United States Ambassador to Portugal

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Ambassador of the United States to Portugal
Department of state.svg
Seal of the United States Department of State
Incumbent
Robert A. Sherman

since March 2014
Nominator Barack Obama
Inaugural holder David Humphreys
as Minister Resident
Formation February 21, 1791
Website U.S. Embassy - Lisbon

This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Portugal.

Bilateral diplomatic relations between the United States and Portugal date from the earliest years of the United States. Following the Revolutionary War, Portugal was the first neutral country to recognize the United States. On February 21, 1791, President George Washington opened formal diplomatic relations, naming Col. David Humphreys as U.S. Minister Resident. Subsequent envoys were given the title Minister Plenipotentiary.

Ambassadors[edit]

U.S. diplomatic terms


Career FSO
After 1915, The United States Department of State began classifying ambassadors as career Foreign Service Officers (FSOs) for those who have served in the Foreign Service for a specified amount of time.

Political appointee
A person who is not a career foreign service officer, but is appointed by the president (often as a reward to political friends).

Appointed
The date that the ambassador took the oath of office; also known as “commissioning”. It follows confirmation of a presidential appointment by the Senate, or a Congressional-recess appointment by the president. In the case of a recess appointment, the ambassador requires subsequent confirmation by the Senate.

Presented credentials
The date that the ambassador presented his letter of credence to the head of state or appropriate authority of the receiving nation. At this time the ambassador officially becomes the representative of his country. This would normally occur a short time after the ambassador’s arrival on station. The host nation may reject the ambassador by not receiving the ambassador’s letter, but this occurs only rarely.

Terminated mission
Usually the date that the ambassador left the country. In some cases a letter of recall is presented, ending the ambassador’s commission, either as a means of diplomatic protest or because the diplomat is being reassigned elsewhere and replaced by another envoy.

Chargé d'affaires
The person in charge of the business of the embassy when there is no ambassador commissioned to the host country. See chargé d'affaires.

Ad interim
Latin phrase meaning "for the time being", "in the meantime". See ad interim.
  • David Humphreys
    • Title: Minister Resident
    • Appointed: February 21, 1791
    • Presented credentials: May 13, 1791
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, July 25, 1797
  • John Quincy Adams[1]
    • Title: Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: May 30, 1796
    • Presented credentials: —
    • Terminated mission: —
  • William L. Smith
    • Title: Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 10, 1797
    • Presented credentials: September 8, 1797
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, September 9, 1801
  • Note: There was no U.S. minister representing the U.S. from 1801–1807.
  • Thomas Sumter, Jr.[2]
    • Title: Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: March 7, 1809
    • Presented credentials: June 7, 1810
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, July 24, 1819
  • John Graham[2]
    • Title: Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: January 6, 1819
    • Presented credentials: June 24, 1819
    • Terminated mission: Left Rio de Janeiro, June 13, 1820
  • John James Appleton[2][3]
    • Title: Chargé d'Affaires
    • Appointed: Not commissioned
    • Presented credentials: —
    • Terminated mission: His last dispatch was dated July 12, 1821.
  • Henry Dearborn, Sr.
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: May 7, 1822
    • Presented credentials: Unknown[4]
    • Terminated mission: Had farewell audience, June 30, 1824
  • Note: Between 1824 and 1854 there was no minister representing the U.S. in Lisbon. A series of chargés d’affaires acted as chief of mission.
  • Thomas L.L. Brent[5]
    • Title: Chargé d'Affaires
    • Appointed: March 9, 1825
    • Presented credentials: June 24, 1825
    • Terminated mission: Left post on or soon after November 28, 1834
  • Edward Kavanagh
    • Title: Chargé d'Affaires
    • Appointed: March 3, 1835
    • Presented credentials: July 25, 1835
    • Terminated mission: Relinquished charge, April 19, 1841
  • Washington Barrow
    • Title: Chargé d'Affaires
    • Appointed: August 16, 1841
    • Presented credentials: December 28, 1841
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, February 24, 1844
  • Abraham Rencher[6]
    • Title: Chargé d'Affaires
    • Appointed: September 22, 1843
    • Presented credentials: February 24, 1844
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, November 4, 1847
  • George W. Hopkins
    • Title: Chargé d'Affaires
    • Appointed: March 3, 1847
    • Presented credentials: November 4, 1847
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, October 18, 1849
  • James Brown Clay[7]
    • Title: Chargé d'Affaires
    • Appointed: August 1, 1849
    • Presented credentials: October 18, 1849
    • Terminated mission: Left post August 19, 1850
  • Charles B. Haddock
    • Title: Chargé d'Affaires
    • Appointed: December 10, 1850
    • Presented credentials: June 17, 1851
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, June 16, 1854
  • John L. O'Sullivan[8]
    • Title: Chargé d'Affaires
    • Appointed: February 16, 1854
    • Presented credentials: June 16, 1854
    • Terminated mission: Promoted to Minister Resident June 29, 1854
  • John L. O'Sullivan[8]
    • Title: Minister Resident
    • Appointed: June 29, 1854
    • Presented credentials: October 19, 1854
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, July 15, 1858
  • George W. Morgan
    • Title: Minister Resident
    • Appointed: May 11, 1858
    • Presented credentials: July 15, 1858
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, July 19, 1861
  • James E. Harvey
    • Title: Minister Resident
    • Appointed: March 28, 1861
    • Presented credentials: July 19, 1861
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, July 15, 1869
  • Samuel Shellabarger
    • Title: Minister Resident
    • Appointed: April 21, 1869
    • Presented credentials: July 15, 1869
    • Terminated mission: Relinquished charge, January 1, 1870
  • William Cumback[9]
    • Title: Minister Resident
    • Appointed: January 28, 1870
    • Presented credentials: —
    • Terminated mission: —
  • Charles H. Lewis
    • Title: Minister Resident
    • Appointed: March 15, 1870
    • Presented credentials: June 15, 1870
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, April 8, 1875
  • Benjamin Moran
    • Title: Minister Resident
    • Appointed: December 15, 1874
    • Presented credentials: April 8, 1875
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, November 9, 1876[10]
  • Benjamin Moran[10]
    • Title: Chargé d'Affaires
    • Appointed: August 15, 1876
    • Presented credentials: November 15, 1876
    • Terminated mission: Recall presented by successor, September 27, 1882
  • John M. Francis[11]
    • Title: Chargé d'Affaires
    • Appointed: April 28, 1882
    • Presented credentials: —
    • Terminated mission: —
  • John M. Francis[11]
    • Title: Minister Resident/Consul General
    • Appointed: July 7, 1882
    • Presented credentials: October 5, 1882
    • Terminated mission: Left post August 25, 1884
  • Lewis Richmond
    • Title: Minister Resident/Consul General
    • Appointed: July 4, 1884
    • Presented credentials: October 23, 1884
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, May 7, 1885
  • Edward Parke Custis Lewis
    • Title: Minister Resident/Consul General
    • Appointed: April 2, 1885
    • Presented credentials: June 18, 1885
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, June 14, 1889
  • George B. Loring
    • Title: Minister Resident/Consul General
    • Appointed: March 30, 1889
    • Presented credentials: August 29, 1889
    • Terminated mission: Left post May 31, 1890
  • George S. Batcheller
    • Title: Minister Resident/Consul General
    • Appointed: October 1, 1890
    • Presented credentials: December 30, 1890
    • Terminated mission: Left post August 17, 1892
  • Gilbert A. Pierce
    • Title: Minister Resident/Consul General
    • Appointed: January 6, 1893
    • Presented credentials: March 20, 1893
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, May 24, 1893
  • Note: In 1893 the rank of the U.S. representative in Lisbon was raised to Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.
  • George William Caruth[12]
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: April 25, 1893
    • Presented credentials: June 30, 1893
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, July 24, 1897
  • Lawrence Townsend
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: June 9, 1897
    • Presented credentials: August 18, 1897
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, May 29, 1899
  • John N. Irwin[13]
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: April 12, 1899
    • Presented credentials: December 26, 1899
    • Terminated mission: Left post May 15, 1900
  • Francis B. Loomis[14]
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: June 17, 1901
    • Presented credentials: August 14, 1901
    • Terminated mission: Left post September 16, 1902
  • Charles Page Bryan
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: January 7, 1903
    • Presented credentials: April 25, 1903
    • Terminated mission: Left post January 16, 1910
  • Henry T. Gage
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: December 21, 1909
    • Presented credentials: June 11, 1910
    • Terminated mission: Left post November 19, 1910[15]
  • Henry S. Boutell[16]
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: March 2, 1911
    • Presented credentials: —
    • Terminated mission: —
  • Edwin V. Morgan
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: May 24, 1911
    • Presented credentials: August 3, 1911
    • Terminated mission: Left post February 11, 1912
  • Cyrus E. Woods
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: January 25, 1912
    • Presented credentials: March 20, 1912
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, August 19, 1913
  • Meredith Nicholson[17]
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: Not commissioned
    • Presented credentials: —
    • Terminated mission: —
  • Thomas H. Birch – Political appointee
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: September 10, 1913
    • Presented credentials: December 15, 1913
    • Terminated mission: Left post March 15, 1922
  • Fred Morris Dearing – Career FSO
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: February 10, 1922
    • Presented credentials: June 6, 1922
    • Terminated mission: Relinquished charge, February 28, 1930
  • John Glover South – Political appointee
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: December 16, 1929
    • Presented credentials: March 26, 1930
    • Terminated mission: Left post July 28, 1933
  • Robert Granville Caldwell – Political appointee
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: June 13, 1933
    • Presented credentials: August 21, 1933
    • Terminated mission: Left post May 28, 1937
  • Herbert Claiborne Pell – Political appointee
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: May 27, 1937
    • Presented credentials: July 31, 1937
    • Terminated mission: Left post February 3, 1941
  • Bert Fish – Political appointee
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: February 11, 1941
    • Presented credentials: March 26, 1941
    • Terminated mission: Died at post July 21, 1943
  • R. Henry Norweb – Career FSO
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary[18]
    • Appointed: November 15, 1943
    • Presented credentials: December 3, 1943
    • Terminated mission: Promoted to Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary May 4, 1944
  • Note: In May 1944 the rank of the envoy to Portugal was raised to Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary.
  • R. Henry Norweb – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: May 4, 1944
    • Presented credentials: June 20, 1944[19]
    • Terminated mission: Left post February 15, 1945
  • Herman B. Baruch – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: February 9, 1945
    • Presented credentials: April 12, 1945[20]
    • Terminated mission: Left post March 9, 1947
  • John C. Wiley – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: April 10, 1947
    • Presented credentials: June 18, 1947
    • Terminated mission: Left post March 15, 1948
  • Lincoln MacVeagh – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: April 8, 1948
    • Presented credentials: June 9, 1948
    • Terminated mission: Left post February 26, 1952
  • Cavendish W. Cannon – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: March 13, 1952
    • Presented credentials: June 2, 1952
    • Terminated mission: Left post August 1, 1953
  • M. Robert Guggenheim – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: June 24, 1953
    • Presented credentials: August 12, 1953
    • Terminated mission: Left post September 19, 1954
  • James C. H. Bonbright – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: January 24, 1955
    • Presented credentials: February 18, 1955
    • Terminated mission: Left post November 27, 1958
  • C. Burke Elbrick[21] – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: October 29, 1958
    • Presented credentials: January 13, 1959
    • Terminated mission: Left post August 31, 1963
  • George W. Anderson, Jr. – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 1, 1963
    • Presented credentials: October 22, 1963
    • Terminated mission: Left post June 1, 1966
  • W. Tapley Bennett, Jr. – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: May 10, 1966
    • Presented credentials: July 20, 1966
    • Terminated mission: Left post July 21, 1969
  • Ridgway B. Knight – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 8, 1969
    • Presented credentials: July 30, 1969
    • Terminated mission: Left post February 24, 1973
  • Stuart Nash Scott – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: December 19, 1973
    • Presented credentials: January 23, 1974
    • Terminated mission: Left post January 12, 1975
  • Frank C. Carlucci – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: December 9, 1974
    • Presented credentials: January 24, 1975
    • Terminated mission: Left post February 5, 1978
  • Richard J. Bloomfield – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: February 3, 1978
    • Presented credentials: March 10, 1978
    • Terminated mission: Left post June 10, 1982
  • Henry Allen Holmes – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: September 23, 1982
    • Presented credentials: October 15, 1982
    • Terminated mission: Left post June 26, 1985
  • Frank Shakespeare – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 2, 1985
    • Presented credentials: October 16, 1985
    • Terminated mission: Left post October 4, 1986
  • Richard N. Viets[22] – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: Not commissioned
    • Presented credentials: —
    • Terminated mission: —
  • Note: Between December 1986 and January 1988, the following two persons acted as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim at the embassy in Lisbon:
  • Edward Morgan Rowell[23] – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: January 19, 1988
    • Presented credentials: January 29, 1988
    • Terminated mission: Left post March 30, 1990
  • Everett Ellis Briggs – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: April 1, 1990
    • Presented credentials: May 25, 1990
    • Terminated mission: Left post September 3, 1993
  • Note: Sharon P. Wilkinson served as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim, September 1993–September 1994.
  • Elizabeth Frawley Bagley – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 5, 1994
    • Presented credentials: September 21, 1994
    • Terminated mission: Left post October 3, 1997
  • Gerald S. McGowan – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: November 10, 1997
    • Presented credentials: March 10, 1998
    • Terminated mission: Left post July 3, 2001
  • John N. Palmer – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: November 5, 2001
    • Presented credentials: November 28, 2001
    • Terminated mission: Left post September 25, 2004
  • Alfred Hoffman, Jr. – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: October 12, 2005
    • Presented credentials: November 30, 2005
    • Terminated mission: Left post, September 15, 2007
  • Thomas F. Stephenson – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: October 29, 2007
    • Presented credentials: February 8, 2008
    • Terminated mission: June 2009
  • Allan J. Katz – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: March 26, 2010
    • Presented credentials: April 28, 2010
    • Terminated mission: July 2013
  • Robert A. Sherman – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: March 5, 2014
    • Presented credentials: April 5, 2014
    • Terminated mission:

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ President Washington appointed Adams but he did not serve as minister.
  2. ^ a b c During a succession of wars and invasions, the Portuguese royal family was in exile in Brazil in 1807–1821. Ambassadors Sumter and Graham, and Chargé Appleton represented the U.S. at the court of Portugal in Rio de Janeiro.
  3. ^ Appleton’s nomination as Chargé d’Affaires was rejected by the Senate. He did, however, serve as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim from June 1820 until the legation to Portugal at Rio de Janeiro was closed in 1821.
  4. ^ Dearborn arrived at Lisbon before August 16, 1822. He did not report the date of presentation of credentials.
  5. ^ Brent was reaccredited on after change of government of Portugal. He presented new credentials January 18, 1830.
  6. ^ Rencher was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on January 11, 1844.
  7. ^ Clay was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on March 18, 1850.
  8. ^ a b President Franklin Pierce nominated O’Sullivan February 25, 1856, to be Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary but the nomination withdrawn before the Senate acted upon it.
  9. ^ Cumback declined the appointment.
  10. ^ a b Moran was reassigned as Chargé d’Affaires at the Lisbon legation on August 15, 1876. He served in that position until 1882.
  11. ^ a b Francis took the oath of office as Chargé d’Affaires but did not proceed to the post under that appointment. He was recommissioned as Minister Resident/Consul General on July 7, 1882.
  12. ^ Caruth was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on August 22, 1893.
  13. ^ Irwin was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on December 14, 1899.
  14. ^ Loomis was commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on December 10, 1901.
  15. ^ Normal relations between Portugal and the United States were interrupted October 5, 1910 as a result of the 1910 revolution. The new government of Portugal still unrecognized by the United States when Gage left post on November 19, 1910.
  16. ^ Boutell took the oath of office, but did not proceed to post.
  17. ^ President Taft nominated Nicholson for the post but withdrew the nomination before the Senate acted on it.
  18. ^ Norweb held the personal rank of Ambassador.
  19. ^ Norweb’s promotion required the presentation of new credentials.
  20. ^ Baruch was officially recognized as of April 12, 1945.
  21. ^ Elbrick was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on January 29, 1959.
  22. ^ President Ronald Reagan nominated Viets twice for the post: January 21, 1987 and September 15, 1987. Neither nomination was acted upon by the Senate.
  23. ^ Rowell was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on May 12, 1988.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]