United States Ambassador to Austria

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Ambassador of the United States to Austria
Botschafter der Vereinigten Staaten nach Österreich
Department of state.svg
Seal of the United States Department of State
Ambassador Alexa Wesner Official Photo.jpg
Incumbent
Alexa L. Wesner

since September 6, 2013
Nominator Barack Obama
Inaugural holder Henry A. P. Muhlenberg
as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Formation February 8, 1838
Website U.S. Embassy - Vienna

This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Austria.

The United States first established diplomatic relations with Austria in 1838 during the time of the Austrian Empire. Relations between the United States have been continuous since that time except for two interruptions during World War I and World War II.

The first ambassadors were accredited to the Austrian Empire. In 1867 the empire became Austria–Hungary and the ambassadors were so commissioned. After the resumption of diplomatic relations following World War I, the ambassadors were commissioned to Austria.

For ambassadors to Hungary after the dissolution of the empire, see United States Ambassador to Hungary.

The United States Embassy in Austria is located in Vienna.

Ambassadors[edit]

U.S. diplomatic terms


Career FSO
After 1915, The United States Department of State began classifying ambassadors as career Foreign Service Officers (FSOs) for those who have served in the Foreign Service for a specified amount of time.

Political appointee
A person who is not a career foreign service officer, but is appointed by the president (often as a reward to political friends).

Appointed
The date that the ambassador took the oath of office; also known as “commissioning”. It follows confirmation of a presidential appointment by the Senate, or a Congressional-recess appointment by the president. In the case of a recess appointment, the ambassador requires subsequent confirmation by the Senate.

Presented credentials
The date that the ambassador presented his letter of credence to the head of state or appropriate authority of the receiving nation. At this time the ambassador officially becomes the representative of his country. This would normally occur a short time after the ambassador’s arrival on station. The host nation may reject the ambassador by not receiving the ambassador’s letter, but this occurs only rarely.

Terminated mission
Usually the date that the ambassador left the country. In some cases a letter of recall is presented, ending the ambassador’s commission, either as a means of diplomatic protest or because the diplomat is being reassigned elsewhere and replaced by another envoy.

Chargé d'affaires
The person in charge of the business of the embassy when there is no ambassador commissioned to the host country. See chargé d'affaires.

Ad interim
Latin phrase meaning "for the time being", "in the meantime". See ad interim.
  • Henry A. P. Muhlenberg
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: February 8, 1838
    • Presented credentials: November 7, 1838
    • Terminated mission: Left post, September 18, 1840
  • Daniel Jenifer
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 27, 1841
    • Presented credentials: March 30, 1842
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, June 28–July 7, 1845
  • Note: From 1845 until 1854 there was no U.S. minister present. The U.S. was represented by a succession of chargés d’affaires.
  • William H. Stiles[1]
    • Title: Chargé d'Affaires
    • Appointed: April 19, 1845
    • Presented credentials: August 5, 1845
    • Terminated mission: Left post, August 1, 1849
  • James Watson Webb[2]
    • Title: Chargé d'Affaires
    • Appointed: November 1, 1849
    • Presented credentials: February 6, 1850
    • Terminated mission: Left post, May 8, 1850
  • Charles J. McCurdy
    • Title: Chargé d'Affaires
    • Appointed: September 27, 1850
    • Presented credentials: March 14, 1851
    • Terminated mission: Had farewell audience, October 12, 1852
  • Thomas M. Foote[3]
    • Title: Chargé d'Affaires
    • Appointed: September 16, 1852
    • Presented credentials: December 14, 1852
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, June 25, 1853
  • Henry R. Jackson[4][5]
    • Title: Chargé d'Affaires
    • Appointed: May 24, 1853
    • Presented credentials: September 16, 1853
    • Terminated mission: Promoted to Minister Resident
  • Henry R. Jackson
    • Title: Minister Resident
    • Appointed: June 29, 1854
    • Presented credentials: September 28, 1854
    • Terminated mission: Left post on or after June 1, 1858
  • J. Glancy Jones[6]
    • Title: Minister Resident
    • Appointed: November 1, 1858
    • Presented credentials: —
    • Terminated mission: —
  • J. Glancy Jones
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: December 15, 1858
    • Presented credentials: February 14, 1859
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, November 14, 1861
  • Anson Burlingame[7]
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: March 22, 1861
    • Presented credentials: —
    • Terminated mission: —
  • J. Lothrop Motley[8]
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 10, 1861
    • Presented credentials: November 14, 1861
    • Terminated mission: June 14, 1867
  • Henry M. Watts
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 25, 1868
    • Presented credentials: September 25, 1868
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, June 1, 1869
  • John Jay II
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: 1869
    • Presented credentials: June 1, 1869
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, March 31, 1875
  • Note: Ambassadors after 1869 were commissioned to Austria-Hungary.
  • Godlove S. Orth
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: March 9, 1875
    • Presented credentials: May 24, 1875
    • Terminated mission: Relinquished charge, March 10, 1876
  • Edward F. Beale
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: June 1, 1876
    • Presented credentials: August 10, 1876
    • Terminated mission: Left post, April 20, 1877
  • John A. Kasson[10]
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: 11, 1877
    • Presented credentials: August 30, 1877
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, March 25, 1881
  • William Walter Phelps
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: May 5, 1881
    • Presented credentials: June 20, 1881
    • Terminated mission: Superseded June 30, 1882
  • Alphonso Taft
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: April 26, 1882
    • Presented credentials: June 30, 1882
    • Terminated mission: Left post, August 25, 1884
  • John M. Francis
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 4, 1884
    • Presented credentials: September 11, 1884
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, August 3, 1885
  • Anthony M. Keiley[11][12]
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: April 29, 1885
    • Presented credentials: —
    • Terminated mission: —
  • Alexander R. Lawton[13]
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: April 15, 1887
    • Presented credentials: August 25, 1887
    • Terminated mission: May 15, 1889
  • Frederick D. Grant
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: March 23, 1889
    • Presented credentials: May 15, 1889
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, June 8, 1893
  • Bartlett Tripp
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: April 6, 1893
    • Presented credentials: June 8, 1893
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, June 18, 1897
  • Charlemagne Tower
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: April 1, 1897
    • Presented credentials: June 18, 1897
    • Terminated mission: Had farewell audience, February 9, 1899
  • Addison C. Harris
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: January 12, 1899
    • Presented credentials: April 13, 1899
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, April 29, 1901
  • Robert S. McCormick[14]
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: March 7, 1901
    • Presented credentials: April 29, 1901
    • Terminated mission: Promoted to Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
  • Note: From 1902 to 1917 ambassadors to Austria bore the rank of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary.
  • Robert S. McCormick
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: May 27, 1902
    • Presented credentials: June 26, 1902
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, December 29, 1902
  • Bellamy Storer[15]
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: September 26, 1902
    • Presented credentials: January 3, 1903
    • Terminated mission: Left post, February 8, 1906
  • Charles S. Francis
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: March 22, 1906
    • Presented credentials: May 29, 1906
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, April 1, 1910
  • Richard C. Kerens
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: December 21, 1909
    • Presented credentials: April 12, 1910
    • Terminated mission: Left post, June 28, 1913
  • Frederic Courtland Penfield – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 28, 1913
    • Presented credentials: September 26, 1913
    • Terminated mission: Left post, April 7, 1917
  • Note: The United States declared war on Germany April 6, 1917. Ambassador Penfield departed Austria the following day, April 7. Austria-Hungary severed diplomatic relations with the United States on April 9. Joseph C. Grew was serving as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim when Austria-Hungary severed relations. Although a date is not recorded, the embassy would have been closed almost immediately and all diplomatic personnel would have departed or been expelled. Normal diplomatic relations were resumed in 1921.
  • Arthur Hugh Frazier – Career FSO
    • Title: Chargé d'Affaires pro tem[16]
    • Appointed: Not commissioned[17]
    • Presented credentials: November 25, 1921
    • Terminated mission: Left post, May 21, 1922
  • Note: After resumption of diplomatic relations, the embassy was downgraded to a legation and the title of the chief of mission was downgraded to Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary and remained as such until 1952.
  • Albert Henry Washburn – Political appointee
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: February 10, 1922
    • Presented credentials: June 19, 1922
    • Terminated mission: Died at post, April 29, 1930
  • Gilchrist Baker Stockton – Political appointee
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: January 22, 1930
    • Presented credentials: May 15, 1930
    • Terminated mission: Left post, September 21, 1933
  • George H. Earle, 3rd[18] – Political appointee
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 24, 1933
    • Presented credentials: September 27, 1933
    • Terminated mission: Left post, March 25, 1934
  • George S. Messersmith – Career FSO
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: April 7, 1934
    • Presented credentials: May 23, 1934
    • Terminated mission: Left post, July 11, 1937
  • Grenville T. Emmet – Political appointee
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 13, 1937
    • Presented credentials: September 14, 1937
    • Terminated mission: Died at post, September 26, 1937
  • Note: Diplomatic relations with Austria were broken during World War II but resumed in 1946.
  • John G. Erhardt – Career FSO
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 3, 1946
    • Presented credentials: September 7, 1946
    • Terminated mission: Left post, June 27, 1950
  • Walter J. Donnelly – Career FSO
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: September 20, 1950
    • Presented credentials: October 25, 1950
    • Terminated mission: Promoted to Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
  • Note: In 1951 the legation in Vienna was upgraded to an embassy and the chief of mission gained the rank of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary.
  • Walter J. Donnelly[19][20] – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: November 16, 1951
    • Presented credentials: November 28, 1951
    • Terminated mission: Left post, July 19, 1952
  • Llewellyn E. Thompson, Jr.[21] – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 17, 1952
    • Presented credentials: September 4, 1952
    • Terminated mission: July 9, 1957
  • H. Freeman Matthews – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 5, 1957
    • Presented credentials: September 4, 1957
    • Terminated mission: Left post, May 25, 1962
  • James W. Riddleberger – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: October 23, 1962
    • Presented credentials: December 12, 1962
    • Terminated mission: Left post, May 10, 1967
  • Douglas MacArthur II – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: April 5, 1967
    • Presented credentials: May 24, 1967
    • Terminated mission: Left post, September 16, 1969
  • John P. Humes – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: September 26, 1969
    • Presented credentials: October 29, 1969
    • Terminated mission: Left post, March 6, 1975
  • Wiley T. Buchanan, Jr. – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: March 25, 1975
    • Presented credentials: April 2, 1975
    • Terminated mission: Left post, March 31, 1977
  • Milton A. Wolf – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: June 23, 1977
    • Presented credentials: September 5, 1977
    • Terminated mission: Left post, March 2, 1980
  • Philip M. Kaiser – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: February 19, 1980
    • Presented credentials: March 25, 1980
    • Terminated mission: Left post, March 2, 1981
  • Theodore E. Cummings[22] – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: June 20, 1981
    • Presented credentials: September 2, 1981
    • Terminated mission: Died in Los Angeles, March 30, 1982
  • Helene A. von Damm – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: May 10, 1983
    • Presented credentials: June 22, 1983
    • Terminated mission: Left post, January 15, 1986
  • Ronald S. Lauder[23] – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: April 16, 1986
    • Presented credentials: May 7, 1986
    • Terminated mission: Left post, October 27, 1987
  • Henry Anatole Grunwald[23] – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: December 23, 1987
    • Presented credentials: January 20, 1988
    • Terminated mission: Left post, January 1, 1990
  • Roy M. Huffington – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 6, 1990
    • Presented credentials: September 11, 1990
    • Terminated mission: Left post, March 1, 1993
  • Swanee Grace Hunt – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: November 4, 1993
    • Presented credentials: December 16, 1993
    • Terminated mission: Left post, October 18, 1997
  • Kathryn Walt Hall – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: November 19, 1997
    • Presented credentials: December 11, 1997
    • Terminated mission: Left post July 10, 2001
  • Lyons Brown, Jr. – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: November 5, 2001
    • Presented credentials: December 19, 2001
    • Terminated mission: Left post, October 5, 2005
  • Susan Rasinski McCaw – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: November 2, 2005
    • Presented credentials: January 9, 2006
    • Terminated mission: November 25, 2007
  • Charles A. Gargano[24] – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: —
    • Presented credentials: —
    • Terminated mission: —
  • David F. Girard-diCarlo – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 1, 2008
    • Presented credentials: September 10, 2008
    • Terminated mission: January 20, 2009[25]
  • William Eacho – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 12, 2009[26]
    • Presented credentials: September 14, 2009
    • Terminated mission: August 3, 2013
  • Alexa L. Wesner
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: September 6, 2013
    • Presented credentials: September 12, 2013
    • Terminated mission: Incumbent

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Stiles was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on January 7, 1846.
  2. ^ Webb was commissioned during a recess of the Senate but his nomination later rejected by the Senate.
  3. ^ Foote was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on January 20, 1853.
  4. ^ Jackson was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on February 8, 1854.
  5. ^ President Franklin Pierce nominated Jackson February 25, 1856 to be Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary but his nomination was withdrawn before the Senate acted upon it. He was subsequently promoted to Minister Resident.
  6. ^ Jones was commissioned during a recess of the Senate, but he did not proceed to his post in the capacity of Minister Resident. He was subsequently commissioned as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.
  7. ^ Burlingame was commissioned but did not proceed to his post and did not serve.
  8. ^ Motley was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on January 22, 1862.
  9. ^ Greeley declined the appointment.
  10. ^ Kasson was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on October 30, 1877.
  11. ^ Keiley was commissioned during a recess of the Senate.
  12. ^ Keiley did not serve as the ambassador because the government of Austria-Hungary objected to his appointment.
  13. ^ Lawton was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on December 15, 1887.
  14. ^ McCormick was promoted during his term to Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, which required reconfirmation by the Senate.
  15. ^ Storer was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on December 8, 1902.
  16. ^ Frazier was recognized provisionally as Charge d’Affaires pro tempore and received as such on November 26, 1921.
  17. ^ A Chargé d’Affaires does not necessarily require a commission.
  18. ^ Earle was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on January 15, 1934.
  19. ^ Donnelly was promoted to Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary during his term. This required a new commission.
  20. ^ Donnelly was recommissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on February 21, 1952.
  21. ^ Thompson was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on June 4, 1953.
  22. ^ Ambassador Cummings left Vienna on December 9, 1981, and was on vacation in Los Angeles when he died.
  23. ^ a b Commissioned to the Republic of Austria.
  24. ^ President Bush nominated Gargano on November 7, 2007. The nomination was withdrawn in March 2008 before Congress formally considered the nomination. Sources: United States Embassy in Vienna press release, March 14, 2008, New York Daily News, March 14, 2008
  25. ^ On December 10, 2008, the Ambassador announced his intention to resign from the post following the inauguration of Barack Obama on January 20, 2009. Source: United States Embassy in Vienna press release December 10, 2008
  26. ^ "Biography - William C. Eacho, III". US State Department. 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]