliano||July 10, 1996||January 21, 1998|
|Roberto Zaccaria||February 3, 1998||February 17, 2000|
|Roberto Zaccaria1||February 17, 2000||February 16, 2002|
|Vittorio Emiliani||February 16, 2002||February 22, 2002|
|Antonio Baldassarre||March 5, 2002||February 26, 2003|
|Paolo Mieli||March 7, 2003||March 13, 2003|
|Lucia Annunziata||March 13, 2003||May 4, 2004|
|Francesco Alberoni2||May 4, 2004||May 31, 2005|
|Sandro Curzi2||June 1, 2005||July 30, 2005|
|Claudio Petruccioli||July 31, 2005||March 25, 2009|
|Paolo Garimberti||March 26, 2009||June 8, 2012|
|Anna Maria Tarantola||June 8, 2012||present|
|Name||Took office||Left office|
|Giovan Battista Vicentini||1954||1955|
|Ettore Bernabei||January 5, 1961||September 18, 1974|
|Michele Principe||May 23, 1975||January 25, 1977|
|Giuseppe Glisenti||January 26, 1977||June 17, 1977|
|Pierantonino Bertè||July 12, 1977||June 18, 1980|
|Villy De Luca||June 19, 1980||July 21, 1982|
|Biagio Agnes||July 29, 1982||February 1, 1990|
|Gianni Pasquarelli||February 5, 1990||July 23, 1993|
|Gianni Locatelli||July 23, 1993||August 3, 1994|
|Gianni Billia||August 3, 1994||December 31, 1994|
|Raffaele Minicucci||January 16, 1995||February 29, 1996|
|Aldo Materia3||March 6, 1996||July 15, 1996|
|Franco Iseppi||July 15, 1996||February 8, 1998|
|Pier Luigi Celli||February 9, 1998||February 17, 2000|
|Pier Luigi Celli1||February 17, 2000||February 9, 2001|
|Claudio Cappon||February 9, 2001||March 19, 2002|
|Agostino Saccà||March 19, 2002||March 27, 2003|
|Flavio Cattaneo||March 27, 2003||August 5, 2005|
|Alfredo Meocci||August 5, 2005||June 20, 2006|
|Claudio Cappon||June 22, 2006||April 2, 2009|
|Mauro Masi||April 2, 2009||May 2, 2011|
|Lorenza Lei||May 4, 2011||June 8, 2012|
|Luigi Gubitosi||June 8, 2012||present|
RAI broadcasts 14 digital terrestrial channels. Rai 1, the main channel, targets the family market. Rai 2, that has broadcast since November 4, 1961 as the "Secondo Programma", has in recent years lacked clear focus, but now attempts to focus on a slightly younger audience than Rai 1. Rai 3 (on air from December 15, 1979 as "TV3") is the ‘alternative’ channel, with a definite public service remit and local programmes. Rai 1 and Rai 2 started full-time color broadcasting on February 1, 1977.
|Channel||LCN on DVB-T||Launched||Description|
|Rai 1||001||January 3, 1954||generalist|
|Rai 2||002||November 4, 1961||generalist|
|Rai 3||003||December 15, 1979||generalist|
|Rai 4||021||July 14, 2008||series tv, movies and entertainment for young|
|Rai 5||023||November 26, 2010||culture and documentaries|
|Rai Gulp||042||June 1, 2007||kids/teens|
|Rai Movie||024||July 1, 1999||movies|
|Rai News24||048||April 26, 1999||news|
|Rai Premium||025||July 31, 2003||Rai's series tv|
|Rai Scuola||146||October 19, 2009||educational|
|Rai Sport 1||057||February 1, 1999||sports|
|Rai Sport 2||058||May 18, 2010||sports|
|Rai Storia||054||February 2, 2009||history's documentaries|
|Rai Yoyo||043||November 1, 2006||babies/kids|
|Rai HD||501||April 24, 2008|
- Rai Italia: broadcasts the best of RAI to International audiences
- Rai Sender Bozen, regional channel in Trentino-Alto Adige region, in German and ladin language
- Rai Trst, regional channel in Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, in Slovenian language
Regional channels doesn't broadcast all the day, but only some hours.
- RaiSat Album (30 July 2003)
- RaiSat Art (30 July 2003)
- RaiSat Fiction (30 July 2003)
- RaiSat Smash Girls (1 August 2009)
- RaiSat Gambero Rosso Channel (1 August 2009)
- Rai Azzurri: UEFA Euro 2004 (2004, broadcast using Rai Utile frequencies)
- Rai Doc: cultures, styles (1 June 2007)
- Rai Futura: technologies, games, etc. (1 February 2007, broadcast on the same frequences of Rai Doc at settled times)
- Rai Olimpia: 2004 Summer Olympics (2004, broadcast using Rai Utile frequencies)
- Rai Utile (1 January 2008)
- Rai Widescreen: 1998 FIFA World Cup (1999)
- Rai Radio 1: News and information
- Rai Radio 2: Adult contemporary music and conversation
- Rai Radio 3: Classical music and culture
- Rai Radio FD 4: easy-listening music, formerly known as IV Canale
- Rai Radio FD 5: classic and opera music, formerly known as V Canale
- Rai GR Parlamento: coverage of proceedings in the Italian Parliament
- Rai Isoradio: for motorway users
- Rai Sender Bozen Radio: German-language programmes for the Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol region
- Radio Trst A: Slovene-language programmes for the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region
- Rai Italia Radio: broadcasting 'the best of RAI' to the world.
- Rai webradio 6: featuring items from the radio archives
- Rai webradio 7: Neapolitan music
- Rai webradio 8: music from the web
- TG1 (on Rai 1)
- TG2 (on Rai 2)
- TG3 (on Rai 3)
- Rai Parlamento
- Rai Sport
- Rai News
- Televideo (teletext) (Televideo is RAI's teletext service, it's available pushing the button "teletext" on all RAI channels)
Headquarters and Centers of Television Production
Centers of Television Production
|Seat||Centers of Television Production||Auditoriums/Theatres||Studios|
|Rome||CPTV Via Teulada, 66||9|
|Rome||CP Saxa Rubra||16|
|Rome||Studi Dear, Via Ettore Romagnoli, 30||6|
|Rome||Teatro delle Vittorie||1 theatre|
|Rome||Rai Auditorium of Foro Italico||1 auditorium|
|Milan||CP corso Sempione, 27||3 auditoriums||5|
|Milan||East End Studios via Mecenate, 76||4|
|Naples||CP Viale Marconi, 9||1 auditorium||7|
|Turin||CP via Verdi, 16||1 aduitorium||6|
|Turin||Grattacielo Rai Corso Bolzano||5|
|Palermo||CP Viale Strasburgo||4|
In every region and autonomous province of Italy, there is an RAI local office that produces local programs.
There are RAI offices in foreign countries, which produce news reports that are broadcast live in Italy. These offices are in:
- Bruxelles (to cover the European Union)
- Los Angeles
- Offices now closed: Nairobi, New Delhi, New York, Beirut, Buenos Aires, Madrid, Moscow, and Istanbul
- Television in Italy
- Television licensing in Italy
- Digital terrestrial television in Italy
- Prix Italia
-  (English) Retrieved on 2011-09-07
-  (English) Retrieved on 2011-09-07
- Originally a distinction was made in Italian between radio telephony (radiofonia) and radio broadcasting (radioaudizione circolare). The latter term has now fallen into disuse. La radio in Italia cronologia (Italian) Retrieved on 2007-11-28
- ::: RAI Annual Report 2008 ::: (English) Retrieved on 2009-09-11
- "Basta con il governo padrone, così cambierà la Tv pubblica" (Italian) Retrieved on 2007-10-10
- " DDL Riforma Rai" (Italian) Italian Ministry of Communications, Retrieved on 2007-10-10
- The Origins of radio broadcasting in Italy Comitato Guglielmo Marconi International (retrieved 27 November 2011)
- Gazzetta Ufficiale No. 11 of 15 January 1925 pp. 164-167
- , in Italian. Retrieved on 2009-06-21
- "RAI's privatisation is de facto suspended", its new director general, Alfredo Meocci, told a parliamentary watchdog committee.