United States Ambassador to Estonia

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Ambassador of the United States to Estonia
Department of state.svg
Seal of the United States Department of State
Jeffrey Levine, US ambassador to Estonia 2013.jpg
Incumbent
Jeffrey D. Levine

since July 24, 2012
Nominator Barack Obama
Inaugural holder Frederick W.B. Coleman<br/as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Formation September 20, 1922
Website U.S. Embassy - Tallinn

This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Estonia.

The United States has maintained continuous official diplomatic relations with Estonia (as well as Latvia and Lithuania) since 1922, when one ambassador, resident in Riga, Latvia, was appointed to all three nations. Relations with the three nations were broken after the Soviet invasion of the republics in 1940 at the beginning of World War II. The United States never recognized the legitimacy of the Soviet occupation of the three Baltic nations, nor the legitimacy of the governments of those states under Soviet occupation. Hence, diplomatic relations were not resumed until 1991 after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

The U.S. Embassy in Estonia is located in Tallinn.

Ambassadors[edit]

U.S. diplomatic terms


Career FSO
After 1915, The United States Department of State began classifying ambassadors as career Foreign Service Officers (FSOs) for those who have served in the Foreign Service for a specified amount of time.

Political appointee
A person who is not a career foreign service officer, but is appointed by the president (often as a reward to political friends).

Appointed
The date that the ambassador took the oath of office; also known as “commissioning”. It follows confirmation of a presidential appointment by the Senate, or a Congressional-recess appointment by the president. In the case of a recess appointment, the ambassador requires subsequent confirmation by the Senate.

Presented credentials
The date that the ambassador presented his letter of credence to the head of state or appropriate authority of the receiving nation. At this time the ambassador officially becomes the representative of his country. This would normally occur a short time after the ambassador’s arrival on station. The host nation may reject the ambassador by not receiving the ambassador’s letter, but this occurs only rarely.

Terminated mission
Usually the date that the ambassador left the country. In some cases a letter of recall is presented, ending the ambassador’s commission, either as a means of diplomatic protest or because the diplomat is being reassigned elsewhere and replaced by another envoy.

Chargé d'affaires
The person in charge of the business of the embassy when there is no ambassador commissioned to the host country. See chargé d'affaires.

Ad interim
Latin phrase meaning "for the time being", "in the meantime". See ad interim.
  • Frederick W.B. Coleman[1] – Political appointee
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: September 20, 1922
    • Presented credentials: November 20, 1922
    • Terminated mission: Left Riga October 20, 1931

Note: During Coleman’s tenure as nonresident Minister, the Legation in Tallinn was established on June 30, 1930 with Harry E. Carlson as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim.

  • Robert P. Skinner[1][2] – Career FSO
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: September 23, 1931
    • Presented credentials: April 2, 1932
    • Terminated mission: Left Riga April 29, 1933
  • John Van. A. MacMurray[1][3] – Career FSO
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 28, 1933
    • Presented credentials: January 4, 1934
    • Terminated mission: Left Riga February 12, 1936
  • Arthur Bliss Lane[1] – Career FSO
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: January 24, 1936
    • Presented credentials: September 10, 1936
    • Terminated mission: Left Riga September 16, 1937
  • Frederick A. Sterling[4][5] – Career FSO
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 9, 1937
    • Presented credentials: —
    • Terminated mission: —
  • John C. Wiley[4] – Career FSO
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 18, 1938
    • Presented credentials: November 24, 1938
    • Terminated mission: June 17, 1940

Note: Soviet forces occupied Tallinn and Riga on June 17, 1940, which effectively ended the U.S. diplomatice presence in those nations. Ambassador Wiley departed Riga on July 25, 1940.

Note: Walter Leonard was serving as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim when all U.S. diplomatic officials accredited to Estonia were withdrawn from Tallinn on September 4, 1940. The legation in Tallinn was officially closed, September 5, 1940.

Note: The United States announced its readiness to reestablish relations with Estonia on September 2, 1991. Embassy Tallinn was established on October 2, 1991, with Robert C. Frasure as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim. He was subsequently commissioned as Ambassador. The embassy was established in the same building on Kentmanni Street that had been the U.S. legation before the World War II.[6]

  • Robert C. Frasure – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: March 23, 1992
    • Presented credentials: April 9, 1992
    • Terminated mission: Left post July 8, 1994

Note: The following officers served as chargés d’affaires ad interim: Keith Smith (July–December 1994), and Jon Gundersen (December 1994–August 1995).

  • Lawrence P. Taylor – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: June 27, 1995
    • Presented credentials: August 3, 1995
    • Terminated mission: Left post August 7, 1997
  • Melissa Foelsch Wells – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: October 1, 1998
    • Presented credentials: November 3, 1998
    • Terminated mission: Left post September 10, 2001
  • Joseph M. DeThomas – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: November 5, 2001
    • Presented credentials: December 11, 2001
    • Terminated mission: Left post July 7, 2004
  • Aldona Wos[7] – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 2, 2004
    • Presented credentials: September 2, 2004
    • Terminated mission: December 17, 2006
  • Stanley Davis Phillips – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: March 21, 2007
    • Presented credentials: May 31, 2007
    • Terminated mission: January 16, 2009

Note: Karen B. Decker served as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim.

  • Michael C. Polt – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: September 25, 2009
    • Presented credentials: December 10, 2009
    • Terminated mission: July 22, 2012

Note: Robert Gilchrist served as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim.

  • Jeffrey D. Levine – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: February 17, 2012
    • Presented credentials: September 17, 2012
    • Terminated mission: incumbent

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d The ambassador was simultaneously accredited to Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, while resident in Riga, Latvia.
  2. ^ Skinner was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on December 17, 1931.
  3. ^ MacMurray was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on January 15, 1934.
  4. ^ a b The ambassador was simultaneously accredited to Estonia and Latvia, while resident in Riga.
  5. ^ Sterling took the oath of office but did not proceed to post.
  6. ^ Source: U.S. Embassy in Tallinn: History of U.S. Relations with Estonia
  7. ^ Wos was commissioned during a recess of the Senate.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]