Ambassadors of the United States
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Ambassadors are nominated by the President and confirmed by the U.S. Senate. An ambassador can be appointed during a recess, but he or she can only serve as ambassador until the end of the next session of Congress unless subsequently confirmed. Ambassadors serve "at the pleasure of the President", meaning they can be dismissed at any time.
An ambassador may be a career Foreign Service Officer or a political appointee. In most cases, career foreign service officers serve a tour of approximately three years per ambassadorship whereas political appointees customarily tender their resignations upon the inauguration of a new president. As embassies fall under the State Department's jurisdiction, ambassadors answer to the Secretary of State.
- 1 Current U.S. ambassadors
- 2 Ambassadors to international organizations
- 3 Ambassadors-at-Large
- 4 Other Chiefs of Mission
- 5 Special Envoys, Representatives and Coordinators
- 6 Nations without exchange of ambassadors
- 7 Selected past ambassadors
- 8 Ambassadors killed in office
- 9 Ambassadors to past countries
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes and references
- 12 External links
Current U.S. ambassadors
Ambassadors to international organizations
Current ambassadors from the United States to international organizations:
Current Ambassadors-at-Large from the United States with worldwide responsibility:
|Counterterrorism (Coordinator)||List||Tina Kaidanow||||February 12, 2014|
|Global AIDS Combat (Coordinator)||List||Deborah Birx||||April 4, 2014|
|Global Women's Issues||List||Catherine Russell||||August 1, 2013|
|International Religious Freedom||List||David Saperstein||||December 12, 2014|
|Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (Director)||List||Vacant since November 10, 2014
Kari Johnstone, Acting
|||November 10, 2014|
|War Crimes Issues||List||Stephen Rapp||||September 8, 2009|
Other Chiefs of Mission
Senior diplomatic representatives of the United States hosted in posts other than embassies. Unlike other consulates, these persons report directly to the Secretary of State.
|Cuba||List||Jeffrey DeLaurentis||Chief of Mission||Havana||August 2014|
|Curaçao||List||James Moore||Consul General and Chief of Mission||Curaçao||June 2013|
|Hong Kong||List||Clifford Hart||Consul General and Chief of Mission||Hong Kong||July 30, 2013|
|Jerusalem||List||Michael Ratney||Consul General and Chief of Mission||Jerusalem||July 29, 2012|
|Macau||List||Clifford Hart||Consul General and Chief of Mission||Hong Kong||July 30, 2013|
|Taiwan||List||Christopher Marut||Director||Taipei||September 7, 2012|
Special Envoys, Representatives and Coordinators
These diplomatic officials report directly to the Secretary of State. Many oversee a portfolio not restricted to one nation, often an overall goal, and are not usually subject to Senate confirmation.
|Afghanistan and Pakistan||Daniel Feldman (Special Representative)||||August 1, 2014|
|African Great Lakes Region and the Congo-Kinshasa||Russ Feingold (Special Envoy)||||July 18, 2013|
|Arctic Council||Robert Papp (Special Representative)||||July 14, 2014|
|Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation||Robert Wang (Senior Official)||||August 2013|
|Asian Development Bank||Robert Orr (Ambassador/Executive Director)||||September 16, 2010|
|Assistance to Europe and Eurasia||Alina Romanowski (Coordinator)||||March 9, 2015|
|Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention Issues||Robert Wood (Ambassador/Special Representative)||||October 2, 2014|
|Burma||Vacant since November 19, 2014 (Senior Advisor)|||
|Center for Strategic Counterterrorism Communications||Alberto Fernandez (Coordinator)||||March 26, 2012|
|Central African Republic||Stuart Symington (Special Representative)||||April 21, 2014|
|Children's Issues||Susan Jacobs (Special Advisor)||||September 30, 2011|
|Civil Society and Emerging Democracies||Vacant since October 31, 2014 (Coordinator)|||
|Climate Change||Todd Stern (Special Envoy)||||January 26, 2009|
|Closure of the Guantánamo Bay Detention Facility||Cliff Sloan (Special Envoy)||||July 1, 2013|
|Colombian Peace Process||Bernie Aronson (Special Envoy)||February 20, 2015|
|Commercial and Business Affairs||Scott Nathan (Special Representative)||||March 10, 2014|
|Conventional Armed Forces in Europe||Vacant since May 31, 2011 (Special Envoy)|||
|Cyber Issues||Christopher Painter (Coordinator)||||February 22, 2011|
|Ebola Response||Steven Browning (Special Coordinator)||||December 1, 2014|
|Eurasian Energy||Vacant since September 3, 2012 (Special Envoy)|||
|Foreign Assistance Resources||Hari Sastry (Director)||||October 20, 2014|
|Foreign Missions||Vacant (Director)
Frederick Ketchem, Acting
|Foreign Service Institute||Nancy McEldowney (Director)||||February 19, 2013|
|Global Coalition to Counter the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant||John Allen (Special Presidential Envoy)||||September 16, 2014|
|Global Food Security||Nancy Stetson (Special Representative)||||June 23, 2014|
|Global Health Diplomacy||Vacant (Special Representative)
Elizabeth Jordan, Acting
|||June 30, 2014|
|Global Intergovernmental Affairs||Vacant (Special Representative)
Mary Pensabene, Acting
|Global Partnerships||Andrew O'Brien (Special Representative)||||May 20, 2013|
|Global Youth Issues||Andy Rabens (Special Advisor)||||October 19, 2014|
|Haiti||Thomas Adams (Special Coordinator)||||September 27, 2010|
|Holocaust Issues||Nicholas Dean (Special Envoy)
Stuart Eizenstat (Special Advisor)
|||August 25, 2014
December 18, 2013
|Human Rights of LGBT Persons||Randy Berry (Special Envoy)||||February 23, 2015|
|International Communications and Information Policy||Daniel Sepulveda (Coordinator)||||April 22, 2013|
|International Disability Rights||Judith Heumann (Special Advisor)||||June 7, 2010|
|International Energy Affairs||Amos Hochstein (Special Envoy and Coordinator)||||August 1, 2014|
|International Information Programs||Macon Phillips (Coordinator)||||September 23, 2013|
|International Communications and Information Policy||Catherine Novelli (Senior Coordinator)||||April 22, 2014|
|International Labor Affairs||Sarah Fox (Special Representative)||||February 13, 2015|
|Israel and the Palestinian Authority||Paul Bushong (Security Coordinator)||||October 2012|
|Israeli-Palestinian Negotiations||Vacant (Special Envoy)
Frank Lowenstein, Acting
|||July 1, 2014|
|Middle East Transitions||Vacant (Special Coordinator)|||
|Monitor and Combat Antisemitism||Ira Forman (Special Envoy)||||May 20, 2013|
|Mujahideen al-Khalq Resettlement||Vacant (Special Advisor)|
|Muslim Communities||Shaarik Zafar (Special Representative)||||July 14, 2014|
|Nonproliferation and Arms Control||Vacant since June 10, 2010 (Special Advisor)|||
|North Korea Human Rights Issues||Robert King (Ambassador/Special Envoy)||||November 24, 2009|
|North Korea Policy||Sung Kim (Special Representative)||||November 6, 2014|
|Northern Ireland||Gary Hart (Special Envoy)||||October 22, 2014|
|Nuclear Disposal||Michael Guhin (Special Negotiator)|||
|Nuclear Nonproliferation||Adam Scheinman (Ambassador/Special Representative of the President)||||September 22, 2014|
|Organization of Eastern Caribbean States||Larry Palmer (Ambassador/Special Representative)||||March 29, 2012|
|Organization of Islamic Cooperation||Rashad Hussain (Special Envoy)||||February 13, 2010|
|Partner Engagement on Syria Foreign Fighters||Robert Bradtke (Senior Advisor)||||March 2014|
|Promote Religious Freedom of Religious Minorities in the
Near East and South Central Asia
|Vacant (Special Envoy)|| |
|Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review||Tom Perriello (Special Representative)||||February 24, 2014|
|Religion and Foreign Policy||Shaun Casey (Special Representative)||||July 15, 2013|
|Sanctions Policy||Daniel Fried (Coordinator)||||January 28, 2013|
|Science and Technology||Vacant (Advisor)
Frances Colon, Acting
|||August 1, 2014|
|Secretary Initiatives||Elizabeth Bagley (Special Advisor)||||January 20, 2014|
|Security Negotiations and Agreements||John Fennerty (Senior Advisor)||||September 15, 2014|
|Six-Party Talks||Sydney Seiler (Special Envoy)||||September 1, 2014|
|Somalia||James McAnulty (Special Representative)||||August 29, 2013|
|Strategic Stability and Missile Defense||Vacant since August 31, 2012 (Special Envoy)|||
|Sudan and South Sudan||Donald Booth (Special Envoy)||||August 28, 2013|
|Syria||Daniel Rubinstein (Special Envoy)||||March 17, 2014|
|Threat Reduction Programs||Bonnie Jenkins (Ambassador/Coordinator)||||July 13, 2009|
|Tibetan Issues||Sarah Sewall (Special Coordinator)||||February 20, 2014|
Nations without exchange of ambassadors
- Bhutan: According to the U.S. State Department, "The United States and the Kingdom of Bhutan have not established formal diplomatic relations; however, the two governments have informal and cordial relations". Informal contact with the nation of Bhutan is maintained through the U.S. Embassy in New Delhi.
- Cuba: After breaking diplomatic relations after the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the United States only interacts with Cuba via a U.S. Interests section in the Swiss Embassy in Havana and Washington, D.C.
- Iran: On April 7, 1980, the United States broke diplomatic relations with Iran after the 1979 Iranian Revolution. On April 24, 1981, the Swiss government assumed representation of U.S. interests in Tehran, and Algeria assumed representation of Iranian interests in the United States. Currently, Iranian interests in the United States are represented by the government of Pakistan. The U.S. Department of State named Iran a "State Sponsor of Terrorism" on January 19, 1984.
- North Korea: The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is not on friendly terms with the United States, and while talks between the two countries are ongoing, there is no exchange of ambassadors. Sweden functions as Protective Power for the United States in Pyongyang and performs limited consular responsibilities for U.S. citizens in North Korea.
- Taiwan: With the normalization of relations with the People's Republic of China in 1979, the United States has not maintained official diplomatic relations with Taiwan. Relations between Taiwan and the United States are maintained through an unofficial instrumentality, the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office, with headquarters in Taipei and field offices in Washington, D.C., and twelve other U.S. cities. The Taipei Office of the American Institute in Taiwan, a non-profit, public corporation, functions as a de facto embassy, performing most consular functions and staffed by Foreign Service Officers who are formally "on leave".
Selected past ambassadors
Well-known past ambassadors from the United States:
Ambassadors killed in office
|Name||Ambassador to||Place of death||Date of death||Killed by|
|Laurence Steinhardt||Canada||Ramsayville, Canada||March 28, 1950||plane crash|
|John Mein||Guatemala||Guatemala City, Guatemala||August 28, 1968||attack by Rebel Armed Forces|
|Cleo Noel||Sudan||Khartoum, Sudan||March 2, 1973||attack by Black September|
|Rodger Davies||Cyprus||Nicosia, Cyprus||August 19, 1974||attack during Greek Cypriot demonstration|
|Francis Meloy||Lebanon||Beirut, Lebanon||June 16, 1976||attack by Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine|
|Adolph Dubs||Afghanistan||Kabul, Afghanistan||February 14, 1979||attack by Settam-e-Melli|
|Arnold Raphel||Pakistan||Bahawalpur, Pakistan||August 17, 1988||plane crash|
|Chris Stevens||Libya||Benghazi, Libya||September 12, 2012||attack on a U.S. diplomatic mission|
Ambassadors to past countries
- Chief of Protocol of the United States
- List of ambassadors to the United States
- List of United States Foreign Service Career Ambassadors
Notes and references
- U.S. Senate – Powers & Procedure Senate.gov Retrieved 25 May 2012.
- Henry B. Hogue. "Recess Appointments: Frequently Asked Questions" (PDF). Congressional Research Service, the Library of Congress. Retrieved 2012-05-25.
- The U.S. Ambassador to Spain, resident at Madrid, is also accredited to Andorra.
- The United States Ambassador to Barbados and the Eastern Caribbean, resident in Bridgetown, Barbados, is concurrently accredited to Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.
- In 1989 the military government of Burma changed the name of the nation to Myanmar, but the United States government—and other Western governments—still refer to the country as Burma in official usage. See Myanmar.
- Embassy suspended operations on December 28, 2012. French embassy acted as protecting power from April 25, 2013. Relations resumed from September 15, 2014
- Department of State – Central African Republic: Resumption of Operations at Embassy Bangui
- Department of State – Bilateral Protecting Power Arrangements
- One ambassador, resident at Antananarivo, is accredited to Madagascar and Comoros.
- One ambassador, resident at Suva, is accredited to Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Tonga, and Tuvalu. Source U.S. Embassy Suva.
- As of December 2006, the U.S. ambassador to France is also accredited to Monaco.
- One ambassador, resident at Libreville, is accredited to Gabon and São Tomé and Príncipe. Source: U.S. State Department
- One ambassador, resident at Dakar, is accredited to Guinea-Bissau and Senegal.
- The U.S. Ambassador to Rome is also accredited to San Marino. The U.S. Consulate in Florence handles matters concerned with San Marino.
- One ambassador, resident at Bern, is accredited to Switzerland and Liechtenstein.
- One ambassador, resident at Colombo, is accredited to Maldives and Sri Lanka.
- One ambassador, resident at Port Louis, is accredited to Mauritius and Seychelles.
- Until December 2006, the United States and Monaco had no formal diplomatic relations (exchange of ambassadors). The U.S. Consul General in Marseille, France, under the authority of the U.S. Ambassador to France, managed relations with Monaco. In December 2006, the United States and Monaco upgraded from consular to full diplomatic relations and Ambassador Craig Stapleton (France) was accredited to Monaco. Source: Department of State: Background notes on Monaco, U.S. Embassy in France: U.S. Diplomatic Mission to Monaco.
- One ambassador, resident at Wellington, is accredited to New Zealand and Samoa.
- American citizens who travel to North Korea do so at their own risk and in some cases in violation of U.S. and/or UN sanctions.
- Until 2005 one ambassador, resident at Manila, was accredited to the Philippines and Palau. Source: CIA World Factbook. Helen Reed-Rowe is the first ambassador to Palau to be confirmed in 2010.
- One ambassador, resident at Port Moresby, is accredited to Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu.
- Managed through the U.S. Embassy in Kenya. The United States has no diplomatic relations with Somalia. The last ambassador to Somalia was James Bishop when the embassy in Mogadishu was closed on January 5, 1991. Source: U.S State Department.
- "Virtual Presence Post Somalia".
- The U.S. Embassy in Khartoum was closed on February 7, 1996. Timothy Carney was the last ambassador to Sudan. The embassy was reopened on May 23, 2002, with Jeffrey Millington as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim. There has been no U.S. ambassador in Khartoum since then. Source U.S. Department of State.
- After formal relations were reestablished in 2010 after five years, the embassy was again suspended on February 6, 2014. Poland became the protecting power until its embassy closed on July 27, at which point the Czech Republic took responsibility.
- The ambassador to the U.K. is known as the "Ambassador to the Court of St. James's."
- President Chavez ordered the expulsion of the U.S. Ambassador, John Duddy, on September 11, 2008 in solidarity with the Bolivian government's decision to expel the U.S. Ambassador in La Paz. The U.S. Government ordered the reciprocal expulsion of the Venezuelan Ambassador in Washington. Source: U.S. Department of State Background Notes on Venezuela
- The US neither recognizes Moroccan claims to sovereignty over Western Sahara. Sources: Western Sahara, Foreign relations of Western Sahara, Foreign relations of Morocco.
- While solely accredited to Curaçao, the Consul General is responsible for all the countries and special municipalities of the former Netherlands Antilles, including Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten, Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius.
- The United States Consul General to Hong Kong, resident in Hong Kong, is concurrently accredited to Macau.
- The Consul General to Jerusalem is also responsible for residents in the Palestinian territories.
- "Bhutan (08/04)". United States Department of State.
- May, Donald (January 17, 1961). "U.S. Halts Tourist Travel to Cuba; Special Permit Required for Visit". The Washington Post. p. A1.
- Goshko, John M.; Walsh, Edward (April 8, 1980). "U.S. Breaks Diplomatic Ties With Iran: Carter Breaks Ties, Orders Ouster of Iranian Diplomats". The Washington Post. p. A1.
- "Former No. 2 Iran Diplomat To Be Allowed Back in U.S.". The Washington Post. April 25, 1980. p. A27.
- "Chapter 3 - State Sponsors of Terrorism Overview". State.gov. Retrieved 2011-09-04.
- Roy, Denny (2003). Taiwan: a political history (1. publ. ed.). Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN 9780801488054.
- "US Ambassadors Killed in the Line of Duty". Associated Press. 2012-09-12. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
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- Websites of U.S. Embassies and Consulates
- Principal Officers and Chiefs of Mission
- United States Mission to the United Nations
- US ambassadors killed in the line of duty