United States Ambassador to Spain

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Ambassador of the United States to Spain
Embajador de Estados Unidos en España
Department of state.svg
Seal of the United States Department of State
Official photo of US Ambassador to Spain James Costos
Incumbent
James Costos

since August 1, 2013
Nominator Barack Obama
Inaugural holder John Jay
as Minister Plenipotentiary
Formation September 29, 1779
Website U.S. Embassy - Madrid

This is a list of United States Ambassadors to Spain from 1779 to the present day.

Ambassadors[edit]

U.S. diplomatic terms


Career FSO
After 1915, The United States Department of State began classifying ambassadors as career Foreign Service Officers (FSOs) for those who have served in the Foreign Service for a specified amount of time.

Political appointee
A person who is not a career foreign service officer, but is appointed by the president (often as a reward to political friends).

Appointed
The date that the ambassador took the oath of office; also known as “commissioning”. It follows confirmation of a presidential appointment by the Senate, or a Congressional-recess appointment by the president. In the case of a recess appointment, the ambassador requires subsequent confirmation by the Senate.

Presented credentials
The date that the ambassador presented his letter of credence to the head of state or appropriate authority of the receiving nation. At this time the ambassador officially becomes the representative of his country. This would normally occur a short time after the ambassador’s arrival on station. The host nation may reject the ambassador by not receiving the ambassador’s letter, but this occurs only rarely.

Terminated mission
Usually the date that the ambassador left the country. In some cases a letter of recall is presented, ending the ambassador’s commission, either as a means of diplomatic protest or because the diplomat is being reassigned elsewhere and replaced by another envoy.

Chargé d'affaires
The person in charge of the business of the embassy when there is no ambassador commissioned to the host country. See chargé d'affaires.

Ad interim
Latin phrase meaning "for the time being", "in the meantime". See ad interim.
  • John Jay[1]
    • Appointed: September 29, 1779
    • Title: Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials:
    • Terminated mission: ~May 20, 1782
  • William Carmichael[2]
    • Appointed: April 20, 1790
    • Title: Chargé d'Affaires
    • Presented credentials: February 20, 1783
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall September 5, 1794
  • William Short
    • Appointed: May 28, 1794
    • Title: Minister Resident
    • Presented credentials: September 7, 1794
    • Terminated mission: Left post November 1, 1795
  • David Humphreys
    • Appointed: May 20, 1796
    • Title: Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: September 10, 1797
    • Terminated mission: Probably presented recall soon after December 28, 1801
  • Charles Pinckney[3]
    • Appointed: June 6, 1801
    • Title: Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: January–March 1802
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall October 25, 1804
  • James Bowdoin III[4]
    • Appointed: November 22, 1804
    • Title:
    • Presented credentials:
    • Terminated mission:
  • George W. Erving[5]
    • Appointed:
    • Title: Chargé d'Affaires
    • Presented credentials:
    • Terminated mission:
  • George W. Erving[6]
    • Appointed: August 10, 1814
    • Title: Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: August 24, 1816
    • Terminated mission: Left post May 15, 1819
  • John Forsyth
    • Appointed: February 16, 1819
    • Title: Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: May 18, 1819
    • Terminated mission: Had farewell audience, March 2, 1823
  • Hugh Nelson
    • Appointed: January 15, 1823
    • Title: Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: December 4, 1823
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall July 10, 1825

Note: In 1825 the ministry was upgraded to Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.

  • Alexander Hill Everett
    • Appointed: March 9, 1825
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: September 4, 1825
    • Terminated mission: Left post August 1, 1829
  • Cornelius P. Van Ness[7]
    • Appointed: June 1, 1829
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: December 9, 1829
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall December 21, 1836
  • William T. Barry[8]
    • Appointed: April 10, 1835
    • Title:
    • Presented credentials: Never; died en route to post.
    • Terminated mission: N/A.
  • John H. Eaton[9]
    • Appointed: March 16, 1836
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials:
    • Terminated mission: Left post May 1, 1840
  • Aaron Vail
    • Appointed: May 20, 1840
    • Title: Chargé d'Affaires
    • Presented credentials: November 5, 1840
    • Terminated mission: Vail was superseded by Ambassador Irving, August 1, 1842.
  • Washington Irving
    • Appointed: February 10, 1842
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: August 1, 1842
    • Terminated mission: July 29, 1846
  • Romulus M. Saunders
    • Appointed: February 25, 1846
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: July 31, 1846
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall September 24, 1849
  • Daniel M. Barringer[10]
    • Appointed: June 18, 1849
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: October 24, 1849
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall September 4, 1853
  • Pierre Soulé
    • Appointed: April 7, 1853
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: October 24, 1853
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall February 1, 1855
  • John C. Breckinridge[11]
    • Appointed: January 16, 1855
    • Title:
    • Presented credentials:
    • Terminated mission:
  • Augustus C. Dodge
    • Appointed: February 9, 1855
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: June 17, 1855
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall March 12, 1859
  • William Preston
    • Appointed: December 15, 1858
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: March 12, 1859
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall May 24, 1861
  • Cassius M. Clay[12]
    • Appointed: April 14, 1861
    • Title:
    • Presented credentials:
    • Terminated mission:
  • Carl Schurz
    • Appointed: March 28, 1861
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: July 13, 1861
    • Terminated mission: Left post December 18, 1861
  • Gustavus Koerner
    • Appointed: June 14, 1862
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: November 4, 1862
    • Terminated mission: Left post July 20, 1864
  • John P. Hale
    • Appointed: March 10, 1865
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: September 30, 1865
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall July 29, 1869
  • Note: President Johnson nominated the following two men for the post, but the Senate declined to consider the nominations, probably because of the president’s disputes with the Congress over other issues.
  • Daniel E. Sickles[13][14]
    • Appointed: May 15, 1869
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: July 29, 1869
    • Terminated mission: Transmitted recall by note January 31, 1874
  • Caleb Cushing[15]
    • Appointed: January 6, 1874
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: May 30, 1874
    • Terminated mission: Left post April 9, 1877
  • James Russell Lowell[16]
    • Appointed: June 11, 1877
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: August 18, 1877
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall March 2, 1880
  • Lucius Fairchild
    • Appointed: January 26, 1880
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: March 31, 1880
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall December 20, 1881
  • Hannibal Hamlin[17]
    • Appointed: June 30, 1881
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: December 20, 1881
    • Terminated mission: Left post October 17, 1882
  • John W. Foster
    • Appointed: February 27, 1883
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: June 16, 1883
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall August 28, 1885
  • Jabez L.M. Curry[18]
    • Appointed: October 7, 1885
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: December 22, 1885
    • Terminated mission: Left post July 5, 1888
  • Perry Belmont[19]
    • Appointed: November 17, 1888
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: February 13, 1889
    • Terminated mission: Left post May 1, 1889
  • Thomas W. Palmer
    • Appointed: March 12, 1889
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: June 17, 1889
    • Terminated mission: Left post April 19, 1890
  • E. Burd Grubb
    • Appointed: September 27, 1890
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: December 23, 1890
    • Terminated mission: Left post May 26, 1892
  • A. Loudon Snowden
    • Appointed: July 22, 1892
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: October 6, 1892
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall June 3, 1893
  • Hannis Taylor
    • Appointed: April 8, 1893
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: July 1, 1893
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall September 13, 1897
  • Stewart L. Woodford[20]
    • Appointed: June 19, 1897
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: September 13, 1897
    • Terminated mission: Left post April 21, 1898
  • Bellamy Storer[21]
    • Appointed: April 12, 1899
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: June 16, 1899
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall December 10, 1902
  • Arthur S. Hardy[22]
    • Appointed: September 26, 1902
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: March 2, 1903
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall May 1, 1905
  • William Miller Collier
    • Appointed: March 8, 1905
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: May 15, 1905
    • Terminated mission: Superseded by Ambassador Ide on June 9, 1909
  • Henry Clay Ide
    • Appointed: April 1, 1909
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: June 9, 1909
    • Terminated mission: Left post July 8, 1913
  • Joseph Edward Willard[23]
    • Appointed: July 28, 1913
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials:
    • Terminated mission:

Note: In August 1913, the title of the office was changed to Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. This required a new commission.

  • Joseph Edward Willard
    • Appointed: September 10, 1913
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: October 31, 1913
    • Terminated mission: Left post July 7, 1921
  • Cyrus E. Woods
    • Appointed: June 24, 1921
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: October 14, 1921
    • Terminated mission: Left post April 18, 1923
  • Alexander P. Moore
    • Appointed: March 3, 1923
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: May 16, 1923
    • Terminated mission: Left post December 20, 1925
  • Ogden H. Hammond
    • Appointed: December 21, 1925
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: March 26, 1926
    • Terminated mission: Left post October 13, 1929
  • Irwin B. Laughlin
    • Appointed: October 16, 1929
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: December 24, 1929
    • Terminated mission: Left post April 12, 1933
  • Claude G. Bowers[24]
    • Appointed: April 6, 1933
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: June 1, 1933
    • Terminated mission: Had final interview, February 2, 1939
  • Alexander W. Weddell
    • Appointed: May 3, 1939
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: June 15, 1939
    • Terminated mission: Left post February 7, 1942
  • Carlton J. H. Hayes
    • Appointed: May 2, 1942
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: June 9, 1942
    • Terminated mission: Left Spain, January 18, 1945
  • Norman Armour
    • Appointed: December 15, 1944
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: March 24, 1945
    • Terminated mission: Left post December 1, 1945
  • Philip W. Bonsal[25]
    • Appointed:
    • Title: Chargé d'Affaires
    • Presented credentials:
    • Terminated mission:
  • Paul T. Culbertson[26]
    • Appointed:
    • Title: Chargé d'Affaires
    • Presented credentials:
    • Terminated mission:
  • Stanton Griffis
    • Appointed: February 1, 1951
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: March 1, 1951
    • Terminated mission: Relinquished charge January 28, 1952
  • Lincoln MacVeagh
    • Appointed: February 21, 1952
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: March 27, 1952
    • Terminated mission: Left post March 4, 1953
  • James Clement Dunn
    • Appointed: February 27, 1953
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: April 9, 1953
    • Terminated mission: Left post February 9, 1955
  • John Davis Lodge
    • Appointed: January 22, 1955
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: March 24, 1955
    • Terminated mission: Left post April 13, 1961
  • Anthony J. Drexel Biddle, Jr.
    • Appointed: March 29, 1961
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: May 25, 1961
    • Terminated mission: Left Spain, October 12, 1961
  • Ellis O. Briggs[27]
    • Appointed:
    • Title:
    • Presented credentials:
    • Terminated mission:
  • Robert F. Woodward
    • Appointed: April 7, 1962
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: May 10, 1962
    • Terminated mission: Left post February 1, 1965
  • Angier Biddle Duke
    • Appointed: March 11, 1965
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: April 1, 1965
    • Terminated mission: Left post March 30, 1968
  • Frank E. McKinney[28]
    • Appointed: May 11, 1968
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: May 11, 1968
    • Terminated mission: Took oath of office, but did not proceed to post under this appointment.[29]
  • Robert F. Wagner, Jr.
    • Appointed: June 24, 1968
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: July 4, 1968
    • Terminated mission: Left post March 7, 1969
  • Robert C. Hill
    • Appointed: May 1, 1969
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: June 12, 1969
    • Terminated mission: Left post January 12, 1972
  • Horacio Rivero
    • Appointed: September 11, 1972
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: October 11, 1972
    • Terminated mission: Left post November 26, 1974
  • Peter M. Flanigan[30]
    • Appointed: Not Commissioned
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials:
    • Terminated mission:
  • Wells Stabler
    • Appointed: February 20, 1975
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: March 13, 1975
    • Terminated mission: Left post May 4, 1978
  • Terence A. Todman
    • Appointed: May 25, 1978
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: July 20, 1978
    • Terminated mission: Left post August 8, 1983
  • Thomas Ostrom Enders
    • Appointed: August 5, 1983
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: September 15, 1983
    • Terminated mission: Left post July 6, 1986
  • Reginald Bartholomew
    • Appointed: August 18, 1986
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: September 17, 1986
    • Terminated mission: Left post March 12, 1989
  • Joseph Zappala
    • Appointed: October 10, 1989
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: October 16, 1989
    • Terminated mission: Left post June 4, 1992
  • Richard Goodwin Capen, Jr.
    • Appointed: June 15, 1992
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: July 8, 1992
    • Terminated mission: Left post February 17, 1993
  • Richard N. Gardner
    • Appointed: September 16, 1993
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: November 4, 1993
    • Terminated mission: Left post July 12, 1997

Note: Beginning in 1998, The ambassador to Spain was also accredited to Andorra.

  • Edward L. Romero
    • Appointed: April 2, 1998
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: June 30, 1998
    • Terminated mission: May 1, 2001
  • George L. Argyros, Sr.
    • Appointed: November 21, 2001
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: December 13, 2001
    • Terminated mission: Left post November 21, 2004
  • Eduardo Aguirre
    • Appointed: June 21, 2005
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: June 29, 2005
    • Terminated mission: January 20, 2009
  • Alan Solomont
    • Appointed: December 24, 2009
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: January 9, 2010
    • Terminated mission: August 1, 2013
  • James Costos
    • Appointed: August 1, 2013
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Presented credentials: September 24, 2013
    • Terminated mission: Incumbent

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ John Jay proceeded to post but was not formally received at court.
  2. ^ No report has been found concerning Carmichael’s presentation of credentials as Chargé d’Affaires en titre; he had already been received as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim, February 20, 1783.
  3. ^ Pinckney was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on January 26, 1802.
  4. ^ Bowdoin did not proceed to post.
  5. ^ Erving served as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim, October 1805–February 1810.
  6. ^ Erving was commissioned during a recess of the United States Senate and his nomination confirmed by the Senate, October 3, 1814. His commission following confirmation not on record.
  7. ^ Van Ness was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on February 10, 1830.
  8. ^ Barry took the oath of office, but died en route to post. He was commissioned during a recess of the Senate.
  9. ^ No report has been found of Eaton’s presentation of credentials, which probably took place about February 1, 1837.
  10. ^ Barringer was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on September 28, 1850.
  11. ^ Breckenreidge declined the appointment.
  12. ^ Clay declined the appointment.
  13. ^ Sickles was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on March 16, 1870.
  14. ^ Sickles presented new credentials on February 2, 1871, after change of government
  15. ^ Cushing presented new credentials on March 10, 1875, after restoration of monarchy.
  16. ^ Lowell was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on October 30, 1877.
  17. ^ Hamlin was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on October 13, 1881.
  18. ^ Curry was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on January 13, 1886.
  19. ^ Belmont was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on December 13, 1888.
  20. ^ Spain severed diplomatic relations with the U.S. on April 21, 1898. Woodford left post the same day. The United States declared war on Spain as of that date by Act of Congress approved April 25, 1898.
  21. ^ Storer was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on December 14, 1899.
  22. ^ Hardy was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on December 8, 1902.
  23. ^ Willard took the oath of office, but did not proceed to post under this appointment.
  24. ^ Bowers was resident during the last part of his ambassadorship at St. Jean de Luz in France. He left that post June 14, 1939, his appointment having terminated May 14, 1939. The embassy had meanwhile been re-established in Spain on April 13, 1939, when H. Freeman Matthews had been received at Burgos as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim.
  25. ^ Bonsal was the Chargé d’Affaires, not the ambassador, March 1946–June 1947.
  26. ^ Culbertson was the Chargé d’Affaires, not the ambassador, June 1947–December 1950.
  27. ^ Briggs was not commissioned; his nomination withdrawn before the Senate acted upon it.
  28. ^ McKinney took the oath of office, but did not proceed to post under this appointment.
  29. ^ "Former U.S Government Ambassadors to Spain". Retrieved 22 February 2011. 
  30. ^ Flanigan was not commissioned; his nomination of September 17, 1974 was not acted upon by the Senate.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]