United States Ambassador to Yugoslavia

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Ambassador of the United States to Yugoslavia
Department of state.svg
Seal of the United States Department of State
Incumbent
None
Inaugural holder H. Percival Dodge
as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Formation July 17, 1919
Abolished February 29, 2004

The nation of Yugoslavia was formed on December 1, 1918 as a result of the realignment of nations and national boundaries in Europe in the aftermath of The Great War. The nation was first named the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and was renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929. The kingdom occupied the area in the Balkans comprising the present-day states of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Republic of Macedonia, and most of present-day Slovenia and Croatia. The United States recognized the newly formed nation and commissioned its first envoy to the kingdom on July 17, 1919. Previously the USA had had an envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary who was commissioned to Romania, Bulgaria, and Serbia while resident in Bucharest, Romania. Towards the end of the 1930s, the diplomatic relations between Belgrade and Washington were raised from ministerial to the ambassadorial level.

At the beginning of World War II, the government of Yugoslavia fled Belgrade and formed a government in exile in London and later in Cairo. During that time the U.S. ambassadors continued to represent the United States in London and Cairo. The embassy was transferred back to Belgrade in 1945.

Between 1943 and 1992 the nation was known by various names, including the Democratic Federative Yugoslavia (1943), the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (1946), and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1963).

After the breakup of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992, the remnants of the nation, comprising the Republics of Serbia and Montenegro, renamed itself the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On May 21, 1992, the United States announced that it did not recognize the Federal Republic. The ambassador had left Belgrade one week earlier. A series of chargés d’affaires represented the U.S. government until 1999, when the embassy was closed.

In 2001 the United States recognized the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and commissioned an ambassador to Belgrade.

In 2003 the parliament of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ratified the Constitutional Charter, establishing a new state union and changing the name of the country from Yugoslavia to Serbia and Montenegro. The U.S. ambassador continued in his post as the ambassador to Serbia and Montenegro.

For ambassadors to Serbia before and after Yugoslavia, see United States Ambassador to Serbia.

Ambassadors[edit]

U.S. diplomatic terms


Career FSO
After 1915, The United States Department of State began classifying ambassadors as career Foreign Service Officers (FSOs) for those who have served in the Foreign Service for a specified amount of time.

Political appointee
A person who is not a career foreign service officer, but is appointed by the president (often as a reward to political friends).

Appointed
The date that the ambassador took the oath of office; also known as “commissioning”. It follows confirmation of a presidential appointment by the Senate, or a Congressional-recess appointment by the president. In the case of a recess appointment, the ambassador requires subsequent confirmation by the Senate.

Presented credentials
The date that the ambassador presented his letter of credence to the head of state or appropriate authority of the receiving nation. At this time the ambassador officially becomes the representative of his country. This would normally occur a short time after the ambassador’s arrival on station. The host nation may reject the ambassador by not receiving the ambassador’s letter, but this occurs only rarely.

Terminated mission
Usually the date that the ambassador left the country. In some cases a letter of recall is presented, ending the ambassador’s commission, either as a means of diplomatic protest or because the diplomat is being reassigned elsewhere and replaced by another envoy.

Chargé d'affaires
The person in charge of the business of the embassy when there is no ambassador commissioned to the host country. See chargé d'affaires.

Ad interim
Latin phrase meaning "for the time being", "in the meantime". See ad interim.
  • H. Percival Dodge[1] – Career FSO
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 17, 1919
    • Presented credentials: October 5, 1919
    • Terminated mission: Left post March 21, 1926
  • John Dyneley Prince[2] – Political appointee
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: February 23, 1926
    • Presented credentials: May 5, 1926
    • Terminated mission: Left post August 31, 1932
  • Charles S. Wilson[3][4] – Career FSO
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 3, 1933
    • Presented credentials: September 11, 1933
    • Terminated mission: July 28, 1937
  • Arthur Bliss Lane – Career FSO
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 9, 1937
    • Presented credentials: October 23, 1937
    • Terminated mission: Left post May 17, 1941[5]
  • Anthony J. Drexel Biddle, Jr.[6][7] – Political appointee
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 30, 1941
    • Presented credentials: October 3, 1941
    • Terminated mission: Promoted to Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary September 1942
  • Anthony J. Drexel Biddle, Jr.[8] – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: September 29, 1942
    • Presented credentials: November 3, 1942
    • Terminated mission: September 28, 1943[9]
  • Lincoln MacVeagh[10][11] – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: November 12, 1943
    • Presented credentials: December 9, 1943
    • Terminated mission: March 11, 1944[12]
  • Richard C. Patterson, Jr.[13] – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: September 21, 1944
    • Presented credentials: November 17, 1944
    • Terminated mission: Left Belgrade October 25, 1946
  • Cavendish W. Cannon – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: April 10, 1947
    • Presented credentials: July 14, 1947
    • Terminated mission: October 19, 1949
  • George V. Allen[14] – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: October 27, 1949
    • Presented credentials: January 25, 1950
    • Terminated mission: Left post March 11, 1953
  • James W. Riddleberger – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 31, 1953
    • Presented credentials: November 16, 1953
    • Terminated mission: Left post January 11, 1958
  • Karl L. Rankin[15] – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: December 13, 1957
    • Presented credentials: February 19, 1958
    • Terminated mission: Left post April 22, 1961
  • George F. Kennan – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: March 7, 1961
    • Presented credentials: May 16, 1961
    • Terminated mission: Left Yugoslavia, July 28, 1963
  • Charles Burke Elbrick – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: January 29, 1964
    • Presented credentials: March 17, 1964
    • Terminated mission: Left post April 28, 1969
  • William Leonhart[16] – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: May 1, 1969
    • Presented credentials: June 30, 1969
    • Terminated mission: Left post October 18, 1971
  • Malcolm Toon – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: October 7, 1971
    • Presented credentials: October 23, 1971
    • Terminated mission: Left post March 11, 1975
  • Laurence H. Silberman - Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: May 8, 1975
    • Presented credentials: May 26, 1975
    • Terminated mission: Left post December 26, 1976
  • Lawrence S. Eagleburger – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: June 8, 1977
    • Presented credentials: June 21, 1977
    • Terminated mission: Left post January 24, 1981
  • David Anderson – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 27, 1981
    • Presented credentials: August 19, 1981
    • Terminated mission: Left post June 26, 1985
  • John Douglas Scanlan – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 12, 1985
    • Presented credentials: July 26, 1985
    • Terminated mission: Left post March 6, 1989
  • Warren Zimmermann – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 11, 1988
    • Presented credentials: March 21, 1989
    • Terminated mission: Recalled, May 12, 1992, left post May 16, 1992

Note: The United States announced on May 21, 1992, that it would not recognize the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, comprising the Republics of Serbia and Montenegro, as the successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

Note: The following officers served as chargés d’affaires ad interim in Belgrade: Robert Rackmales (May 1992–July 1993), Rudolf V. Perina (July 1993–1996), Richard M. Miles (1996–1999). The embassy was closed March 23, 1999. Miles and the last Embassy personnel left March 24, and NATO armed forces began military action against Serbia-Montenegro that evening.

Note: The United States again recognized the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 2001 and posted an ambassador to that nation.

  • William Dale Montgomery[17] – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: November 26, 2001
    • Presented credentials: January 4, 2002
    • Terminated mission: February 29, 2004

Montgomery was the last ambassador to the nation known as Yugoslavia. Hereafter ambassadors in Belgrade were commissioned to Serbia and Montenegro and then to Serbia. For subsequent ambassadors in Belgrade, see United States Ambassador to Serbia.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Dodge was commissioned to the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes.
  2. ^ Prince was commissioned to the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes and continued to serve as ambassador after the nation was renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929.
  3. ^ Wilson was commissioned during a recess of the Senat and recommissioned after confirmation on January 15, 1934.
  4. ^ Wilson was commissioned to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
  5. ^ The king had fled Belgrade on April 14, 1941 in anticipation of a German invasion.
  6. ^ Biddle served near the Yugoslav government-in-exile in England.
  7. ^ Biddle was also commissioned to the governments-in-exile of Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, and Poland; resident in London.
  8. ^ Biddle continued in his post after promotion to Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary.
  9. ^ The government-in-exile of Yugoslavia transferred to Cairo September 28, 1943.
  10. ^ MacVeagh served near the Yugoslav government-in-exile in Cairo.
  11. ^ MacVeagh was also commissioned to the government-in-exile of Greece; resident in Cairo.
  12. ^ The government-in-exile of Yugoslavia transferred back to England on March 11, 1944. On July 1, 1944 Rudolf E. Schoenfeld was designated Chargé d’Affaires ad interim near the Government of Yugoslavia established in England.
  13. ^ Patterson served near the government-in-exile in London. The U.S. Embassy was transferred back to Belgrade March 31, 1945.
  14. ^ Allen was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on February 2, 1950.
  15. ^ Rankin was commissioned during a recess of the Senat and recommissioned after confirmation on January 29, 1968.
  16. ^ Leonhart was commissioned to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
  17. ^ Montgomery was originally commissioned to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and continued to serve after its name was changed to Serbia and Montenegro on February 4, 2003.

References[edit]