United States Ambassador to Libya

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Ambassador of the United States to Libya
سفارة الولايات المتحدة الأميركية في الجمهورية العربية الليبية
Department of state.svg
Seal of the United States Department of State
Incumbent
Deborah K. Jones

since May 2013
Nominator Barack Obama
Inaugural holder Henry Serrano Villard
as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Formation February 7, 1952
Website U.S. Embassy – Tripoli

The United States Ambassador to Libya is the official representative of the President of the United States to the head of state of Libya.

History[edit]

Until its independence in 1951, Libya had been a colony of Italy (1912–1947) and then under British and French occupation until 1951. In 1949 The UN General Assembly had passed a resolution stating that Libya should become independent before January 1, 1952 (Resolution 289). On December 24, 1951, Libya declared its independence under King Idris.[1][2]

The United States recognized the Kingdom of Libya on December 24, 1951, in a congratulatory message sent by President Harry Truman to King Idris I. Diplomatic relations were established on the same day and the U.S. Consulate-General was elevated to a legation with Andrew Lynch designated as Charge d'Affaires ad interim. The first official envoy to Libya was Henry Serrano Villard, who presented his credentials on March 6, 1952.[1][2]

On December 2, 1979, a mob attacked and burned the U.S. Embassy in Tripoli. On December 29, the U.S. Department of State designated Libya as a state sponsor of terrorism. The Chargé d’Affaires was recalled on February 8, 1980 and the embassy was closed May 2, 1980.[2][3][4] However, diplomatic relations were not formally severed.[1] Diplomatic relations were not resumed until 2006.

The U.S. Embassy in Tripoli was closed and all diplomatic personnel were evacuated on February 25, 2011, due to the Libyan civil war.[5][6][7][8] The embassy of Hungary in Tripoli acted as the protecting power for U.S. interests from the closure of the embassy until its reopening on September 22, 2011.[9][10]

On July 15, U.S. Secretary of State Clinton announced that the U.S. Government recognizes the Libyan rebel National Transitional Council as the “legitimate governing authority” of Libya—which de facto withdraws recognition from the Gaddafi government.[11][12][13] On September 12, 2012 the US ambassador to Libya was killed in an attack on the Benghazi consulate, along with three other embassy employees.[14][15]

Ambassadors and chiefs of mission[edit]

  • Andrew Green Lynch – Career FSO[16]
    • Title: Chargé d’Affaires a.i.
    • Appointed: December 24, 1951
    • Presented credentials: — [17]
    • Terminated mission: Superseded by Ambassador Villard, March 6, 1952
  • Henry Serrano Villard – Career FSO
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: February 7, 1952
    • Presented credentials: March 6, 1952
    • Terminated mission: Left post June 24, 1954
  • Note: John Newton Gatch was serving as Chargé d’Affaires a.i. when the U.S. legation in Libya was raised to Embassy status on September 25, 1954.
  • John L. Tappin – Political appointee[18]
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: September 25, 1954
    • Presented credentials: November 16, 1954
    • Terminated mission: Superseded by Ambassador Jones March 17, 1958
  • John Wesley Jones – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: February 5, 1958
    • Presented credentials: March 17, 1958
    • Terminated mission: Left Libya December 20, 1962
  • Edwin Allan Lightner – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: May 3, 1963
    • Presented credentials: May 27, 1963
    • Terminated mission: Left post June 30, 1965
  • David D. Newsom – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 22, 1965
    • Presented credentials: October 16, 1965
    • Terminated mission: Left post June 21, 1969
  • Joseph Palmer II – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 8, 1969
    • Presented credentials: October 9, 1969
    • Terminated mission: Left post November 7, 1972
  • No ambassador was appointed following Palmer. The following persons served as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim until closure of the embassy in 1980:

Note: U.S. Chargé d’Affaires William Eagleton was recalled February 8, 1980, and the U.S. Embassy at Tripoli closed May 2, 1980. However, diplomatic relations were not formally severed.[1]

Note: The United States established an Interests Section at the Belgian Embassy in Tripoli, February 8, 2004. It became the U.S. Liaison Office on June 28, with Gregory L. Berry as the Principal Officer. On May 31, 2006, the U.S. resumed full diplomatic relations with Libya, and the Interests Section in Tripoli became an embassy, with Gregory L. Berry as Charge d'Affaires ad interim.[1]

  • Gregory L. Berry – Career FSO
    • Title: Chargé d’Affaires ad interim
    • Appointed: May 31, 2006
    • Presented credentials: –[17]
    • Terminated mission: October 10, 2006
  • Charles O. Cecil – Career FSO
    • Title: Chargé d’Affaires ad interim
    • Appointed: November 15, 2006
    • Presented credentials: —[17]
    • Terminated mission: July 11, 2007
  • Laurence Pope – Career FSO
    • Title: Chargé d'Affaires ad interim
    • Appointed: October 2012 [23]
    • Presented credentials: —
    • Terminated mission: January 4, 2013
  • William Roebuck – Career FSO
    • Title: Chargé d'Affaires ad interim
    • Appointed: January 4, 2013
    • Presented credentials: —
    • Terminated mission: May 2013
  • Deborah K. Jones – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: May 2013
    • Presented credentials: June 2013
    • Terminated mission: Incumbent

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Libya". United States Department of State. Retrieved July 24, 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c "Background Note: Libya". United States Department of State. Retrieved July 24, 2011. 
  3. ^ a b "U.S.-Libyan Relations". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved July 24, 2011. 
  4. ^ "About Us". United States Department of State, U.S. Embassy Tripoli. Retrieved July 24, 2011. 
  5. ^ "U.S. Embassy Tripoli Warden Message – Immediate Evacuation Information". United States Department of State, U.S. Embassy Tripoli. February 26, 2011. Retrieved July 24, 2011. 
  6. ^ "U.S. Citizens Evacuated Libya". United States Department of State, Consulate General of the United States, Istanbul. February 25, 2011. Retrieved July 24, 2011. 
  7. ^ "U.S. diplomat says embassy security 'not the best' in Tripoli". CNN. February 26, 2011. Retrieved July 24, 2011. 
  8. ^ "U.S. closes embassy in Tripoli, prepares sanctions". The Washington Post. February 25, 2011. Retrieved July 24, 2011. 
  9. ^ "Libya Travel Update". United States Department of State, U.S. Embassy Tripoli. July 19, 2011. Retrieved July 24, 2011. 
  10. ^ "U.S. Embassy Reopens in a Free Libya". United States Department of State, U.S. Embassy Tripoli. September 22, 2011. Retrieved October 19, 2011. 
  11. ^ "U.S. recognizes Libyan Rebel Group". The Wall Street Journal. July 16, 2011. Retrieved July 24, 2011. 
  12. ^ "US formally recognizes Libya rebels". The Denver Post. July 15, 2011. Retrieved July 24, 2011. 
  13. ^ "US recognizes Libyan rebels as Libyan government". Yahoo.com. July 15, 2011. Retrieved July 24, 2011. 
  14. ^ "BBC News – US ambassador 'killed in Libya'". BBC Online. September 12, 2012. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  15. ^ "Ambassador – Embassy of the United States Tripoli, Libya". United States Foreign Service. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  16. ^ Prior to establishment of the embassy, Lynch had been the Consul-General in Libya.
  17. ^ a b c Chargés d’affaires do not have official status as ambassadors and do not necessarily present credentials.
  18. ^ Tappin was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on January 24, 1955.
  19. ^ "U.S. Envoy Cretz Set For New Role In Libya". NPR. Retrieved July 24, 2011. 
  20. ^ "Office of the Historian – Department History – People – Gene Allan Cretz". United States Department of State. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  21. ^ http://libya.usembassy.gov/principal.html
  22. ^ http://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.373241099405634.86426.236838689712543&type=3
  23. ^ Ethan A. Goldrich, Chargé d'Affaires a.i. – biography

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]