United Kingdom of the Netherlands
||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (October 2010)|
|Kingdom of the Netherlands
Koninkrijk der Nederlanden (Dutch)
Keninkryk fan de Nederlannen (West Frisian)
Vereenegt Kinnekräich vun den Nidderlanden (Luxembourgish)
Royaume des Pays-Bas (French)
"I will maintain"
Wien Neêrlands Bloed
"Those in whom Dutch blood"
Map of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815. The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is shown in light green.
|Capital||Amsterdam and Brussels|
|Languages||Dutch, Frisian, French|
|-||Lower house||House of Representatives|
|Historical era||Early modern period|
|-||Congress of Vienna||16 March 1815|
|-||Constitution adopted||24 August 1815|
|-||Belgian Revolution||25 August 1830|
|-||Treaty of London||19 April 1839|
The United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–1839) (Dutch: Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, Frisian: Feriene Keninkryk fan de Nederlannen, Luxembourgish: Vereenegt Kinnekräich vun den Nidderlanden, French: Royaume-Uni des Pays-Bas) is the unofficial name used to refer to the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Dutch: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, Frisian: Keninkryk fan de Nederlannen, Luxembourgish: Kinnekräich vun den Nidderlanden, French: Royaume des Pays-Bas) during the period after it was first created from part of the First French Empire and before the new Kingdom of Belgium split off from it in 1830. This state, a large part of which still exists today as the Kingdom of the Netherlands, was made up of the former Dutch Republic (Republic of the Seven United Netherlands) to the north, the former Austrian Netherlands to the south, and the former Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The House of Orange-Nassau came to be the monarchs of this new state.
The United Kingdom of the Netherlands collapsed after the 1830 Belgian Revolution. William I, King of the Netherlands, would refuse to recognize a Belgian state until 1839, when he had to yield under pressure by the Treaty of London. Only at this time were exact borders agreed.
Prince William of Orange-Nassau, the new sovereign of the Netherlands
Part of a series on the
|History of the Netherlands|
After the liberation of the Netherlands in 1813 by Prussian and Russian troops, it was taken for granted that any new regime would have to be headed by William Frederik of Orange-Nassau, the son of the last stadtholder William V of Orange-Nassau and Princess Wilhelmina of Prussia. William returned to The Hague, where on 6 December he was offered the title of King. He refused, instead proclaiming himself "Sovereign Prince" of the Principality of the United Netherlands.
Unification under William I
During the Congress of Vienna in 1815 France had to give up its rule of the Southern Netherlands. These negotiations were not made easy, because William tried to get as much out of it as he could. His ideas of a United Netherlands were based upon the actions of Hendrik van der Noot, a lawyer and politician and one of the main players in the Revolution of the Southern Netherlands against the Austrian Emperor (1789–1790). In 1789, after the Southern Netherlands declared themselves independent, Hendrik knew this was a fragile state and he tried to be reunited with the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands. Since then William had never forgotten this and after the fall of Napoleon he saw a chance.
Three different scenarios were made:
- The Northern Netherlands restored within its old borders and the Southern Netherlands would become a barrier state under the rule of a great power, like Austria.
- If the Southern Netherlands would stay (partially) French, the Northern Netherlands should be extended to the Nete River or probably the whole of Flanders. In this scenario also portions of Germany would become Dutch. Then the border would be the line Mechelen-Maastricht-Jülich-Cologne-Düsseldorf where it ends at the river Rhine.
- France within its old borders, the Northern Netherlands unified with the Southern Netherlands and all of German territories on the left bank of the Rhine and north of the Moselle and the old Duchy of Berg and the old Lands of Nassau on the right bank of the Rhine.
The first two scenarios came from "Memorandum of Holland" made in 1813 after the Battle of Leipzig. The last scenario came from William himself. The first scenario never made it because the Great Powers (Great Britain, Prussia, Austria and Russia) thought an independent Southern Netherlands/Belgium under an Austrian Prince was too weak and Austria was not interested in getting it back.
The Dutch question became a problem. The Great Powers of Europe chose the last scenario, but didn't want to go as far in enlarging the Netherlands as William.
In the end, the Eight Articles of London granted William the following lands:
- The Republic of the Seven United Netherlands
- The Austrian Netherlands within its borders of 1789 (so without French Flanders)
- The Prince-Bishopric of Liège, but on Prussia's behalf small changes were made to its borders
The Duchy of Luxembourg was not fully granted to William, because it was a member of the German Confederation. William however demanded that Luxembourg become a part of the Netherlands, as a unified Netherlands was stronger as a buffer for France. Historically it had been a part of the Seventeen Provinces or Burgundian Netherlands up to 1648, but Luxembourg was still a part of the discussions.
On 1 March 1815, while the Congress of Vienna was still going on, Napoleon escaped from Elba and he created a large army against the Great Powers of Europe. He was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo (at that time within the kingdom) by Prussian, British, Belgian, Dutch and Nassau (under the prince of Orange) troops.
In response, on 16 March 1815, William proclaimed the Netherlands a kingdom, with himself as King William I. The Powers also granted him sovereignty over Luxembourg, which became a grand duchy in personal union with the Netherlands and stayed a member of the German Confederation, being garrisoned by Prussian troops on behalf of the Dutch king.
With the unification William completed the dream of his ancestor William of Orange (also known as William the Silent), who started it in 1579.
Power of the King
The newly formed kingdom was not like the Netherlands or Belgium today. Under the constitution, King William was granted much more power than a King or Queen in a modern constitutional monarchy.
The Second Chamber of the States General of the Netherlands had 110 members, of which 55 were chosen by the north and 55 were chosen by the south. The First Chamber was appointed by the king and consisted of old and new noblemen.
The Netherlands had eight ministers, who did not have to answer to the Second Chamber, but only to the King himself. In fact, they were following his demands. The King also could rule by "Royal Order".
|The Kingdom consisted of 17 provinces (BE means currently part of Belgium, NL means currently part of the Netherlands):
Economically the new state prospered, although many people in the north were unemployed and lived in poverty because a lot of British goods had destabilised the Dutch trade market.
Although financially stable, the south also had the burden of the nation's debt, but gained new trade markets in the Dutch colonies. Many people's welfare improved in the south lived in poverty because the profits of trade were used for big projects.
William tried to divide the nation's wealth more equally through, among others, the following actions:
- Constructing new roads
- Digging new canals and widening/deepening existing canals:(North-Holland canal, Canal from Gent to Terneuzen, Brussels-Charleroi Canal, Moselle canal, canal of Liege)
- Extending the steel industry to the south
- Instating the Metric System
- Levying new import and export taxes
- Opening the harbour of Antwerp
Through these actions export of cotton, sheets, weapons and steel products increased. The fleet of Antwerp grew to 117 ships. Many of these projects were funded by King William himself.
The educational system was extended. Under William's rule the number of school-going children doubled from 150,000 to 300,000 by opening 1,500 new public schools. The south especially needed schools because many people could not read or write.
In 1825 William founded the Dutch Trading Company (Dutch: Nederlandse Handels Maatschappij), to boost trade with the colonies.
The way to separation
Socially the unification created many problems. Although William set out from the start to create a single people, it soon became apparent that the north and south had drifted far apart culturally in the 200 years since the south was reconquered by the Habsburgs. In particular, the Burgundian and Calvinistic mentalities did not tolerate each other very well. Both the north and the south had a different historical background and the Dutch and French speaking people both were afraid of being overruled by each other. France played a role in this by the "Légion belge et parisienne", financed with private funds but with permission of the French government, to make a unification with France possible. A linguistic reform in 1823 intended to make Dutch the official language in the Flemish provinces, since it was the language of most of the Flemish population. This reform met with strong opposition from the Flemish upper and middle classes who at the time were mostly French speaking.
Religious and political differences
Religion was also a reason for separation. While the north was dominantly Protestant, the south was Catholic. The Catholic Church saw its influence declining in favour of the king. He built over 1,500 state schools where the Church was no longer the provider of education. Also the north had built up an independent history, and had experienced a golden age. So the Dutch people saw Belgium more as a territorial gain than a partner. Although 62% of the population lived in the South, they were assigned the same number of representatives in the States General while, having more provinces, the North represented a majority in the elected Lower Assembly; therefore the more populous Belgians felt significantly under-represented.
- Roman foederati
- The Chamavi merged into the confederation of the Franks; the Tubanti merged into the confederation of the Saxons.
- Roman foederati
- Roman foederati
- Part of East Francia after 939, divided in Upper Lorraine (as part of West Francia) and Lower Lorraine (as part of East Francia) in 959.
- Lower Lorraine - also referred to as Lothier - disintegrated into several smaller independent territories and only the title of a "Duke of Lothier" remained, held by Brabant.
- Lordship of Frisia and Lordship of Groningen (including the Ommelanden) after 1524 and 1536 respectively.
- Including County of Zeeland, that was ruled by neighboring County of Holland and County of Flanders (until 1432).
- Utrecht included Lordship of Overijssel (until 1528), County of Drenthe (until 1528) and County of Zutphen (until 1182).
- Duchy of Brabant included since 1288 also the Duchy of Limburg (now part of the Belgian Province of Liège) and the "Overmaas" lands Dalhem, Valkenburg and Herzogenrath (now part of the Dutch Province of Limburg).
- The county, later duchy, of Guelders consisted of four quarters, as they were separated by rivers: situated upstream Upper Quarter (the present day northern half of the Dutch province of Limburg), spatially separated from the three downstream Lower Quarters: County of Zutphen (after 1182), Veluwe Quarter and Nijmegen Quarter. The three lower quarters formed the present day province of Gelderland. Guelders did not include the Cleves enclave Huissen and the independent counties of Buren and Culemborg, that were much later seceded to the province of Gelderland.
- Including County of Artois (part of Flanders until 1237) and Tournaisis.
- Throughout the Middle Ages, the bishopric was further expanded with the Duchy of Bouillon in 1096 (ceded to France in 1678), the acquisition of the county of Loon in 1366 and the county of Horne in 1568. The Lordship of Mechelen was also part of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège.
- The name Seventeen Provinces came in use after the Habsburg emperor Charles V had re-acquired the Duchy of Guelders, and an continuous territory arose.
- Blom, J.C.H., Lamberts, E. (2003), Geschiedenis van de Nederlanden.