United States Army Recruiting Command
The United States Army Recruiting Command (USAREC) mission is to recruit the enlisted, non-commissioned and officer candidates for service in the United States Army and Army Reserve. This process includes the recruiting, medical and psychological examination, induction, and administrative processing of potential service personnel.
The Recruiting Command is a field operating agency administratively responsible to the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel. The Command employs more than 7200 Active and Reserve Component recruiters at more than 1,600 recruiting centers across the United States and overseas. The Command is guided in its operations by the United States Mobilization Doctrine.
U.S. Army recruiters generally are DA selected for three year assignments. These “detailed” recruiters return to their primary military occupational specialty after obligation as recruiters. Center Commanders and reserve recruiters are all career recruiters who stay within USAREC for the duration of their careers.
General Paul Gorman’s (USA, ret.) in his institutional history of the U.S. Army, The Secret of Future Victories, credits George C. Marshall as the architect of the modern version of the current system for personnel allocation. This system has often been criticised as one that encourage careerism in the officer and NCO corps.
Recruiting for the U.S. Army began in 1775 with the raising and training of the Continentals to fight in the American Revolutionary War under Article I of the U.S. Constitution. The Command traces its organisational history to 1822, when Major General Jacob Jennings Brown, commanding general of the Army, initiated the General Recruiting Service. For much of the rest of the 19th century recruitment was left to the regimental recruiting parties, usually recruiting in their regional areas as was the practice in Europe.
Up to the commencement of the American Civil War two types of forces existed in the United States that performed their own recruiting: those for the regular Federal service, and those for the state Militia service.
Due to severe shortage of troops after the first year of the war, conscription was introduced by both the Union and the Confederacy to enable continuing of operations on a thousand-mile front. The conscription was first introduced in the South by President Jefferson Davis on the recommendation by General Robert E. Lee on 16 April 1862. The U.S. Congress enacted by comfortable majorities the Enrollment Act of 1863, also known as the Conscription Act, on 3 March after two weeks of debate. As a result approximately 2,670,000 men were conscripted for federal and militia service by the Northern states.
The realisation that volunteers could never again be depended on for service was clear in the post-war analysis, but the dependence on them prevailed until the commencement of the First World War when President Woodrow Wilson, arguing for America’s exclusion from the European war, believed that there would be found sufficient volunteers to meet the nation’s military needs. However, European experiences with industrial warfare prevailed, and two years later the US Congress passed the Selective Service Act of 1917. There were two primary reasons for President Wilson approving conscription: he recognized the efficiency and equity of the draft over the difficult-to-manage system of inducting and training volunteers, and that by opting for conscription, he realised the possibility of blocking one of his leading political critics and opponents, former President Theodore Roosevelt from raising a volunteer force to lead in France. The Act was however very selective in that "the draft ‘selected’ those men the Army wanted and society could best spare: 90 percent of the draftees were unmarried, and 70 percent were farm hands or manual hands.”
Conscription was again used to create a war-time Army from a small peace-time professional cadre in 1941, which eventually numbered 8.3 million personnel. However, there was a society-wide support for the conscription during the Second World War, in part due to efforts of the National Emergency Committee (NEC) of the Military Training Corps Association led by Greenville Clark who became known as the “Father of Selective Service.” The Congress, faced with imminent need to mobilize, still took three months of debate until finally passing the Selective Training and Service Act (STASA) of 1940 in June. Nearly 50 million men registered and 10 million were inducted into armed forces under the Act.
Although the STASA was extended after the war, it ended on 31 March 1947, and the Army had to turn to recruiting volunteers again, requiring and estimated 30,000 volunteers a month, but seeing only 12,000 enlisting.
With the Cold War looming, the Congress authorised the Selective Service Act of 1948 to enable President Truman to provide for 21 months of active Federal service, with all men from ages 18 to 26 required to register. This Act was extended due to the start of the Korean War, and replaced by the Universal Military Training and Service Act of 1951 by revising the earlier Act.
The new Act extended the president’s authority to induct citizens for four years, granted him the authority to recall reservists, lowered the draft age to 18, lengthened the term of service to two years, and cancelled deferments for married men without children.
With the end of the Korean War, the draft remained in force, but became increasingly unpopular although it continued to encourage volunteers and selected the bare minimum of annual recruits. Repeatedly renewed by overall majorities in Congress in 1955, 1959, and 1963, its final extension in 1967 was also passed by a majority of Congress, but only after a year of hearings and public debate. The U.S. Army became an all-volunteer force again in 1973. During the years of the Vietnam War between From 1965 to 1973, there were 1,728,254 inductions through selective service. There was however a direct effect on public support for the draft that was high even after the Korean War to its low in early 1970s because
Draftees, who constituted only 16 percent of the armed forces, but 88 percent of infantry soldiers in Vietnam, accounted for over 50 percent of combat deaths in 1969, a peak year for casualties. Little wonder that the draft became the focus of anti-Vietnam activism.
With these political consequences in mind in 1969 President Nixon appointed a commission, led by former Secretary of Defense Thomas Gates, “to develop a comprehensive plan for eliminating conscription and moving toward an All Volunteer Armed Force.” However, even before this commission submitted its report on 13 May 1969, President Nixon informed the Congress that he intended to institute a reform that would see the draftees replaced with volunteers in his Special Message to Congress on Reforming the Military Draft. In February 1970, the Gates Commission released its favorable AVF report, which stated that
“We unanimously believe that the nation’s interests will be better served by an all-volunteer force, supported by an effective stand-by draft, than by a mixed force of volunteers and conscripts; that steps should be taken promptly to move in this direction.”
Facilitating the transition to an all-volunteer force, the Army created District Recruiting Commands (DRC) through the continental United States to direct the efforts of its recruiters among the civilian population. The DRC’s became “Battalions” in 1983.
There are five recruitment, one medical recruitment and one recruitment support brigades in the Command. Each brigade consists of a number of battalions, with each battalion consisting of six to nine companies. A battalion, commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel, employs about 12 officers, 250 enlisted members, of which majority are on-production recruiters working from recruiting stations, and some 20 civilian support staff.
- 1st Recruiting Brigade Northeast Region HQ located at Fort George Meade, MD
- 1A U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Albany, Watervliet, NY
- 1B U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Baltimore, Fort George G. Meade, MD
- 1D U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion New England, Portsmouth, NH
- 1E U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Harrisburg, New Cumberland Army Depot, PA
- 1G U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion New York City, Fort Hamilton, NY
- 1K U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Mid-Atlantic, Lakehurst Naval Air Station, NJ
- 1N U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Syracuse, Syracuse, NY
- 1O U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Richmond, Richmond, VA
- 2d Recruiting Brigade Southeast Region HQ located at Redstone Arsenal, AL
- 3A U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Atlanta, Smyrna GA
- 3D U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Columbia, Columbia, SC
- 3E U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Jacksonville, Jacksonville, FL
- 3G U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Miami, Miami, FL
- 3H U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Montgomery, Maxwell-Gunter Air Force Base Annex, AL
- 3J U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Raleigh, North Carolina, NC
- 3N U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Tampa, Tampa, Florida, FL
- 3T U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Baton Rouge, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, LA
- 3d Recruiting Brigade Upper Midwest Region HQ located at Fort Knox, KY
- 5A U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Chicago, Great Lakes, Illinois, IL
- 5C U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Cleveland, Cleveland, Ohio, OH
- 5D U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Columbus, Columbus, Ohio, OH
- 5H U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana, IN
- 5I U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Great Lakes, Lansing, Michigan, MI
- 5J U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, WI
- 5K U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Minneapolis, Fort Snelling, MN
- 5N U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Nashville, Nashville, Tennessee, TN
- 5th Recruiting Brigade South-central Region HQ located at Wainwright Station, Fort Sam Houston, TX
- 4C U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Dallas, Irving, Texas, TX
- 4D U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Denver, Denver, Colorado, CO
- 4E U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Houston, Houston, Texas, TX
- 4G U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri, MO
- 4J U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Oklahoma City, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, OK
- 4K U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion San Antonio, Fort Sam Houston, Texas, TX
- 4P U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Phoenix, Phoenix, Arizona, AZ
- 6th Recruiting Brigade Western Region HQ located at North Las Vegas, Nevada, NV
- 6F U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Los Angeles, Encino, California, CA
- 6H U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Portland, Portland, Oregon, OR
- 6I U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Sacramento, Rancho Cordova, California, CA
- 6J U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Salt Lake City, Salt Lake City, Utah, UT
- 6K U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Southern California, Mission Viejo, California, CA
- 6L U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Seattle, Seattle, Washington, WA
- 6N U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Fresno, Fresno, California, CA
- U.S. Army Medical Recruiting Brigade, Fort Knox, KY
- 1st Medical Recruiting Battalion Fort Meade, MD
- 2nd Medical Recruiting Battalion Redstone Arsenal, AL
- 3rd Medical Recruiting Battalion Fort Knox, KY
- 5th Medical Recruiting Battalion Fort Sam Houston, TX
- 6th Medical Recruiting Battalion Las Vegas, NV
- Special Operations Recruiting Battalion
- Chaplain Recruiting Corps
Each recruiting battalion consists of recruiting companies in its area, with 243 companies currently providing recruiting facilities as offices and stations throughout United States and its territories. The Command also conducts recruiting operations in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and at U.S. facilities in Panama, Europe, and Asia.
Current key command personnel of the Command include:
- Commanding General - Major General Allen Batschelet
- Deputy Commanding Officer - Colonel Donna Martin
- Command Sgt. Maj. Wille C. Clemmons
- Major General Thomas P. Bostick 2005
- Major General Michael D. Rochelle – 2005
- Major General Cavin, Dennis D. 2000
- Major General Evan R. Gaddis 1998
- General Maxwell "Mad Max" Reid Thurman 1979–1984 developed the service's "Be all that you can be" campaign.
Notes and references
- 'Business Wire', U.S. Army Recruiting Command Signs up with Click2learn; Nationwide Implementation of the Aspen Learning Management System Will Reach More Than 7200 Recruiters, Bellevue, Wash., 11 December 2002
- pp.53–54, Vandergriff
- U.S. Army Recruiting Command Brigade and Battalion Public Affairs Offices, March 2009 
- p.53, Vandergriff
- pp.54–55, Vandergriff
- p.56, Vandergriff
- State of the Union message to Congress on 8 December 1914
- pp.57, Vandergriff
- pp.58, Vandergriff
- p.58, Vandergriff
- p.60, Vandergriff
- p.60, Vandergriff
- p.61, Vandergriff
- pp. 23–50, van Creveld
- p.10, Gates
- Victory Brigade
- Albany Eagles
- Capital Conquerors
- Patriot's Pride
- The Steel Battalion
- Mid-Atlantic Recruiting Battalion
- Team Syracuse
- Mountain Warrior Battalion
- Team Eagle
- Hammer of the South
- Miami Knights
- Falcon battalion
- The Bulldog Battalion
- Rough Riders
- Chicago Warriors
- Patriot Battalion
- Spirit of Columbus
- Force of the North "Soaring Eagles"
- Wolf Pack
- Wainwright Station
- Dallas Rangers
- Pride of the Rockies
- Kansas City
- Rough Riders
- San Antonio
- Mighty Phoenix
- Western Region
- Rough Riders
- Battle Sharks
- Blaz'n the Northwest
- Highlander Brigade
- Fort Meade
- Spartan Strong
- Fort Sam Houston
- Las Vegas
- http://www.bragg.army.mil/sorb/ Special Operations Recruiting Battalion – The Pathfinders
- Chaplain Corps
- The slogan was proposed by Earl Carter, a former N.W. Ayer civilian copywriter 
- van Creveld, Martin, The Transformation of War, The Free Press, New York, 1991
- Vandergriff, Donald, Manning the Future Legions of the United States, Praeger Security International, London, 2008
- Gates, Thomas, S., The Report of the President's Commission on an All-Volunteer Armed Force, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1970 
- Brigades and Battalions of the Recruiting Command
- Support Army Recruiting
- United States Army at the Wayback Machine (archived October 16, 1997)