Bangsamoro Republik

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This article is about the unrecognized breakaway state proclaimed in 2013. For other Bangsamoro states proclaimed, see Bangsamoro declarations of independence. For the proposed autonomous political entity within the Philippines, see Bangsamoro (political entity).
United Federated States of Bangsamoro Republik
جمهورية بانجسامورو
Unrecognized state

2013


Flag

Capital Davao City (de jure)
Government Federal presidential
constitutional republic
[1]
(Government in exile)[2]
President
 -  2013 Nur Misuari
History
 -  Declared July 27, 2013
 -  Recognition None
 -  Defeat in Zamboanga September 28, 2013

The Bangsamoro Republik, officially the United Federated States of Bangsamoro Republik (UFSBR)[3] was a short-lived unrecognized breakaway state in the Philippines. Nur Misuari, chairman of the Moro National Liberation Front issued the Proclamation of Bangsamoro Independence on 27 July 2013 in Talipao, Sulu and declared the capital of Bangsamoro to be Davao City.[4]

According to Misuari, the republic's territory encompasses the islands of Basilan, Mindanao, Palawan, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi[3] where the Bangsamoro traditionally lived. However, according to Misuari's legal counsel, Emmanuel Fontanilla, the state also encompasses the Malaysian state of Sabah and Sarawak.[2][5]

This declaration of independence, which was made under the authority of the United Nation General Assembly 1514 resolution of 1960 granting independence to all colonized countries,[6] escalated into the Zamboanga City crisis.[7] The MNLF, the group which proclaimed Bangsamoro is an observer of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

As of September 28, 2013 with the defeat in Zamboanga City by the Philippines government, the MNLF no longer controls any territory openly anywhere and the Bangsamoro Republic has been debilitated. However, the MNLF has not renounced its bid for the independence of the Bangsamoro Republik.

Etymology[edit]

The term Bangsamoro comes from the Malayo word bansa or in Lumad-Manobo word bangsa, meaning nation or people, and the Spanish word moro, from the Spanish word for Moor, the Reconquista-period term used for the predominantly Muslim Malay tribes. Republik is the Manobo word for republic. Moro in Meranau term is Capturer (e.g.moro,myakauro,miyaoro,miadakep) Meranau or Maranao language.

History[edit]

Bangsamoro is a legal and understood name of all Muslim in Mindanao.

Early history[edit]

In the 13th century, the arrival of Muslim missionaries from Persian Gulf,[8] including one, Makhdum Karim, in Tawi-Tawi initiated the conversion of the native population into Islam. Trade between Malaysia and Indonesia helped establish the Islamic religion in the southern Philippines.

In 1457, the introduction of Islam led to the creation of Sultanates. This included the sultanates of Buayan, Maguindanao and Sulu, which is considered the oldest Muslim government in the Philippine archipelago until its annexation by the United States in 1898.

American period[edit]

Significant parts of Bangsamoro were part of the US administered Moro Province and later the Department of Mindanao and Sulu.

Independence of Bangsamoro Republik[edit]

An independent state of Bangsamoro Republik was first declared on 28 April 1974,[9][10] two months after the siege of Jolo, Sulu after the MNLF first attempted to raise their flag.[11]

Zamboanga City crisis[edit]

MNLF commander Asamin Hussinhe stated in September 2013 that his group would only release some 200 civilian hostages held in Barangay Kasanyangan once they are allowed to proceed to Zamboanga city hall and hoist their flag in front of it.[7] During the crisis, the MNLF managed to gain de facto control of three districts of Zamboanga City.[12][13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "MNLF returns to rebellion | Headlines, News, The Philippine Star". philstar.com. 2013-08-16. Retrieved 2013-09-08. 
  2. ^ a b "Misuari declares independence of Mindanao, southern Philippines". Gulf News. 2013-08-16. Retrieved 2013-09-08. 
  3. ^ a b "Bangsamoro Constitution: Road map to Independence and National self-determination". MNLF official website. 2013-08-23. Retrieved 2013-09-08. 
  4. ^ "WHO IS AFRAID OF MINDANAO INDEPENDENCE?". August 14, 2013. Retrieved November 19, 2013. 
  5. ^ By Roel Pareño, The Philippine Star (2013-08-16). "MNLF returns to rebellion". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 2013-09-08. 
  6. ^ "Nur declares independence of 'Bangsamoro Republik'". Philippine Star. 2013-08-15. Retrieved 2013-09-08. 
  7. ^ a b "MNLF wants flag hoisted in Zamboanga city hall". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 2013-09-09. 
  8. ^ M.R. Izady. "The Gulf's Ethnic Diversity: An Evolutionary History. in G. Sick and L. Potter, eds., Security in the Persian Gulf Origins, Obstacles, and the Search for Consensus,(NYC: Palgrave, 2002)
  9. ^ W.K. Che Man. "Muslim Separatism: The Moros of Southern Philippines and the Malays of Southern Thailand". Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1974.
  10. ^ Abinales, Patricio. N., et al. "State and Society in the Philippines". Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2005.
  11. ^ Ben Cal (2013-09-11). "MNLF’s first try to raise flag was 39 years ago". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved 2014-01-13. 
  12. ^ "Houses on fire as fighting erupts in southern Philippines". Reuters. 
  13. ^ "Malaysian Marwan believed to mastermind latest bomb attacks in south Philippines". The Star.