United States–Korea Treaty of 1882

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A Treaty of Peace, Amity, Commerce and Navigation[1] (Korean: 조·미수호통상조약) was negotiated between representatives of the United States and Joseon Korea in 1882.[2]

The final draft was accepted at Chemulpo near the Korean capital of Hanseong (Seoul) in April and May 1884.[3]

Background[edit]

In 1876, Korea established a trade treaty with Japan after Japanese ships approached Ganghwado and threatened to fire on the Korean capital city. Treaty negotiations with the Americans and with several European countries were made possible by the completion of this initial Japanese overture.[4]

Negotiations with China were a significant feature of the process which resulted in this treaty.[5]

Treaty provisions[edit]

The United States and Korea negotiated and approved a 14 article treaty. The treaty established mutual friendship and mutual assistance in case of attack; and the treaty also addressed such specific matters as extraterritorial rights for American citizens in Korea and most favored nation trade status.[1][6]

Abstract[edit]

The treaty encompasses a range of subjects.

  • Article 1 provides:
  • Article 2 ... exchange of diplomatic and consular representatives[6]
  • Article 3 ... United States vessels wrecked on coast of Korea[6]
  • Article 4 ... United States extraterritorial jurisdiction over its citizens in Corea[6]
  • Article 5 ... merchants and merchant vessels shall reciprocally pay duties[6]
  • Article 6 ... reciprocal rights of residence and protection of citizens of both nations[6]
  • Article 7 ... prohibiting export or import of opium[6]
  • Article 8 ... export of "breadstuffs" and red ginseng[6]
  • Article 9 ... regulating importation of arms and ammunition[6]
  • Article 10 .. reciprocal rights to employing native labor[6]
  • Article 11 .. students exchanges[6]
  • Article 14 .. the usual most-favored-nation clause[6]

The treaty remained in effect until the annexation of Korea in 1910.

Aftermath[edit]

The US treaty established a template which was explicitly modelled in treaties with other Western nations — Germany in 1883, Russia and Italy in 1884, France in 1886, and others as well.[7]

The treaty remained in effect even after the protectorate was established in 1905.[8]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b United States. Dept. of State (1889). John H. Haswell, ed. Treaties and conventions concluded between the United States of America since July 4, 1776. G.P.O. p. 216. 
  2. ^ Korean Mission to the Conference on the Limitation of Armament, Washington, D.C., 1921-1922. (1922). Korea's Appeal to the Conference on Limitation of Armament, p. 17., p. 17, at Google Books; excerpt, "It is certain that in 1882 the United States recognized the independence and territorial integrity of Korea by entering into a treaty of amity and commerce with her as a separate national entity. The treaty was in due form. It was ratified by the Senate and in regular course it was formally "proclaimed" by President Arthur. Japan was the first nation to officially "congratulate" both Korea and the United States upon its consummation. This fact is noted in the report of Hon. John A. Bingham to Secretary Frelinghuysen, April 14, 1883. As though to emphasize the international effect of this treaty in recognizing this national entity, China protested the sending of Korean ministers to the United States, claiming suzerainty over Korea. The protest was patiently and fully considered on its merits and was overruled. Later China, conceding the position of the United States, also recognized, by specific treaty the independence and separate entity of Korea. Great Britain, France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia, Belgium, Denmark, and Italy, following the course of the United States, also made treaties of amity and commerce with Korea as a separate nation." [italics + bold added for emphasis]
  3. ^ Yŏng-ho Ch'oe et al. (2000). Sources of Korean Tradition, p. 235, p. 235, at Google Books; excerpt, "Korea signed a similar accord with the United States (the Treaty of Chelump'o, 1882) that was followed by similar agreements with other Western nations."
  4. ^ Kim, Chun-gil. (2005). The History of Korea, pp. 107-108., p. 107, at Google Books
  5. ^ Kang, Woong Joe. (2005) The Korean struggle for International identity in the foreground of the Shufeldt Negotiation, 1866-1882, p. 136., p. 136, at Google Books; Kang, Jae-un (2006). The Land of Scholars: Two Thousand Years of Korean Confucianism, p. 459., p. 459, at Google Books; Pletcher, David M. (2001). The Diplomacy of Involvement: American economic expansion across the Pacific, 1784-1900, p. 186., p. 186, at Google Books
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Korean Mission, p. 29., p. 29, at Google Books; excerpt, "Treaty and Diplomatic Relations Between the United States and Korea. Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation dated May 22, 1882."
  7. ^ Kim, p. 107., p. 107, at Google Books
  8. ^ Korean Mission p. 36., p. 36, at Google Books; excerpt, "Official rescript issued by Japan, November 22, 1905, declares: 'In bringing this agreement to the notice of the powers having treaties with Korea, the Imperial Government declares that * * * they will see that these treaties are maintained and respected, and they also engage not to prejudice In any way the legitimate commercial and industrial interests of those powers in Korea'."

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

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