United States Ambassador to Swaziland

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Ambassador of the United States to Swaziland
Department of state.svg
Seal of the United States Department of State
Incumbent
Makila James

since August 27, 2012
Nominator Barack Obama
Inaugural holder Charles J. Nelson
as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Formation June 9, 1971
Website U.S. Embassy - Mbabane

This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Swaziland.

After the Second Boer War of 1899–1902, Swaziland became a British protectorate and thus came under the hegemony of the British Empire. In the early years of colonial rule, the British had expected that Swaziland would eventually be incorporated into South Africa. After World War II, however, South Africa’s racial policies induced the United Kingdom to prepare Swaziland for independence. In 1966, the UK Government agreed to discuss a new constitution, and Swaziland became independent on September 6, 1968.

The United States immediately recognized the new nation and established an embassy in the capital Mbabane on September 6, 1968, independence day for Swaziland. Chris C. Pappas, Jr., was appointed as chargé d'affaires ad interim pending the appointment of an ambassador. The first ambassador, Charles J. Nelson was appointed on June 9, 1971. He was accredited to Swaziland, Lesotho, and Botswana while resident in Gaborone, Botswana.

Ambassadors[edit]

U.S. diplomatic terms


Career FSO
After 1915, The United States Department of State began classifying ambassadors as career Foreign Service Officers (FSOs) for those who have served in the Foreign Service for a specified amount of time.

Political appointee
A person who is not a career foreign service officer, but is appointed by the president (often as a reward to political friends).

Appointed
The date that the ambassador took the oath of office; also known as “commissioning”. It follows confirmation of a presidential appointment by the Senate, or a Congressional-recess appointment by the president. In the case of a recess appointment, the ambassador requires subsequent confirmation by the Senate.

Presented credentials
The date that the ambassador presented his letter of credence to the head of state or appropriate authority of the receiving nation. At this time the ambassador officially becomes the representative of his country. This would normally occur a short time after the ambassador’s arrival on station. The host nation may reject the ambassador by not receiving the ambassador’s letter, but this occurs only rarely.

Terminated mission
Usually the date that the ambassador left the country. In some cases a letter of recall is presented, ending the ambassador’s commission, either as a means of diplomatic protest or because the diplomat is being reassigned elsewhere and replaced by another envoy.

Chargé d'affaires
The person in charge of the business of the embassy when there is no ambassador commissioned to the host country. See chargé d'affaires.

Ad interim
Latin phrase meaning "for the time being", "in the meantime". See ad interim.
  • Note: Chris C. Pappas, Jr. served as chargé d'affaires September 1968–April 1969. Robert W. Chase served in that capacity, April 1969–August 1971.
  • Note: Until 1979 one ambassador, resident at Gaborone, was accredited to Botswana, Swaziland, and Lesotho.
  • Charles J. Nelson – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: June 9, 1971
    • Presented credentials: November 3, 1971
    • Terminated mission: Left Gaborone, March 2, 1974
  • David B. Bolen – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: February 28, 1974
    • Presented credentials: April 22, 1974
    • Terminated mission: Left Gaborone, August 11, 1976
  • Donald R. Norland – Career FSO[1]
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: November 17, 1976
    • Presented credentials: February 23, 1978
    • Terminated mission: Left Gaborone, September 8, 1979
  • Note: In 1979 the first ambassador was appointed solely for Swaziland.
  • Richard Cavins Matheron – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: November 27, 1979
    • Presented credentials: March 11, 1980
    • Terminated mission: Left post May 26, 1982
  • Robert H. Phinny – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 17, 1982
    • Presented credentials: January 12, 1983
    • Terminated mission: Left post September 5, 1984
  • Harvey Frans Nelson, Jr. – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 1, 1985
    • Presented credentials: October 14, 1985
    • Terminated mission: Left post July 29, 1988
  • Mary A. Ryan – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 11, 1988
    • Presented credentials: August 25, 1988
    • Terminated mission: Left post January 24, 1990
  • Stephen H. Rogers – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: October 22, 1990
    • Presented credentials: November 15, 1990
    • Terminated mission: Left post November 19, 1993
  • John T. Sprott – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 9, 1993
    • Presented credentials: February 17, 1994
    • Terminated mission: Left post August 1, 1996
  • Alan R. McKee – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 2, 1996
    • Presented credentials: October 11, 1996
    • Terminated mission: Left post July 12, 1999
  • Gregory Lee Johnson – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: November 16, 1999
    • Presented credentials: February 3, 2000
    • Terminated mission: Relinquished charge October 18, 2001
  • James D. McGee – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: January 30, 2002
    • Presented credentials: February 21, 2002
    • Terminated mission: Left post August 10, 2004
  • Lewis W. Lucke – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 2, 2004
    • Presented credentials: August 26, 2004
    • Terminated mission: 2006
  • Maurice S. Parker – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 20, 2007
    • Presented credentials: September 2007
    • Terminated Mission: June 12, 2009
  • Earl M. Irving – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 27, 2009
    • Presented credentials: August 27, 2009
    • Terminated Mission: August 27, 2012
  • Makila James - Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 27, 2012
    • Presented credentials: August 27, 2012
    • Terminated Mission: Incumbent

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Norland was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on June 24, 1977.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]