United States Army Recruiting Command

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The United States Army Recruiting Command (USAREC) mission is to recruit the enlisted, non-commissioned and officer candidates for service in the United States Army and Army Reserve. This process includes the recruiting, medical and psychological examination, induction, and administrative processing of potential service personnel.

The Recruiting Command is a field operating agency administratively responsible to the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel. The Command employs more than 7200 Active and Reserve Component recruiters at more than 1,600 recruiting centers across the United States and overseas.[1] The Command is guided in its operations by the United States Mobilization Doctrine.[2]

The Command is commanded by a Major General, and assisted by a Deputy Commanding General (Brigadier General), with five recruitment brigades and a number of support brigades in the Command.[3]

U.S. Army recruiters generally are DA selected for three year assignments. These “detailed” recruiters return to their primary military occupational specialty after obligation as recruiters. Center Commanders and reserve recruiters are all career recruiters who stay within USAREC for the duration of their careers.

General Paul Gorman’s (USA, ret.) in his institutional history of the U.S. Army, The Secret of Future Victories, credits George C. Marshall as the architect of the modern version of the current system for personnel allocation.[4] This system has often been criticised as one that encourage careerism in the officer and NCO corps.

History[edit]

Recruiting for the U.S. Army began in 1775 with the raising and training of the Continentals to fight in the American Revolutionary War under Article I of the U.S. Constitution. The Command traces its organisational history to 1822, when Major General Jacob Jennings Brown, commanding general of the Army, initiated the General Recruiting Service.[5] For much of the rest of the 19th century recruitment was left to the regimental recruiting parties, usually recruiting in their regional areas as was the practice in Europe.

Up to the commencement of the American Civil War two types of forces existed in the United States that performed their own recruiting: those for the regular Federal service, and those for the state Militia service.

Due to severe shortage of troops after the first year of the war, conscription was introduced by both the Union and the Confederacy to enable continuing of operations on a thousand-mile front. The conscription was first introduced in the South by President Jefferson Davis on the recommendation by General Robert E. Lee on 16 April 1862. The U.S. Congress enacted by comfortable majorities the Enrollment Act of 1863, also known as the Conscription Act, on 3 March after two weeks of debate.[6] As a result approximately 2,670,000 men were conscripted for federal and militia service by the Northern states.

The realisation that volunteers could never again be depended on for service was clear in the post-war analysis, but the dependence on them prevailed until the commencement of the First World War when President Woodrow Wilson, arguing for America’s exclusion from the European war, believed that there would be found sufficient volunteers to meet the nation’s military needs.[7] However, European experiences with industrial warfare prevailed, and two years later the US Congress passed the Selective Service Act of 1917.[8] There were two primary reasons for President Wilson approving conscription: he recognized the efficiency and equity of the draft over the difficult-to-manage system of inducting and training volunteers, and that by opting for conscription, he realised the possibility of blocking one of his leading political critics and opponents, former President Theodore Roosevelt from raising a volunteer force to lead in France.[9] The Act was however very selective in that "the draft ‘selected’ those men the Army wanted and society could best spare: 90 percent of the draftees were unmarried, and 70 percent were farm hands or manual hands.”[10]

Conscription was again used to create a war-time Army from a small peace-time professional cadre in 1941, which eventually numbered 8.3 million personnel. However, there was a society-wide support for the conscription during the Second World War, in part due to efforts of the National Emergency Committee (NEC) of the Military Training Corps Association led by Greenville Clark who became known as the “Father of Selective Service.” The Congress, faced with imminent need to mobilize, still took three months of debate until finally passing the Selective Training and Service Act (STASA) of 1940 in June. Nearly 50 million men registered and 10 million were inducted into armed forces under the Act.

Although the STASA was extended after the war, it ended on 31 March 1947, and the Army had to turn to recruiting volunteers again, requiring and estimated 30,000 volunteers a month, but seeing only 12,000 enlisting.[11]

With the Cold War looming, the Congress authorised the Selective Service Act of 1948 to enable President Truman to provide for 21 months of active Federal service, with all men from ages 18 to 26 required to register. This Act was extended due to the start of the Korean War, and replaced by the Universal Military Training and Service Act of 1951 by revising the earlier Act.

The new Act extended the president’s authority to induct citizens for four years, granted him the authority to recall reservists, lowered the draft age to 18, lengthened the term of service to two years, and cancelled deferments for married men without children.[12]

With the end of the Korean War, the draft remained in force, but became increasingly unpopular although it continued to encourage volunteers and selected the bare minimum of annual recruits. Repeatedly renewed by overall majorities in Congress in 1955, 1959, and 1963, its final extension in 1967 was also passed by a majority of Congress, but only after a year of hearings and public debate. The U.S. Army became an all-volunteer force again in 1973. During the years of the Vietnam War between From 1965 to 1973, there were 1,728,254 inductions through selective service.[13] There was however a direct effect on public support for the draft that was high even after the Korean War to its low in early 1970s because

Draftees, who constituted only 16 percent of the armed forces, but 88 percent of infantry soldiers in Vietnam, accounted for over 50 percent of combat deaths in 1969, a peak year for casualties. Little wonder that the draft became the focus of anti-Vietnam activism.[14]

With these political consequences in mind in 1969 President Nixon appointed a commission, led by former Secretary of Defense Thomas Gates, “to develop a comprehensive plan for eliminating conscription and moving toward an All Volunteer Armed Force.” However, even before this commission submitted its report on 13 May 1969, President Nixon informed the Congress that he intended to institute a reform that would see the draftees replaced with volunteers in his Special Message to Congress on Reforming the Military Draft. In February 1970, the Gates Commission released its favorable AVF report, which stated that

“We unanimously believe that the nation’s interests will be better served by an all-volunteer force, supported by an effective stand-by draft, than by a mixed force of volunteers and conscripts; that steps should be taken promptly to move in this direction.”[15]

Facilitating the transition to an all-volunteer force, the Army created District Recruiting Commands (DRC) through the continental United States to direct the efforts of its recruiters among the civilian population. The DRC’s became “Battalions” in 1983.

Recruitment brigades[edit]

There are five recruitment, one medical recruitment and one recruitment support brigades in the Command. Each brigade consists of a number of battalions, with each battalion consisting of six to nine companies. A battalion, commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel, employs about 12 officers, 250 enlisted members, of which majority are on-production recruiters working from recruiting stations, and some 20 civilian support staff.

The recruitment brigades and their battalions, are:

  • Accessions Support Brigade, Fort Knox, KY[67]
    • Mission Support Battalion, Fort Knox, KY[68]

Each recruiting battalion consists of recruiting companies in its area, with 243 companies currently providing recruiting facilities as offices and stations throughout United States and its territories. The Command also conducts recruiting operations in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and at U.S. facilities in Panama, Europe, and Asia.

Command[edit]

Current key command personnel of the Command include:[69]

  • Commanding General - Major General Allen Batschelet
  • Deputy Commanding Officer - Colonel James Iacocca
  • Command Sgt. Maj. Wille C. Clemmons

Past commanders[edit]

  • Major General Thomas P. Bostick 2005
  • Major General Michael D. Rochelle – 2005
  • Major General Cavin, Dennis D. 2000
  • Major General Evan R. Gaddis 1998
  • General Maxwell "Mad Max" Reid Thurman 1979–1984 developed the service's "Be all that you can be" campaign.[70]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ 'Business Wire', U.S. Army Recruiting Command Signs up with Click2learn; Nationwide Implementation of the Aspen Learning Management System Will Reach More Than 7200 Recruiters, Bellevue, Wash., 11 December 2002
  2. ^ pp.53–54, Vandergriff
  3. ^ U.S. Army Recruiting Command Brigade and Battalion Public Affairs Offices, March 2009 [1]
  4. ^ p.53, Vandergriff
  5. ^ pp.54–55, Vandergriff
  6. ^ p.56, Vandergriff
  7. ^ State of the Union message to Congress on 8 December 1914
  8. ^ pp.57, Vandergriff
  9. ^ pp.58, Vandergriff
  10. ^ p.58, Vandergriff
  11. ^ p.60, Vandergriff
  12. ^ p.60, Vandergriff
  13. ^ p.61, Vandergriff
  14. ^ pp. 23–50, van Creveld
  15. ^ p.10, Gates
  16. ^ Victory Brigade
  17. ^ Albany Eagles
  18. ^ Capital Conquerors
  19. ^ Patriot's Pride
  20. ^ The Steel Battalion
  21. ^ Spartans
  22. ^ Mid-Atlantic Recruiting Battalion
  23. ^ Team Syracuse
  24. ^ Mountain Warrior Battalion
  25. ^ Team Eagle
  26. ^ Pathfinders
  27. ^ Columbia
  28. ^ Hammer of the South
  29. ^ Miami Knights
  30. ^ Falcon battalion
  31. ^ The Bulldog Battalion
  32. ^ Gators
  33. ^ Rough Riders
  34. ^ Marauders
  35. ^ Chicago Warriors
  36. ^ Patriot Battalion
  37. ^ Spirit of Columbus
  38. ^ Champions
  39. ^ Force of the North "Soaring Eagles"
  40. ^ Wolf Pack
  41. ^ Minneapolis
  42. ^ Trailblazers
  43. ^ Wainwright Station
  44. ^ Dallas Rangers
  45. ^ Pride of the Rockies
  46. ^ Scorpions
  47. ^ Kansas City
  48. ^ Rough Riders
  49. ^ San Antonio
  50. ^ Mighty Phoenix
  51. ^ Western Region
  52. ^ Rough Riders
  53. ^ Portland
  54. ^ Rhinos
  55. ^ [2]
  56. ^ Battle Sharks
  57. ^ Blaz'n the Northwest
  58. ^ Mustangs
  59. ^ Highlander Brigade
  60. ^ Fort Meade
  61. ^ Redstone
  62. ^ Spartan Strong
  63. ^ Fort Sam Houston
  64. ^ Las Vegas
  65. ^ http://www.bragg.army.mil/sorb/ Special Operations Recruiting Battalion – The Pathfinders
  66. ^ Chaplain Corps
  67. ^ [3]
  68. ^ [4]>
  69. ^ Commanders
  70. ^ The slogan was proposed by Earl Carter, a former N.W. Ayer civilian copywriter [5]

Sources[edit]

  • van Creveld, Martin, The Transformation of War, The Free Press, New York, 1991
  • Vandergriff, Donald, Manning the Future Legions of the United States, Praeger Security International, London, 2008
  • Gates, Thomas, S., The Report of the President's Commission on an All-Volunteer Armed Force, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1970 [6]

External links[edit]