United States Ambassador to Israel

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Ambassador of the United States to Israel
Department of state.svg
Seal of the United States Department of State
Daniel B Shapiro ambassador.jpg
Incumbent
Daniel B. Shapiro

since August 3, 2011
Nominator Barack Obama
Inaugural holder James Grover McDonald
as Ambassador
Formation March 28, 1949
Website U.S. Embassy - Tel Aviv
Ambassador Shapiro presents his credentials to President Peres, August 3, 2011

The United States Ambassador to Israel is the official representative of the President of the United States to the head of state of Israel.

Until 1948 the area that is now the state of Israel had been under British administration as part of the League of Nations/United Nations British Mandate for Palestine. On May 14, 1948, the British government unilaterally terminated the mandate. On the same day, the Jewish Agency, under future Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion, declared independence and named the country Israel. The United States immediately recognized the nation and moved to establish diplomatic relations. The first U.S. ambassador commissioned to Israel was James Grover McDonald, who presented his credentials to the government of Israel on March 28, 1949.[1]

The embassy of the United States in Israel is located in Tel Aviv.

Ambassadors and chiefs of mission[edit]

U.S. diplomatic terms


Career FSO
After 1915, The United States Department of State began classifying ambassadors as career Foreign Service Officers (FSOs) for those who have served in the Foreign Service for a specified amount of time.

Political appointee
A person who is not a career foreign service officer, but is appointed by the president (often as a reward to political friends).

Appointed
The date that the ambassador took the oath of office; also known as “commissioning”. It follows confirmation of a presidential appointment by the Senate, or a Congressional-recess appointment by the president. In the case of a recess appointment, the ambassador requires subsequent confirmation by the Senate.

Presented credentials
The date that the ambassador presented his letter of credence to the head of state or appropriate authority of the receiving nation. At this time the ambassador officially becomes the representative of his country. This would normally occur a short time after the ambassador’s arrival on station. The host nation may reject the ambassador by not receiving the ambassador’s letter, but this occurs only rarely.

Terminated mission
Usually the date that the ambassador left the country. In some cases a letter of recall is presented, ending the ambassador’s commission, either as a means of diplomatic protest or because the diplomat is being reassigned elsewhere and replaced by another envoy.

Chargé d'affaires
The person in charge of the business of the embassy when there is no ambassador commissioned to the host country. See chargé d'affaires.

Ad interim
Latin phrase meaning "for the time being", "in the meantime". See ad interim.

Ref: [2]

  • James Grover McDonald – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: March 18, 1949
    • Presented credentials: March 28, 1949
    • Terminated mission: Left post December 13, 1950
  • Monnett Bain Davis – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: February 1, 1951
    • Presented credentials: February 26, 1951
    • Terminated mission: Died at post December 26, 1953
  • Edward B. Lawson – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: April 9, 1954
    • Presented credentials: November 12, 1954
    • Terminated mission: Left post February 17, 1959
  • Ogden Rogers Reid – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: June 5, 1959
    • Presented credentials: July 2, 1959
    • Terminated mission: Left Israel January 19, 1961
  • Walworth Barbour – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: May 11, 1961
    • Presented credentials: June 12, 1961
    • Terminated mission: Left post January 19, 1973
  • Kenneth B. Keating – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: June 22, 1973
    • Presented credentials: August 28, 1973
    • Terminated mission: Died in New York May 5, 1975[3]
  • Malcolm Toon – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: June 9, 1975
    • Presented credentials: July 10, 1975
    • Terminated mission: Left post December 27, 1976
  • Samuel W. Lewis – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: April 26, 1977
    • Presented credentials: May 25, 1977
    • Terminated mission: May 31, 1985
  • Thomas R. Pickering – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 12, 1985
    • Presented credentials: August 6, 1985
    • Terminated mission: Left post December 28, 1988
  • William Andreas Brown – Career FSO[4]
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: November 22, 1988
    • Presented credentials: December 29, 1988
    • Terminated mission: Left post January 7, 1992
  • William Caldwell Harrop – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: November 21, 1991
    • Presented credentials: January 21, 1992
    • Terminated mission: Left post May 7, 1993
  • Edward Djerejian – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: November 22, 1993
    • Presented credentials: January 13, 1994
    • Terminated mission: Left post August 9, 1994
  • Martin Indyk – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: March 4, 1995
    • Presented credentials: April 10, 1995
    • Terminated mission: September 27, 1997
  • Edward S. Walker, Jr. – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: November 10, 1997
    • Presented credentials: December 24, 1997
    • Terminated mission: Left post January 23, 2000
  • Martin Indyk – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: November 16, 1999
    • Presented credentials: January 25, 2000
    • Terminated mission: Left post July 13, 2001
  • Daniel C. Kurtzer – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 12, 2001
    • Presented credentials: July 18, 2001
    • Terminated mission: Left post July 17, 2005
  • Richard Henry Jones – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 2, 2005
    • Presented credentials: September 26, 2005
    • Terminated mission: Left post April 27, 2008
  • James B. Cunningham – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: June 30, 2008
    • Presented credentials: September 17, 2008
    • Terminated mission: c. June 2011
  • Daniel B. Shapiro – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 8, 2011[5]
    • Presented credentials: August 3, 2011
    • Terminated mission: Incumbent

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Israel". United States Department of State. Retrieved 2011-08-13. 
  2. ^ "Chiefs of Mission for Israel". United States Department of State. Retrieved 2011-08-13. 
  3. ^ Ambassador Keating had departed Tel Aviv on March 31, 1975 for consultations on the reassessment of American policy in the Middle East and died in New York on May 5.
  4. ^ Brown was commissioned during a recess of the Senate; his nomination of May 24, 1988 had not been acted upon by the Senate. He was recommissioned October 2, 1989 after confirmation.
  5. ^ "Swearing-In Ceremony for Dan Shapiro, Ambassador to Israel". United States Department of State. Retrieved 2011-08-13. 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]