United States Ambassador to Finland

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Ambassador of the United States to Finland
Department of state.svg
Seal of the United States Department of State
Bruce J Oreck ambassador.jpg
Incumbent
Bruce J. Oreck

since August 12, 2009
Nominator Barack Obama
Inaugural holder Alexander R. Magruder
as Chargé d'Affaires
Formation March 19, 1920
Website U.S. Embassy - Helsinki

This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Finland.

Until 1917 Finland had been a subject of Russia as the Grand Duchy of Finland. As a result of the Bolshevist October Revolution in Russia, Finland declared its independence on December 6, 1917. On December 22 (January 4, 1918 N. S.), the highest Soviet executive body approved a decree recognizing Finland’s independence.

The United States recognized Finland as an independent state on May 7, 1919.[1][2] A U.S. legation was established in Helsinki and the first envoy, Alexander R. Magruder, presented his credentials as Chargé d'Affaires to the government of Finland on March 19, 1920. United States–Finland relations have been continuous since that time except for a brief period in 1944–45 when the U.S. severed relations during World War II.

The U.S. Embassy in Finland is located in Helsinki in the Kaivopuisto neighborhood.

Ambassadors[edit]

U.S. diplomatic terms


Career FSO
After 1915, The United States Department of State began classifying ambassadors as career Foreign Service Officers (FSOs) for those who have served in the Foreign Service for a specified amount of time.

Political appointee
A person who is not a career foreign service officer, but is appointed by the president (often as a reward to political friends).

Appointed
The date that the ambassador took the oath of office; also known as “commissioning”. It follows confirmation of a presidential appointment by the Senate, or a Congressional-recess appointment by the president. In the case of a recess appointment, the ambassador requires subsequent confirmation by the Senate.

Presented credentials
The date that the ambassador presented his letter of credence to the head of state or appropriate authority of the receiving nation. At this time the ambassador officially becomes the representative of his country. This would normally occur a short time after the ambassador’s arrival on station. The host nation may reject the ambassador by not receiving the ambassador’s letter, but this occurs only rarely.

Terminated mission
Usually the date that the ambassador left the country. In some cases a letter of recall is presented, ending the ambassador’s commission, either as a means of diplomatic protest or because the diplomat is being reassigned elsewhere and replaced by another envoy.

Chargé d'affaires
The person in charge of the business of the embassy when there is no ambassador commissioned to the host country. See chargé d'affaires.

Ad interim
Latin phrase meaning "for the time being", "in the meantime". See ad interim.
Ambassador John D. Hickerson with president Juho Kusti Paasikivi (left) and foreign minister Johannes Virolainen (right) in 1955
  • Alexander R. Magruder – Career FSO
    • Title: Chargé d'Affaires
    • Appointed: Not commissioned[3]
    • Presented credentials: March 19, 1920
    • Terminated mission: Superseded by incoming ambassador February 17, 1922
  • Charles L. Kagey – Political appointee
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: October 8, 1921
    • Presented credentials: February 17, 1922
    • Terminated mission: Left post March 24, 1925
  • John B. Stetson, Jr.[4] – Political appointee
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: May 7, 1925
    • Presented credentials: Did not present credentials, did not serve
  • Alfred J. Pearson[5] – Political appointee
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: June 23, 1925
    • Presented credentials: September 5, 1925
    • Terminated mission: Left post April 30, 1930
  • Edward E. Brodie – Political appointee
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: January 31, 1930
    • Presented credentials: May 16, 1930
    • Terminated mission: Left post September 21, 1933
  • Edward Albright[6] – Political appointee
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 21, 1933
    • Presented credentials: October 5, 1933
    • Terminated mission: Left post April 12, 1937
  • H. F. Arthur Schoenfeld – Career FSO
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: April 22, 1937
    • Presented credentials: July 2, 1937
    • Terminated mission: Left post December 17, 1942

Note: The United States severed diplomatic relations with Finland on June 30, 1944, as result of Finland’s war against the Soviet Union. At that time the Soviet Union was an ally of the United States. Edmund A. Gullion was serving as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim when the relations were severed.

Note: The United States reestablished diplomatic relations with Finland after World War II. The legation in Helsinki was reestablished September 1, 1945, with Benjamin M. Hulley as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim.

  • Maxwell M. Hamilton – Career FSO
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: September 25, 1945
    • Presented credentials: March 26, 1946
    • Terminated mission: Left post August 25, 1947
  • Avra M. Warren – Career FSO
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: December 18, 1947
    • Presented credentials: February 10, 1948
    • Terminated mission: Left post February 18, 1950
  • John M. Cabot – Career FSO
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: February 2, 1950
    • Presented credentials: February 27, 1950
    • Terminated mission: Left post September 20, 1952
  • Jack K. McFall[7] – Career FSO
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: September 10, 1952
    • Presented credentials: November 15, 1952
    • Terminated mission: Promoted to Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary September 15, 1954 and continued to serve.

Note: The legation in Helsinki was raised to embassy status on September 10, 1954. Concurrently the post of Minister became that of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary.

  • Jack K. McFall[8] – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: September 15, 1954
    • Presented credentials: September 17, 1954
    • Terminated mission: Left post September 19, 1955
  • John D. Hickerson[9] – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: October 4, 1955
    • Presented credentials: November 23, 1955
    • Terminated mission: Left post November 3, 1959
  • Edson O. Sessions[10] – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: October 20, 1959
    • Presented credentials: November 28, 1959
    • Terminated mission: Left post November 20, 1960
  • Bernard Gufler – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: February 24, 1961
    • Presented credentials: April 14, 1961
    • Terminated mission: Left post April 18, 1963
  • Carl T. Rowan – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: March 9, 1963
    • Presented credentials: May 21, 1963
    • Terminated mission: Left post February 8, 1964
  • Tyler Thompson – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 31, 1964
    • Presented credentials: August 25, 1964
    • Terminated mission: Left post June 14, 1969
  • Val Peterson – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: May 1, 1969
    • Presented credentials: July 14, 1969
    • Terminated mission: Left post March 23, 1973
  • V. John Krehbiel – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: March 27, 1973
    • Presented credentials: June 1, 1973
    • Terminated mission: Left post February 24, 1975
  • Mark Evans Austad – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: February 20, 1975
    • Presented credentials: March 20, 1975
    • Terminated mission: Left post April 14, 1977
  • Rozanne L. Ridgway – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: May 26, 1977
    • Presented credentials: August 5, 1977
    • Terminated mission: Left post February 20, 1980
  • James E. Goodby – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: March 18, 1980
    • Presented credentials: April 11, 1980
    • Terminated mission: Left post August 18, 1981
  • Keith Foote Nyborg – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 30, 1981
    • Presented credentials: September 18, 1981
    • Terminated mission: Left post February 17, 1986
  • Rockwell A. Schnabel – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: December 17, 1985
    • Presented credentials: February 28, 1986
    • Terminated mission: Left post February 24, 1989
  • John Giffen Weinmann – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: October 10, 1989
    • Presented credentials: November 10, 1989
    • Terminated mission: Left post August 29, 1991
  • John Hubert Kelly – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: December 2, 1991
    • Presented credentials: December 20, 1991
    • Terminated mission: Left post July 5, 1994
  • Derek Shearer – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: May 29, 1994
    • Presented credentials: July 1, 1994
    • Terminated mission: Left post October 31, 1997
  • Eric S. Edelman – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: June 29, 1998
    • Presented credentials: August 27, 1998
    • Terminated mission: Left post January 29, 2001
  • Bonnie McElveen-Hunter – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: November 5, 2001
    • Presented credentials: December 5, 2001
    • Terminated mission: Left post December 15, 2003
  • Earle I. Mack – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: May 25, 2004
    • Presented credentials: June 10, 2004
    • Terminated mission: Left post October 20, 2005
  • Marilyn Ware – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: February 7, 2006
    • Presented credentials: March 9, 2006
    • Terminated mission: March 28, 2008
  • Barbara Barrett – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: April 20, 2008
    • Presented credentials: c. May 2008
    • Terminated mission: Left post January 16, 2009
  • Michael Butler[11]
    • Title: Chargé d'Affaires
    • Took office: January 16, 2009
    • Presented credentials:
    • Terminated mission: TBD
  • Bruce J. Oreck – Political appointee[12]
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 12, 2009
    • Presented credentials: September 10, 2009
    • Terminated mission: Incumbent

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "We Recognize Finland (clipping from The NY Times)" (PDF). The New York Times. May 8, 1919. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  2. ^ Country-Studies.com
  3. ^ Magruder was the chargé d’affaires rather than the ambassador, and thus was not commissioned. His letter of credence was dated March 13, 1920.
  4. ^ Stetson was commissioned during a recess of the Senate. He took oath of office, but did not proceed to the post.
  5. ^ Pearson was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on December 17, 1925.
  6. ^ Albright was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on January 15, 1934.
  7. ^ McFall was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on May 1, 1953.
  8. ^ McFall was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on December 3, 1954.
  9. ^ Hickerson was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on January 25, 1956.
  10. ^ Sessions was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on January 21, 1960.
  11. ^ http://finland.usembassy.gov/ambassador_barrett.html
  12. ^ http://finland.usembassy.gov/ambassador_oreck.html

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]