United Episcopal Church of North America
|United Episcopal Church of North America|
The UECNA crest.
|Orientation||Broad Church - with some Low Church and Anglo-Catholic parishes|
|Polity||Episcopal (with apostolic succession)|
|Leader||Peter D. Robinson|
|Associations||Intercommunion with Anglican Catholic Church, Diocese of the Great Lakes and the Anglican Province of Christ the King|
|Founder||Charles D.D. Doren|
|Separated from||Anglican Catholic Church|
|Congregations||21 parishes, missions and affiliated congregations |
The UECNA describes itself as "embracing the broad base of ceremonial practice inherent in the Historic Anglican Communion" though historically the UECNA has tended to be Low to Broad Church in its ceremonial practice. The UECNA uses the 1928 Book of Common Prayer, in the USA, and the 1962 edition of the Canadian Prayer Book north of the border. Occasional use of older editions of the Book of Common Prayer is permitted.
The changes in the mainline denominations that it and other continuing churches object to include the acceptance of lax policies on the authority of Scripture, divorce, abortion, the ordination of women, and changes to the theology of the Book of Common Prayer. They also object to more recent innovations such as the ordination of openly homosexual clergy, but these were not at issue when they broke with the Episcopal Church.
- 1 History
- 2 Intercommunion agreements
- 3 Governance
- 4 Doctrine
- 5 Ordination and lay leadership
- 6 Order of St. Benedict
- 7 Publications
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Founding of the UECNA
Bishop Charles D. D. Doren, the senior of the four bishops consecrated at Denver for the continuing church on January 26, 1978, is considered the founding bishop of the UECNA. He initially served as Bishop of the Midwest, and then was translated to the new Diocese of the Mid-Atlantic States. However, he soon backed away from active participation in the Anglican Catholic Church, worried by the increasingly Anglo-Catholic character of the Episcopate, and the numerous Constitution and Canonical revisions undertaken in 1978-1981. The UECNA was established in 1981 after three parishes left the Anglican Catholic Church (ACC) to protest the near exclusion of Broad and Low Churchmen from the decision making process, and set about the task of forming a body that would be more hospitable to Low Churchmen. The standing committee of the new jurisdiction invited Bishop Doren to be their first bishop and, subsequently, the first archbishop. In more recent years, it has described itself as representing Broad or Central Church and has a smattering of parishes from the Anglo-Catholic and Low Church traditions. The church's constitution and canons are modeled on the PECUSA's 1958 code with some amendments. In the 1984 version, provision was made for an archbishop, rather than a Presiding Bishop, the holder of which office was to be at least 55 years of age. Provision was also made for the erection of dioceses in Canada, and more specific direction was given as to the circumstances in which the jurisdiction will consecrate bishops for overseas. The Canons were revised in 1991 and the title "archbishop," used in the 1984 draft constitution, was dropped in favor of "presiding bishop." The minimum age was lowered to 40 with the adoption of the draft canons of that year. The change in terminology was very widely ignored and Bishop Reber increasingly used the style "Archbishop" towards the end of his term as it has been largely adopted by other continuing churches. At the 2011 General Convention the canons were amended to recognize the use of the title "Archbishop" for the Presiding Bishop of the UECNA.
Under the leadership of Archbishop Doren (1981–1989) and Archbishop Knight (1989–1992), the UECNA grew to over forty congregations. In 1988-90 these were divided between the Diocese of the Ohio Valley and at least three missionary districts - West, South and East. So far this has represented the high-water mark of the church's prosperity.
The UECNA underwent a protracted decline during the early 1990s due to the illness and increasing incapacity of Archbishop Gramley (South 1985-96; PB 1992–96). When the summons to General Convention was issued in 1996 only seven parishes responded. They proceeded to place the missionary districts into suspension and the church was administered as a single diocese from then until April 2010. The Rev. Stephen C. Reber, Sr., was elected as bishop-coadjutor and consecrated in September 1996. Archbishop Gramley died shortly thereafter.
During the late 1990s, Archbishop Reber traveled many thousands of miles reactivating old UECNA parishes and receiving new congregations into the jurisdiction. He also continued Bishop Gramley's policy of relaxing the rather aggressively Low Church stance of the jurisdiction allowing the range of churchmanship within the United Episcopal Church to broaden. However, unlike the ACC and APCK, the UECNA still requires from candidates for the ministry to assent to the Thirty-nine Articles in addition to the Holy Scriptures and the Book of Common Prayer. In 1999 the UECNA entered into a short-lived intercommunion agreement with the Anglican Province of America, causing the ACC to suspend its intercommunion agreement with the UECNA. However, that action was not mirrored by the Anglican Province of Christ the King.
In 2007, intercommunion with the ACC was restored after a lapse of eight years, so that the UECNA now has cordial relations with both the ACC and the APCK. Currently, the three churches are exploring opportunities for greater cooperation and the possibility of achieving organic unity. Bishop Presley Hutchens of the ACC addressed delegates to the UECNA convention of 2008 and discussed the possibility of uniting the ACC and UECNA. Although well received at the time, there was a feeling among many of the delegates that the matter was being rushed, and that no proper consideration were being given to the theological, constitutional and canonical consideration thrown up by the move. Moves towards unity with the Anglican Catholic Church were referred for further discussion.
At the 2008 General Convention, the delegates elected three suffragan bishops with the intention that they would serve the UECNA and also assist the ACC and APCK when requested. Two of them subsequently departed the UECNA for the Reformed Episcopal Church, leaving the Right Rev. Peter D. Robinson as the sole suffragan bishop in UECNA until his appointment as Bishop of the Missionary District of the West in November 2009. Bishop Robinson succeeded the Most Rev. Stephen C. Reber on September 6, 2010, and confirmed as Archbishop by the 10th General Convention, held in Heber Springs, AR, on 12 May 2011.
By January 2014, there were 21 UECNA congregations in 12 states, including Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Florida, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, North Carolina, Virginia, and Wisconsin. The UECNA also has clergy in Canada.
The UECNA traces its apostolic succession from the Church of England as follows:
- John Moore, Archbishop of Canterbury, who assisted by the Archbishop of York and the Bishop of Bath and Wells did consecrate on 7th February 1787
- William White, as first Bishop of Pennsylvania, and 1st and 4th Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church, who in 1832 consecrated
- John H. Hopkins, as second Bishop of Vermont and subsequently Presiding Bishop, who in 1867 did consecrate
- Daniel S. Tuttle, as first Missionary Bishop of Montana, who in 1911, as Presiding Bishop did consecrate
- James DeWolf Perry, as seventh Bishop of Rhode Island, who in 1930, as 18th Presiding Bishop did consecrate
- Henry Knox Sherrill, as eighth Bishop of Massachusetts, who in 1950, as 20th Presiding Bishop did consecrate
- Arthur C. Lichtenberger, as ninth Bishop of Missouri, who whilst 21st Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church, and assisted by Horace Donegan, Bishop of New York and Reginald Mallet, Bishop of Northern Indiana, consecrated (1962)
- Albert A. Chambers, as Bishop of Springfield, who in 1978, as acting Primate of the Anglican Church of North America (Episcopal), assisted by Francisco Pagtakhan, and Charles D. D. Doren consecrated 
- James Orin Mote, as first Bishop of the Diocese of the Holy Trinity, who assisted by Bishops Burns, Lewis, and Rutherfoord, consecrated (1980)
- Robert Condit Harvey, as first Bishop of the Southwest in the Anglican Catholic Church, who in 1996, assisted by Bishops Ogden Miller, Edwin Caudill, John Hamers, and John Gramley (PB III UECNA), did consecrate,
- Stephen C. Reber Bishop-coadjutor of the UECNA, and subsequently IV Archbishop of UECNA, who assisted by William Wiygul, Bishop of the Southeastern States (APCK) and D. Presley Hutchens, Bishop of New Orleans (ACC), on 10 January 2009 consecrated,
- Peter D. Robinson, as a suffragan bishop in the UECNA, who subsequently became III Bishop of the Missionary District of the West, and V Archbishop of the UECNA.
The UECNA has effected intercommunion agreements with a number of other Continuing Anglican churches. Those presently in effect are with:
Dioceses and Missionary Districts
The United Episcopal Church is divided into three missionary Districts (or Missionary Dioceses) - West, consisting principally of churches in Arizona and California; South and Ozarks, consisting of Churches in Missouri, Arkansas, western Kentucky, and Alabama; and East, consisting of churches in Florida, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. These are governed on a day-to-day basis by Missionary Bishops appointed by the National Council who act in concert with their standing committees and with the District Convocation.
District Convocations consist of every clergyman Canonically resident within the Missionary District who is not under discipline, plus lay delegates from each congregation. District Convocations are unicameral, and are responsible for general policy within each district, including the allocation of funds received from the National Council.
The General Convention
The General Convention meets every third year, and consists of two houses. The larger is the House of Deputies which currently consists of one clergyman and up to four lay representatives from each parish and mission of the UECNA. However, once a fourth diocese is established, the Canons require that the representation be changed to a diocesan basis and that four clergy and four lay deputies be elected for each diocese by its Convention. This would reduce the size of the House of Deputies 32 members, plus alternates against the current maximum of over one hundred! The House of Deputies has a President, who is usually a priest. The present holder of this office is the Rev. Jim McTaggart, Rector of St Joseph Anglican Church, Branson, MO. The House of Deputies is the Lower House of the General Convention. The lower house elects the President, Treasurer, and Secretary of the General Convention who continue in office until the commencement of the next General Convention.
House of Bishops
The upper house of General Convention is the House of Bishop which consists of all UECNA bishops in good standing. It meets under the chairmanship of the Archbishop, and has the power to nominate bishops for Missionary Dioceses, to take order for the administration of vacant diocese, and set policy with regard to ordination and other related matters. Unlike the House of Deputies it customarily meets annually on the second Thursday after Easter to discuss matters of mutual concern between meetings of the General Convention.
At present it membership consists of:
- The Most Rev. Peter D. Robinson, Archbishop of the UECNA, Missionary Bishop of the West, and Rector of St. Paul's Anglican Church, Prescott, AZ
- The Right Rev. Glen Hartley, Missionary Bishop of the South and Ozarks, and Rector of St Francis Anglican Church, Ava, MO.
- The Right Rev. Joseph Hamlin Dobson, IV, Episcopal Visitor to the Missionary Diocese of the East, and Rector of St John's Anglican Church and Pro-Cathedral, St Mary's County, MD.
- The Right Rev. Steven Murrell, Assistant Bishop, Missionary Diocese of the East (former Presiding Bishop of the Primitive Episcopal Church).
- The Most Rev. Stephen C. Reber - Archbishop Emeritus of the UECNA, and Rector of All Saints' Church, Hillsborough, North Carolina
Business may be originated in either house of General Convention, though the budget customarily commences in the House of Deputies, and Canon changes in the House of Bishops. After a first reading it passes to the other House of General the Convention for review and approval. If amendments are made it must be approved and returned to the originating House and be approved as amended before going to the Presiding Bishop for signature.
The National Council is composed of the Archbishop, two other bishops, three priests and six laypersons. The Bishops are elected by the House of Bishops and the clergy and lay members are elected members by the House of Deputies. The Council also contains two representatives from the women's auxiliary, the United Episcopal Church Women (UECW). The National Council meets regularly each year, usually on the second Friday after Easter in non-Convention years, and at the beginning and end of General Convention when it meets. However, the Presiding Bishop has the authority to convene special meetings should circumstances so require.
The doctrinal position of the United Episcopal Church is primarily defined by the Declaration of Conformity contained in Article VIII of the UECNA Constitution which grounds the doctrine of the Church in the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, the Book of Common Prayer (1928) and the Thirty-nine Articles of Religion (1571/1801) stressing the jurisdiction's continuity with the English Reformation and the old Protestant Episcopal Church. This is intended to center the Church's doctrine firmly in the 'Classical Anglicanism' tradition as contained in the historic formularies of the Church; the Thirty-nine Articles and the Book of Common Prayer. These, in turn, refer back to the inerrant Holy Scriptures and the Ancient Fathers and Councils of the Church, as well as to the "New Learning" of the Reformation era.
The UECNA considers the Affirmation of St Louis as being among its founding documents, but does not incorporated it into the Constitution and Canons of the Church. The Affirmation is largely seen as a response to the theological and moral crisis in the Episcopal Church in the early 1970s, and as a call to action on the part of orthodox Episcopalians to preserve the traditional teaching and worship of the Church. The United Episcopal Church most often quotes the Affirmation of St Louis in connection with moral issues. In September 2012, Bishop Robinson issued a statement affirming his support for those church bodies opposing the HHS Contraception Mandate. The UECNA is opposed to same-sex marriage, euthanasia, and condemns abortion on Biblical, moral and ethical grounds.
In ceremonial matters, the present Archbishop, the Most Rev. Peter D. Robinson points outs that the UECNA has a greater diversity of churchmanship and ceremonial practice than it did in the 1980s. However, the church is very insistent that ceremonial use conforms to traditional Anglican or Episcopalian customs. Historically, the minimum of vestments required for services in parish churches is surplice and tippet (rochet, chimere and tippet for bishops.) At the other extreme, the 1559 Ornaments Rubric represents the maximum of vesture and ornament contemplated by the compilers of the BCP. Most parishes are Broad Church.
Ordination and lay leadership
See: Episcopal polity
The UECNA's leadership is divided among lay leaders and ordained ministers as follows:
Those in ordained positions (including students admitted to postulancy) include the following:
- Lay Reader - Is a layman licensed by the bishop of the diocese to read Morning and Evening Prayer, the Litany, and the Penitential Office, as well as the Burial Office. He is expected to have a good knowledge of Holy Scripture, and some knowledge of theology, so as to be able to answer questions from lay members of the church, and lead Bible Studies.
- Diocesan Reader - Is a layman who has already served as a lay reader, has completed a formal course of theology and is licensed to preach sermons of his own composition.
- Postulant for Holy Orders Is a student for Holy orders, and is not yet ordained. They are usually expected to serve as Lay Readers and Diocesan Readers. A postulant must complete not less than one year of study consisting of Church History, Pastoral Work, Liturgics, Doctrine and Holy Scripture. He assists the local parish as a layreader in the offices of the church as called upon and allowed by the canons of the church.
- Deacon - A deacon may be either permanent or transition, though the UECNA makes no formal distinction between the two. Permanent deacons are those deacons who have decided not to study for the presbyterate, and therefore remain as deacons. Transitional deacons are training for priesthood. Before ordination to the priesthood, a deacon should serve for not less than one year and complete a course of study.
- Priest - Priests or presbyters are ministers of Word and Sacrament who are authorized to undertake all ministerial functions except ordination and confirmation. In the UECNA only priests and bishops are allowed to be Parish Ministers.
- Bishop - Bishops are "assigned a Diocese consisting of a given number of parishes, and will provide regular oversight, counsel and guidance to those parishes. An Episcopal visit to each parish will be made not less than once in three years and attendance at national counsels and meetings as called."
Lay leadership positions
In addition to Lay Readers and Diocesan Readers, the following lay ministries exist in the United Episcopal Church
- Vestryman - every parish has an elected council consisting of between five and thirteen members of the laity. Vestrymen are expected to be communicant members of the church, over the age of 18. Their function is to maintain and administer the physical plant of the local parish, and to advise the rector concerning mission, and parish affairs. Although the traditional term 'vestryman' is used the position is open to both men and women.
- Senior (Rector's) and Junior (Peoples') Wardens take leadership in the vestry and are responsible for relations between the Rector (Minister) and congregation in the case of the Senior Warden, and the maintenance of the parish buildings and plant in the case of the Junior Warden.
- Each parish is free to create such lay ministries as it may require provided that it has the approval of the bishop for so doing. These ministries may include District Visitors who are appointed by the Rector and Vestry to oversee communicant members of the church; Sunday school teachers and superintendents who undertake to train the children of the parish in Holy Scripture and the teachings of the Church.
United Episcopal Church Women
The UECW is an official organization of women who serve the church. Their particular focus is to raise funds for the missionary work of the Church.
Order of St. Benedict
Membership is open to married or single men and women over the age of 21 who are convicted that they are called to the religious life.
The order has no established communities and does not establish communities. Instead, "[m]embers provide for their own living quarters and obtain their livelihood through secular or religious employment".
The stages of development are:
- Postulant - one who has made application to the abbot, been accepted to the order, and awaits investiture as a novice.
- Novice - one who vows to a testing period of one year. These vows are taken in the presence of the abbot, or a priest appointed by the abbot.
- Professed member - one who takes final vows of the order. These vows are taken in the presence of the abbot.
- Glad Tidings. The Journal of the UECNA.
- The Trinitarian. News from the UECNA and the ACC
- UECNA website.
- The United Episcopal Church - An Introduction (UECNA 1990, rev. 2013)
- Excerpts from the website of the UECNA
- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9ViHz7oPK60&NR=1 Youtube video of the Convention
- http://www.anglicancatholic.org - Chambers Succession
- ACC Website; Chambers Succession
- The UECNA records preserve the program for Bishop Reber's consecration, which names Bishop Harvey as the principal consecrator.
- UECNA records
- UECNA ordination guide on-line
- Order of St. Benedict