United States Court of International Trade

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Coordinates: 40°42′54″N 74°0′13″W / 40.71500°N 74.00361°W / 40.71500; -74.00361

The James L. Watson Court of International Trade Building on Foley Square.

The United States Court of International Trade, formerly the United States Customs Court, and before that the Board of General Appraisers, is an Article III court, with full powers in law and equity. The Customs Court Act of 1980 replaced the old United States Customs Court with the United States Court of International Trade. The Court has nine sitting Judges, as well as Senior Judges. The Court sits in New York City, although it is authorized to sit elsewhere, including in foreign nations.

History[edit]

In 1890, the United States Congress passed legislation creating the Board of General Appraisers, a quasi-judicial administrative unit within the United States Department of the Treasury. The Board had nine members appointed by the President of the United States and empowered to review decisions of United States Customs officials concerning the amount of duties to be paid on importations.[1]

In 1926, Congress responded to the increasing number and complexity of customs cases by replacing the Board of General Appraisers with the United States Customs Court, an independent Article I tribunal, retaining the jurisdiction and powers of the Board of General Appraisers. In 1928, the United States Customs Court became the first federal tribunal in the United States to have a woman judge,[2] when President Calvin Coolidge nominated Genevieve R. Cline to the court.[3] Although many members of the United States Senate objected to Cline's appointment, both because of her gender, and because they believed she was self-taught and had no judicial experience, her supporters advocated strongly for her, including the Katherine Pike, president of the National Association of Women Lawyers and a number of club-women. Cline won U.S. Senate confirmation on May 25, 1928, received her commission on May 26, 1928, and took her oath of office in the Cleveland Federal Building on June 5, 1928.[4]

In 1956, Congress made the United States Customs Court an Article III tribunal, again without changing its jurisdiction, powers, or procedures. After making some procedural changes in the Customs Courts Act of 1970, addressed substantive issues concerning the court's jurisdiction and remedial powers in the Customs Courts Act of 1980, which broadened the power of the court and renamed it the United States Court of International Trade.[1]

Jurisdiction[edit]

The Court possesses limited subject matter jurisdiction, meaning that it may hear only cases involving particular international trade and customs law questions. For example, the Court hears disputes such as those involving protests filed with U.S. Customs and Border Protection, decisions regarding Trade Adjustment Assistance by the United States Department of Labor or United States Department of Agriculture, customs broker licensing, and disputes relating to determinations made by the United States International Trade Commission and the Department of Commerce's International Trade Administration regarding anti-dumping and countervailing duties.

There is one notable exception to the Court's jurisdiction. In cases involving antidumping and countervailing duties imposed on Canadian or Mexican merchandise, an interested party can request that the case be heard before a special ad hoc binational panel organized under Chapter 19 of the 1988 Canadian-U.S. Free Trade Agreement.

Procedure[edit]

Most cases are heard by a single judge. If a case challenges the constitutionality of a U.S. law or has important implications regarding the administration or interpretation of the customs laws, then it may be heard by a three-judge panel. Many Judges of the Court of International Trade also regularly sit by designation on three-judge panels of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.

Although the Court maintains its own rules of procedure, they are patterned for the most part on the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. The court has held that decisions interpreting the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure are "instructive" in interpreting its own rules.

Courthouse[edit]

The James L. Watson Court of International Trade Building, located on Foley Square in lower Manhattan in New York City, houses the court. It is also known as 1 Federal Plaza and is adjacent to the Jacob K. Javits Federal Building.

The building is named for James L. Watson, a judge of the United States Customs Court.

Composition of the court and its predecessors[edit]

Judges of the United States Court of International Trade[edit]

(current as of August 13, 2014)

  • On July 1, 2014, Judge Donald C. Pogue assumed senior status. On August 18, 2014, President Obama announced his intent to nominate Jeanne E. Davidson to this vacancy.
  • On August 22, 2014, Judge Richard K. Eaton will assume senior status. There is currently no nominee for this upcoming vacancy.
  • By virtue of his seniority of age, Judge Barnett holds seniority over Judge Kelly, despite their identical commission dates.
# Title Judge Duty station Born Term of service Appointed by
Active Chief Senior
22 Chief Judge Timothy C. Stanceu New York City 1951 2003–present 2014–present G.W. Bush
10 Judge Gregory W. Carman New York City 1937 1983–present 1996–2003 Reagan
11 Judge Jane A. Restani New York City 1948 1983–present 2003–2010 Reagan
20 Judge Delissa A. Ridgway New York City 1955 1998–present Clinton
21 Judge Richard K. Eaton New York City 1948 1999–present Clinton
23 Judge Leo M. Gordon New York City 1952 2006–present G.W. Bush
24 Judge Mark A. Barnett New York City 1963 2013–present Obama
25 Judge Claire R. Kelly New York City 1965 2013–present Obama
26 vacant New York City
13 Senior Judge Thomas J. Aquilino, Jr. New York City 1939 1985–2004 2004–present Reagan
14 Senior Judge Nicholas Tsoucalas New York City 1926 1986–1996 1996–present Reagan
15 Senior Judge R. Kenton Musgrave New York City 1927 1987–1997 1997–present Reagan
16 Senior Judge Richard W. Goldberg New York City 1927 1991–2001 2001–present G.H.W. Bush
17 Senior Judge Donald C. Pogue New York City 1947 1995–2014 2010–2014 2014–present Clinton
19 Senior Judge Judith M. Barzilay New York City 1944 1998–2011 2011–present Clinton

Past Judges of the United States Court of International Trade[edit]

# Judge State Born/Died Active service Chief Judge Senior status Appointed by Reason for
termination
Rosenstein, Samuel MurraySamuel Murray Rosenstein NY 1909–1995 1980–1995 Operation of law, Operation of law death
1 Rao, Paul PeterPaul Peter Rao NY 1899–1988 1980–1988 Operation of law, Operation of law death
2 Ford, MorganMorgan Ford NY 1911–1992 1980–1985 1985–1992 Operation of law, Operation of law death
3 Richardson, ScovelScovel Richardson NY 1912–1982 1980–1982 Operation of law, Operation of law death
4 Landis, Jr., FrederickFrederick Landis, Jr. NY 1912–1990 1980–1983 1983–1990 Operation of law, Operation of law death
5 Watson, James LopezJames Lopez Watson NY 1922–2001 1980–1991 1991–2001 Operation of law, Operation of law death
6 Maletz, Herbert N.Herbert N. Maletz NY 1913–2002 1980–1982 1982–2002 Operation of law, Operation of law death
7 Newman, BernardBernard Newman NY 1907–1999 1980–1983 1983–1999 Operation of law, Operation of law death
8 Re, Edward D.Edward D. Re NY 1920–2006 1980–1991 1980–1991 Operation of law, Operation of law retirement
9 Boe, NilsNils Boe NY 1913–1992 1980–1984 1984–1992 Operation of law, Operation of law death
12 DiCarlo, Dominick L.Dominick L. DiCarlo NY 1928–1999 1984–1996 1991–1996 1996–1999 Reagan, Reagan death
18 Wallach, EvanEvan Wallach NY 1949–present 1995–2011 Clinton, Clinton reappointment

Judges of the United States Customs Court[edit]

# Judge State Born/Died Active service Chief Judge Senior status Appointed by Reason for
termination
1 Howell, William BarberieWilliam Barberie Howell NY 1865–1927 1926–1927 1926–1927 Operation of law, Operation of law death
2 Fischer, Israel F.Israel F. Fischer NY 1858–1940 1926–1932 1927–1932 Operation of law, Operation of law retirement
3 Waite, Byron SylvesterByron Sylvester Waite NY 1852–1930 1926–1930 Operation of law, Operation of law retirement
4 McClelland, Charles PaulCharles Paul McClelland NY 1854–1944 1926–1939 1934–1939 Operation of law, Operation of law retirement
5 Sullivan, Jerry BartholomewJerry Bartholomew Sullivan NY 1859–1948 1926–1939 Operation of law, Operation of law retirement
6 Brown, George StewartGeorge Stewart Brown NY 1871–1941 1926–1941 1939–1940 Operation of law, Operation of law retirement
7 Adamson, William C.William C. Adamson NY 1854–1929 1926–1928 Operation of law, Operation of law retirement
8 Weller, George EmeryGeorge Emery Weller NY 1857–1932 1926–1930 Operation of law, Operation of law retirement
9 Young, George M.George M. Young NY 1870–1932 1926–1932 1932–1932 Operation of law, Operation of law death
10 Tilson, William JosiahWilliam Josiah Tilson NY 1871–1949 1928–1949 1932–1934 Coolidge, Coolidge death
11 Cline, Genevieve R.Genevieve R. Cline NY 1877–1959 1928–1953 Coolidge, Coolidge retirement
12 Kincheloe, David HayesDavid Hayes Kincheloe NY 1877–1950 1930–1948 Hoover, Hoover retirement
13 Evans, Walter HowardWalter Howard Evans NY 1870–1959 1931–1941 Hoover, Hoover retirement
14 Dallinger, Frederick W.Frederick W. Dallinger NY 1871–1955 1932–1942 Hoover, Hoover retirement
15 Keefe, William JohnWilliam John Keefe NY 1873–1955 1933–1947 Roosevelt, F.F. Roosevelt retirement
16 Walker, Thomas JosephThomas Joseph Walker NY 1877–1945 1940–1945 Roosevelt, F.F. Roosevelt death
17 Oliver, WebsterWebster Oliver NY 1888–1969 1940–1967 1940–1965 1967–1969 Roosevelt, F.F. Roosevelt death
18 Ekwall, William A.William A. Ekwall NY 1887–1956 1942–1956 Roosevelt, F.F. Roosevelt death
19 Cole, Jr., William PuringtonWilliam Purington Cole, Jr. NY 1889–1957 1942–1952 Roosevelt, F.F. Roosevelt reappointment
20 Lawrence, Charles DrummondCharles Drummond Lawrence NY 1878–1975 1943–1965 1965–1975 Roosevelt, F.F. Roosevelt death
21 Mollison, Irvin CharlesIrvin Charles Mollison NY 1898–1962 1945–1962 Truman, Truman death
22 Johnson, JedJed Johnson NY 1888–1963 1947–1963 Truman, Truman death
23 Rao, Paul PeterPaul Peter Rao NY 1899–1988 1948–1980 1965–1971 Truman, Truman reassignment
24 Ford, MorganMorgan Ford NY 1911–1992 1949–1980 Truman, Truman reassignment
25 Wilson, David JohnDavid John Wilson NY 1887–1976 1954–1966 1966–1976 Eisenhower, Eisenhower death
26 Alger, Mary DonlonMary Donlon Alger NY 1893–1977 1955–1966 1966–1977 Eisenhower, Eisenhower death
27 Richardson, ScovelScovel Richardson NY 1912–1982 1957–1980 Eisenhower, Eisenhower reassignment
28 Nichols, Jr., PhilipPhilip Nichols, Jr. NY 1907–1990 1964–1966 Johnson, L.L. Johnson reappointment
29 Landis, Jr., FrederickFrederick Landis, Jr. NY 1912–1990 1965–1980 Johnson, L.L. Johnson reassignment
30 Watson, James LopezJames Lopez Watson NY 1922–2001 1966–1980 Johnson, L.L. Johnson reassignment
31 Beckworth, LindleyLindley Beckworth NY 1913–1984 1967–1968 Johnson, L.L. Johnson resignation
32 Maletz, Herbert N.Herbert N. Maletz NY 1913–2002 1967–1980 Johnson, L.L. Johnson reassignment
33 Newman, BernardBernard Newman NY 1907–1999 1968–1980 Johnson, L.L. Johnson reassignment
34 Rosenstein, Samuel MurraySamuel Murray Rosenstein NY 1909–1995 1968–1970 1970–1980 Johnson, L.L. Johnson reassignment
35 Re, Edward D.Edward D. Re NY 1920–2006 1968–1980 1977–1980 Johnson, L.L. Johnson reassignment
36 Boe, NilsNils Boe NY 1913–1992 1971–1980 1971–1977 Nixon, Nixon reassignment

Members of the Board of General Appraisers[edit]

# Member State Born/Died Active service President Senior status Appointed by Reason for
termination
1 Ham, Charles H.Charles H. Ham NY 1831–1902 1890–1902 1897–1902 Harrison, B.B. Harrison resignation
2 Tichenor, George C.George C. Tichenor NY 1838–1902 1890–1902 1890–1897 Harrison, B.B. Harrison death
3 Wilkinson, Jr., Joseph BiddleJoseph Biddle Wilkinson, Jr. NY 1845–1915 1890–1899 Harrison, B.B. Harrison resignation
4 Jewell, James A.James A. Jewell NY  ????–1912 1890–1903 Harrison, B.B. Harrison resignation
5 Somerville, Henderson M.Henderson M. Somerville NY 1837–1915 1890–1915 1910–1914 Harrison, B.B. Harrison death
6 Shurtleff, Ferdinand N.Ferdinand N. Shurtleff NY 1837–1903 1890–1899 Harrison, B.B. Harrison removal[Note 1]
7 Stackpole, Joseph LewisJoseph Lewis Stackpole NY 1838–1904 1890–1890 Harrison, B.B. Harrison resignation
8 Sharretts, Thaddeus S.Thaddeus S. Sharretts NY 1850–1926 1890–1913 Harrison, B.B. Harrison removal[Note 2]
9 Sharpe, George H.George H. Sharpe NY 1828–1900 1890–1899 Harrison, B.B. Harrison resignation
10 Lunt, Wilbur FiskWilbur Fisk Lunt NY 1848–1908 1891–1908 Harrison, B.B. Harrison death
11 Howell, William BarberieWilliam Barberie Howell NY 1865–1927 1899–1926 1925–1926 McKinley, McKinley reassignment
12 Fischer, Israel F.Israel F. Fischer NY 1858–1940 1899–1926 1902–1905 McKinley, McKinley reassignment
13 De Vries, MarionMarion De Vries NY 1865–1939 1900–1910 1906–1910 McKinley, McKinley reappointment
14 Waite, Byron SylvesterByron Sylvester Waite NY 1852–1930 1902–1926 Roosevelt, T.T. Roosevelt reassignment
15 McClelland, Charles PaulCharles Paul McClelland NY 1854–1944 1903–1926 Roosevelt, T.T. Roosevelt reassignment
16 Hay, Eugene GanoEugene Gano Hay NY 1853–1933 1903–1923 Roosevelt, T.T. Roosevelt retirement
17 Chamberlain, RoyRoy Chamberlain NY 1862–???? 1908–1913 Roosevelt, T.T. Roosevelt removal[Note 3]
18 Cooper, Samuel B.Samuel B. Cooper NY 1850–1918 1910–1918 Taft, Taft death
19 Sullivan, Jerry BartholomewJerry Bartholomew Sullivan NY 1859–1948 1913–1926 1914–1925 Wilson, Wilson reassignment
20 Brown, George StewartGeorge Stewart Brown NY 1871–1941 1913–1926 Wilson, Wilson reassignment
21 Adamson, William C.William C. Adamson NY 1854–1929 1917–1926 Wilson, Wilson reassignment
22 Weller, George EmeryGeorge Emery Weller NY 1857–1932 1919–1926 Wilson, Wilson reassignment
23 Young, George M.George M. Young NY 1870–1932 1924–1926 Coolidge, Coolidge reassignment
  1. ^ Removed from office by William McKinley.
  2. ^ Removed from office by William Howard Taft.
  3. ^ Removed from office by William Howard Taft.

Succession of seats[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b History of the United States Court of International Trade.
  2. ^ Jo Freeman, A Room at a Time: How Women Entered Party Politics, 2002: Rowman and Littlefield, p. 216 (ISBN 084769805X)
  3. ^ "The Coolidge Week", Time, May 14, 1928
  4. ^ William Ganson Rose, Cleveland: the Making of a City, 1990: Kent State Univ. Press, p. 854 (ISBN 0873384288)

External links[edit]