United States Ambassador to the Republic of the Congo

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Ambassador of the United States to the Republic of the Congo
Department of state.svg
Seal of the United States Department of State
Incumbent
Stephanie S. Sullivan

since August 15, 2013
Nominator Barack Obama
Inaugural holder W. Wendell Blancke
as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Formation November 9, 1960
Website U.S. Embassy - Brazzaville

This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to the Republic of the Congo.

From 1885 until 1960, the republic had been under the control of France as a protectorate. In 1908, France organized French Equatorial Africa (AEF), comprising its colonies of Middle Congo (modern Congo), Gabon, Chad, and Oubangui-Chari (now Central African Republic). Brazzaville was selected as the federal capital.

In 1958 Middle Congo became an autonomous colony and was renamed Republic of the Congo. The republic was granted full independence on August 15, 1960. As the Belgian Congo (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) also chose the name Republic of Congo upon receiving its independence, the two countries were more commonly known as Congo-Leopoldville and Congo-Brazzaville, after their capital cities.

The United States immediately recognized the new Republic of the Congo and moved to establish diplomatic relations. The embassy in Brazzaville was established August 15, 1960, with Alan W. Lukens as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim. The first ambassador, W. Wendell Blancke was appointed on November 9, 1960.

Ambassadors[edit]

U.S. diplomatic terms


Career FSO
After 1915, The United States Department of State began classifying ambassadors as career Foreign Service Officers (FSOs) for those who have served in the Foreign Service for a specified amount of time.

Political appointee
A person who is not a career foreign service officer, but is appointed by the president (often as a reward to political friends).

Appointed
The date that the ambassador took the oath of office; also known as “commissioning”. It follows confirmation of a presidential appointment by the Senate, or a Congressional-recess appointment by the president. In the case of a recess appointment, the ambassador requires subsequent confirmation by the Senate.

Presented credentials
The date that the ambassador presented his letter of credence to the head of state or appropriate authority of the receiving nation. At this time the ambassador officially becomes the representative of his country. This would normally occur a short time after the ambassador’s arrival on station. The host nation may reject the ambassador by not receiving the ambassador’s letter, but this occurs only rarely.

Terminated mission
Usually the date that the ambassador left the country. In some cases a letter of recall is presented, ending the ambassador’s commission, either as a means of diplomatic protest or because the diplomat is being reassigned elsewhere and replaced by another envoy.

Chargé d'affaires
The person in charge of the business of the embassy when there is no ambassador commissioned to the host country. See chargé d'affaires.

Ad interim
Latin phrase meaning "for the time being", "in the meantime". See ad interim.
  • W. Wendell Blancke – Career FSO[1][2]
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: November 9, 1960
    • Presented credentials: December 23, 1960
    • Terminated mission: Left post, December 14, 1963
  • Henry L. T. Koren – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: April 8, 1964
    • Presented credentials: May 13, 1964
    • Terminated mission: Left post, August 4, 1965
  • Note: Due to civil strife and insecure conditions, the U.S. Embassy in Brazzaville was closed and all diplomatic personnel were withdrawn from the country on August 15, 1965. The embassy was reestablished on October 30, 1977, with Jay Katzen as chargé d'affaires ad interim. A new ambassador was appointed on April 26, 1979.
  • William L. Swing – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: April 26, 1979
    • Presented credentials: May 11, 1979
    • Terminated mission: Left post, May 30, 1981
  • Kenneth Lee Brown – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: December 11, 1981
    • Presented credentials: February 13, 1982
    • Terminated mission: Left post, June 10, 1984
  • Alan Wood Lukens – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 13, 1984
    • Presented credentials: September 22, 1984
    • Terminated mission: Left post, May 6, 1987
  • Leonard Grant Shurtleff – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 10, 1987
    • Presented credentials: September 26, 1987
    • Terminated mission: Left post, July 5, 1990
  • James Daniel Phillips – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: June 27, 1990
    • Presented credentials: August 23, 1990
    • Terminated mission: Left post, September 10, 1993
  • William Christie Ramsay – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 16, 1993
    • Presented credentials: September 23, 1993
    • Terminated mission: Left post, April 13, 1996
  • Aubrey Hooks – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: June 6, 1996
    • Presented credentials: July 11, 1996
    • Terminated mission: Left post January 9, 1999
  • David H. Kaeuper – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: November 16, 1999
    • Presented credentials: December 27, 1999
    • Terminated mission: Left post September 5, 2002
  • Robin Renee Sanders – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: November 15, 2002
    • Presented credentials: February 13, 2003
    • Terminated mission: 2006(?)
  • Robert Weisberg – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: March 21, 2006
    • Presented credentials: Unknown
    • Terminated mission: March 2, 2008
  • Alan W. Eastham – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 22, 2008
    • Presented credentials: Unknown
    • Terminated mission: Prior to September 2010
  • Christopher W. Murray – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 23, 2010
    • Presented credentials: September 16, 2010
    • Terminated mission: August 14, 2013
  • Stephanie S. Sullivan – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 12, 2013
    • Presented credentials: November 26, 2013
    • Terminated mission: Incumbent

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Blancke was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on February 6, 1961.
  2. ^ Blancke was also accredited to the Central African Republic, Chad, and Gabon while resident at Brazzaville.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]