United States Forces Japan

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United States Forces Japan
在日米軍
United States Forces Japan.png
USFJ
Country  Japan
 United States
Nickname USFJ

The United States Forces Japan, or USFJ (在日米軍 Zainichi Beigun?) refers to the various elements of the United States Armed Forces that are stationed in Japan. Under the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan, the United States is obliged to defend Japan in close cooperation with the Japan Self-Defense Forces for maritime defense, ballistic missile defense, domestic air control, communications security (COMSEC), and disaster response operations.

History[edit]

JGSDF soldiers at Camp Kinser
United States Forces helped Japanese in Operation Tomodachi

After the Japanese surrender in World War II, the United States Armed Forces assumed administrative authority in Japan. The Japanese Imperial Army and Navy were decommissioned, and the U.S. Armed Forces took control of their military bases until the new government could be formed and positioned to reestablish authority. Allied forces planned to demilitarize Japan, and new government adopted the Constitution of Japan with a no-armed-force clause in 1947.

After the Korean War began in 1950, Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers in Japan and the Japanese government established the paramilitary "National Police Reserve," which was later developed into the Japan Self-Defense Forces.

In 1951 the Treaty of San Francisco was signed by the allied countries and Japan, which restored its formal sovereignty. At the same time, the U.S. and Japan signed the Japan-America Security Alliance. By this treaty, USFJ is responsible for the defense of Japan. As part of this agreement, the Japanese government requested that the U.S. military bases remain in Japan, and agreed to provide funds and various interests specified in the Status of Forces Agreement. At the expiration of the treaty, the United States and Japan signed the new Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan. The status of the United States Forces Japan was defined in the U.S.-Japan Status of Forces Agreement. This treaty is still in effect, and it forms the basis of Japan's foreign policy. According to academics and experts, the U.S. provision of Japan's defense allowed Japan to focus domestic spending on their own economy, thereby assisting Japan with becoming one of the most powerful countries economically in the world.[1]

In the Vietnam War, the USFJ military bases in Japan, especially those in Okinawa, were used as important strategic and logistic bases. In 1970, Koza riot occurred against the US military presence in Okinawa. The USAF strategic bombers were deployed in the bases in Okinawa, which was still administered by the U.S. government. Before the 1972 reversion of the island to Japanese administration, it has been speculated but never confirmed that up to 1,200 nuclear weapons may have been stored at Kadena Air Base, Okinawa in the 1960s.[2]

As of 2013, there are approximately 50,000 U.S. military personnel stationed in Japan, along with approximately 40,000 dependents of military personnel and another 5,500 American civilians employed there by the United States Department of Defense. The United States Seventh Fleet is based in Yokosuka. The 3rd Marine Expeditionary Force (III MEF) is based in Okinawa. 130 USAF fighters are stationed in the Misawa Air Base and Kadena Air Base.[3]

The Japanese government paid ¥217 billion (US$ 2.0 billion) in 2007[4] as annual host-nation support called Omoiyari Yosan (思いやり予算?, sympathy budget or compassion budget).[5]

The U.S. government employs over 8,000 Master Labor Contract (MLC)/Indirect Hire Agreement (IHA) workers on Okinawa (per the Labor Management Organization) not including Okinawan contract workers.[6]

Immediately after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, 9,720 dependents of United States military and government civilian employees in Japan evacuated the country, mainly to the United States.[7]

The relocation of the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Futenma to Henoko was resolved as of December 2013 with the signing of the landfill agreement by the governor of Okinawa. Under the terms of the new U.S.-Japan agreement 5.000 U.S. Marines will be relocated to Guam and 4.000 U.S. Marines to other Pacific locations such as Hawaii or Australia, while some 10.000 Marines will remain on Okinawa.[8][9][10][11][12][13][14] No timetable for the Marines redeployment has been announced, but the Washington Post reported that U.S. Marines would leave Okinawa as soon as suitable facilities on Guam and elsewhere are ready.[11] The relocation move is expected to cost 8.6 billion US Dollars[8] and includes a $3.1bn cash commitment from Japan for the move to Guam as well as for developing joint training ranges on Guam and on Tinian and Pagan in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.[9] Certain parcels of land on Okinawa which have been leased for use by the American military are being turned back to Japanese control via a long-term phased return process according to the agreement.[11] These returns have been ongoing since 1972.

Exercise participation[edit]

The scope and frequency of U.S. Forces Japan participation in major exercises has been rising in recent years. This is largely attributable to the refocus of the U.S. to the Asia-Pacific region, although certain forces, especially the Marine Corps, have never left the region and continue to be heavily involved in theater security and regional stability. United States Pacific Command (US PACOM), the parent command of U.S. Forces Japan, has also taken on larger and broader roles during exercises in Japan, particularly in those exercises on mainland Japan.

U.S. Forces Japan has no control or authority over subordinate command exercises beyond manipulation of Force Protection Condition levels, which is the only area of tactical control residing with U.S. Forces Japan.

U.S. Presence Debate[edit]

U.S. Presence on Okinawa[edit]

Approximately 62% of U.S. bases in Japan (exclusive use only) are in Okinawa.[15]

Status Of Forces Agreement[edit]

73.4% of Japanese citizens appreciate the mutual security treaty with the U.S. and the presence of the USFJ,[16] a small but very vocal portion of the population demand a reduction in the number of U.S. military bases presence.[17]

In May 2010, a survey of the Okinawan people conducted by Mainichi Shimbun and Ryukyu shimpo, found that 71% of Okinawans surveyed thought that the presence of Marines on Okinawa was not necessary. 15% said it was necessary. Asked what they thought about 62% of United States Forces Japan bases (exclusive use) being concentrated in Okinawa, 50% said that the number should be reduced, 41% said that the bases should be removed. Asked about the US-Japan security treaty, 55% said it should be changed to a peace treaty, 14% said it should be abolished and 7% said it should be maintained.[18]

Many of the bases, such as Yokota Air Base, Naval Air Facility Atsugi and Kadena Air Base, are located in the vicinity of residential districts, and local citizens have complained about excessive aircraft noise.[19][20][21]

There is also debate over the Status of Forces Agreement which covers a variety of administrative technicalities blending the systems which control how certain situations are handled between the U.S.'s and Japan's legal framework. SOFA was created to allow both nations the best way to administer legalities, and has worked well over the years.

U.S. Service Member Behavior[edit]

Per Okinawa Prefectural Police data, U.S. service members commit far less crimes than local Okinawans.[22] According to the U.S.-Japan Status of Forces Agreement, U.S. personnel who commit crimes off-duty and off-base, are always prosecuted under the Japanese law.[23]

On February 12, 2008, the National Police Agency (of Japan) or NPA, released its annual criminal statistics that included activity within the Okinawan prefecture. These findings held American soldiers responsible for 53 crimes per 10,000 U.S. male servicemen, while Okinawan males held a crime rate of 366 crimes per 10,000. The crime rate found a U.S. servicemen in Okinawa to be 86% less likely to commit a crime than that of an Okinawan male.[24]

Osprey deployment in Okinawa[edit]

In October, 2012, twelve MV-22 Ospreys were transferred to the US Marine Corps Air Station Futenma to replace aging Vietnam-era Boeing Vertol CH-46 Sea Knight helicopters in Okinawa, greatly increasing the safety, capability and range of the Marines who are charged with Japan's defense as well as regional security. Then in October of 2013, an additional 12 Ospreys arrived, again to replace CH-46 Sea Knights, increasing the number of Ospreys to 24. Japanese Defence Minister Satoshi Morimoto explained the Osprey aircraft is safe adding that two recent accidents were 'caused by human factors'.[25] Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda also stated that the Japanese government was convinced of the MV-22's safety.[26]

Facilities[edit]

List of current facilities[edit]

U.S. military bases in Japan
U.S. military facilities in Okinawa

The USFJ headquarters is at Yokota Air Base, about 30 km west of central Tokyo.

The U.S. military installations in Japan and their managing branches are as follows:

Branch
(MilDep)
USFJ Facilities
Admin Code
Name of Installation Primary Purpose
(Actual)
Location
Air Force FAC 1054 Camp Chitose
(Chitose III, Chitose Administration Annex)
Communications Chitose, Hokkaido
FAC 2001 Misawa Air Base Air Base Misawa, Aomori
FAC 3013 Yokota Air Base Air Base Fussa, Tokyo
FAC 3016 Fuchu Communications Station Communications Fuchu, Tokyo
FAC 3019 Tama Service Annex
(Tama Hills Recreation Center)
Recreation Inagi, Tokyo
FAC 3048 Camp Asaka
(South Camp Drake AFN Transmitter Site)
Barracks
(Broadcasting)
Wako, Saitama
FAC 3049 Tokorozawa Communications Station
(Tokorozawa Transmitter Site)
Communications Tokorozawa, Saitama
FAC 3056 Owada Communication Site Communications Niiza, Saitama
FAC 3162 Yugi Communication Site Communications Hachioji, Tokyo
FAC 4100 Sofu Communication Site Communications Iwakuni, Yamaguchi
FAC 5001 Itazuke Auxiliary Airfield Air Cargo Terminal Hakata-ku, Fukuoka
FAC 5073 Sefurisan Liaison Annex
(Seburiyama Communications Station)
Communications Kanzaki, Saga
FAC 5091 Tsushima Communication Site Communications Tsushima, Nagasaki
FAC 6004 Okuma Rest Center Recreation Kunigami, Okinawa
FAC 6006 Yaedake Communication Site Communications Motobu, Okinawa
FAC 6022 Kadena Ammunition Storage Area Storage Onna, Okinawa
FAC 6037 Kadena Air Base Air Base Kadena, Okinawa
FAC 6077 Tori Shima Range Training Kumejima, Okinawa
FAC 6078 Idesuna Jima Range Training Tonaki, Okinawa
FAC 6080 Kume Jima Range Training Kumejima, Okinawa
Army FAC 2070 Shariki Communication Site Communications Tsugaru, Aomori
FAC 3004 Akasaka Press Center
(Hardy Barracks)
Office Minato, Tokyo
FAC 3067 Yokohama North Dock Port Facility Yokohama, Kanagawa
FAC 3079 Camp Zama Office Zama, Kanagawa
FAC 3084 Sagami General Depot Logistics Sagamihara, Kanagawa
FAC 3102 Sagamihara Housing Area Housing Sagamihara, Kanagawa
FAC 4078 Akizuki Ammunition Depot Storage Etajima, Hiroshima
FAC 4083 Kawakami Ammunition Depot Storage Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima
FAC 4084 Hiro Ammunition Depot Storage Kure, Hiroshima
FAC 4152 Kure Pier No.6 Port Facility Kure, Hiroshima
FAC 4611 Haigamine Communication Site Communications Kure, Hiroshima
FAC 6007 Gesaji Communication Site Communications Higashi, Okinawa
FAC 6036 Torii Communications Station
(Torii Station)
Communications Yomitan, Okinawa
FAC 6064 Naha Port Port Facility Naha, Okinawa
FAC 6076 Army POL Depots Storage Uruma, Okinawa
Navy FAC 2006 Hachinohe POL Depot Storage Hachinohe, Aomori
FAC 2012 Misawa ATG Range
(R130, Draughon Range)
Training Misawa, Aomori
FAC 3033 Kisarazu Auxiliary Landing Field Air Facility Kisarazu, Chiba
FAC 3066 Negishi Dependent Housing Area
(Naval Housing Annex Negishi)
Housing Yokohama, Kanagawa
FAC 3083 Naval Air Facility Atsugi Air Facility Ayase, Kanagawa
FAC 3087 Ikego Housing Area and Navy Annex Housing Zushi, Kanagawa
FAC 3090 Azuma Storage Area Storage Yokosuka, Kanagawa
FAC 3096 Kamiseya Communications Station
(Naval Support Facility Kamiseya)
Communications
(Housing)
Yokohama, Kanagawa
FAC 3097 Fukaya Communication Site
(Naval Transmitter Station Totsuka)
Communications Yokohama, Kanagawa
FAC 3099 United States Fleet Activities Yokosuka Port Facility Yokosuka, Kanagawa
FAC 3117 Urago Ammunition Depot Storage Yokosuka, Kanagawa
FAC 3144 Tsurumi POL Depot Storage Yokohama, Kanagawa
FAC 3181 Iwo Jima Communication Site Communications
(Training)
Ogasawara, Tokyo
FAC 3185 New Sanno U.S. Forces Center Recreation Minato, Tokyo
FAC 5029 United States Fleet Activities Sasebo Port Facility Sasebo, Nagasaki
FAC 5030 Sasebo Dry Dock Area Port Facility Sasebo, Nagasaki
FAC 5032 Akasaki POL Depot Storage Sasebo, Nagasaki
FAC 5033 Sasebo Ammunition Supply Point Storage Sasebo, Nagasaki
FAC 5036 Iorizaki POL Depot Storage Sasebo, Nagasaki
FAC 5039 Yokose POL Depot Storage Saikai, Nagasaki
FAC 5050 Harioshima Ammunition Storage Area Storage Sasebo, Nagasaki
FAC 5086 Tategami Basin Port Area Port Facility Sasebo, Nagasaki
FAC 5118 Sakibe Navy Annex Hangar Sasebo, Nagasaki
FAC 5119 Hario Dependent Housing Area
(Hario Family Housing Area)
Housing Sasebo, Nagasaki
FAC 6028 Tengan Pier Port Facility Uruma, Okinawa
FAC 6032 Camp Shields Barracks Okinawa, Okinawa
FAC 6046 Awase Communications Station Communications Okinawa, Okinawa
FAC 6048 White Beach Area Port Facility Uruma, Okinawa
FAC 6084 Kobi Sho Range Training Ishigaki, Okinawa
FAC 6085 Sekibi Sho Range Training Ishigaki, Okinawa
FAC 6088 Oki Daito Jima Range Training Kitadaito, Okinawa
Marine
Corps
FAC 3127 Camp Fuji Barracks Gotenba, Shizuoka
FAC 3154 Numazu Training Area Training Numazu, Shizuoka
FAC 4092 Marine Corps Air Station Iwakuni Air Station Iwakuni, Yamaguchi
FAC 6001 Northern Training Area
(Incl. Camp Gonsalves)
Training Kunigami, Okinawa
FAC 6005 Ie Jima Auxiliary Airfield Training Ie, Okinawa
FAC 6009 Camp Schwab Training Nago, Okinawa
FAC 6010 Henoko Ordnance Ammunition Depot Storage Nago, Okinawa
FAC 6011 Camp Hansen Training Kin, Okinawa
FAC 6019 Kin Red Beach Training Area Training Kin, Okinawa
FAC 6020 Kin Blue Beach Training Area Training Kin, Okinawa
FAC 6029 Camp Courtney Barracks Uruma, Okinawa
FAC 6031 Camp McTureous Barracks Uruma, Okinawa
FAC 6043 Camp Kuwae (Camp Lester) Medical Facility Chatan, Okinawa
FAC 6044 Camp Zukeran (Camp Foster) Barracks Chatan, Okinawa
FAC 6051 Marine Corps Air Station Futenma Air Station Ginowan, Okinawa
FAC 6056 Makiminato Service Area (Camp Kinser) Logistics Urasoe, Okinawa
FAC 6082 Tsuken Jima Training Area Training Uruma, Okinawa

JSDF-USFJ Joint Use Facilities and Areas

Temporary use facilities and areas are as follows:

USFJ Facilities
Admin Code
Name of Installation Primary
Purpose
Location
FAC 1066 Camp Higashi Chitose (JGSDF) Training Chitose, Hokkaido
FAC 1067 Hokkaido Chitose Maneuver Area (JGSDF) Training Chitose, Hokkaido
FAC 1068 Chitose Air Base (JASDF) Air Base Chitose, Hokkaido
FAC 1069 Betsukai Yausubetsu Large Maneuver Area (JGSDF) Training Betsukai, Hokkaido
FAC 1070 Camp Kushiro (JGSDF) Barracks Kushiro, Hokkaido
FAC 1071 Camp Shikaoi (JGSDF) Training Shikaoi, Hokkaido
FAC 1072 Kamifurano Medium Maneuver Area (JGSDF) Training Kamifurano, Hokkaido
FAC 1073 Camp Sapporo (JGSDF) Training Sapporo, Hokkaido
FAC 1074 Shikaoi Shikaribetsu Medium Maneuver Area (JGSDF) Training Shikaoi, Hokkaido
FAC 1075 Camp Obihiro (JGSDF) Training Obihiro, Hokkaido
FAC 1076 Asahikawa Chikabumidai Maneuver Area (JGSDF) Training Asahikawa, Hokkaido
FAC 1077 Camp Okadama (JGSDF) Recreation Sapporo, Hokkaido
FAC 1078 Nayoro Maneuver Area (JGSDF) Training Nayoro, Hokkaido
FAC 1079 Takikawa Maneuver Area (JGSDF) Training Takikawa, Hokkaido
FAC 1080 Bihoro Training Area (JGSDF) Training Bihoro, Hokkaido
FAC 1081 Kutchan Takamine Maneuver Area (JGSDF) Training Kutchan, Hokkaido
FAC 1082 Engaru Maneuver Area (JGSDF) Training Engaru, Hokkaido
FAC 2062 Camp Sendai (JGSDF) Training Sendai, Miyagi
FAC 2063 Camp Hachinohe (JGSDF) Barracks Hachinohe, Aomori
FAC 2064 Iwate Iwatesan Medium Maneuver Area (JGSDF) Training Takizawa, Iwate
FAC 2065 Taiwa Ojojihara Large Maneuver Area (JGSDF) Training Taiwa, Miyagi
FAC 2066 Kasuminome Airfield (JGSDF) Airfield Sendai, Miyagi
FAC 2067 Aomori Kotani Maneuver Area (JGSDF) Training Aomori, Aomori
FAC 2068 Hirosaki Maneuver Area (JGSDF) Training Hirosaki, Aomori
FAC 2069 Jinmachi Otakane Maneuver Area (JGSDF) Training Murayama, Yamagata
FAC 3104 Nagasaka Rifle Range (JGSDF) Training Yokosuka, Kanagawa
FAC 3183 Fuji Maneuver Area (JGSDF) Training Fujiyoshida, Yamanashi
Gotenba, Shizuoka
FAC 3184 Camp Takigahara (JGSDF) Training Gotenba, Shizuoka
FAC 3186 Takada Sekiyama Maneuver Area (JGSDF) Training Joetsu, Niigata
FAC 3187 Hyakuri Air Base (JASDF) Air Base Omitama, Ibaraki
FAC 3188 Soumagahara Maneuver Area (JGSDF) Training Shinto, Gunma
FAC 3189 Camp Asaka (JGSDF) Training Asaka, Saitama
FAC 4161 Komatsu Air Base (JASDF) Air Base Komatsu, Ishikawa
FAC 4162 1st Service School (JMSDF) Training Etajima, Hiroshima
FAC 4163 Haramura Maneuver Area (JGSDF) Training Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima
FAC 4164 Imazu Aibano Medium Maneuver Area (JGSDF) Training Takashima, Shiga
FAC 4165 Gifu Air Base (JASDF) Recreation Kakamigahara, Gifu
FAC 4166 Camp Itami (JGSDF) Training Itami, Hyogo
FAC 4167 Nihonbara Medium Maneuver Area (JGSDF) Training Nagi, Okayama
FAC 4168 Miho Air Base (JASDF) Air Base Sakaiminato, Tottori
FAC 5115 Nyutabaru Air Base (JASDF) Air Base Shintomi, Miyazaki
FAC 5117 Sakibe Rifle Range (JMSDF) Training Sasebo, Nagasaki
FAC 5120 Hijudai-Jumonjibaru Maneuver Area (JGSDF) Training Yufu, Oita
Beppu, Oita
FAC 5121 Tsuiki Air Base (JASDF) Air Base Chikujo, Fukuoka
FAC 5122 Omura Air Base (JMSDF) Recreation Omura, Nagasaki
FAC 5123 Oyanohara-Kirishima Maneuver Area (JGSDF) Training Yamato, Kumamoto
Ebino, Miyazaki
FAC 5124 Camp Kita Kumamoto (JGSDF) Training Kumamoto, Kumamoto
FAC 5125 Camp Kengun (JGSDF) Training Kumamoto, Kumamoto
FAC 6181 Ukibaru Jima Training Area Training Uruma, Okinawa

In Okinawa, U.S. military installations occupy about 10.4 percent of the total land usage. Approximately 74.7 percent of all the U.S. military facilities in Japan are located on the island of Okinawa.

List of former facilities[edit]

The United States has returned some facilities to Japanese control. Some are used as military bases of the JSDF; others have become civilian airports or government offices; many are factories, office buildings or resential developments in the private sector. Due to the Special Actions Committee on Okinawa, more land in Okinawa is in the process of being returned. These areas include—Camp Kuwae [also known as Camp Lester], MCAS Futenma, areas within Camp Zukeran [also known as Camp Foster], about 9,900 acres (40 km2) of the Northern Training Area, Aha Training Area, Gimbaru Training Area (also known as Camp Gonsalves), small portion of the Makiminato Service Area (also known as Camp Kinser), and Naha Port.

Army:

Navy:

Air Force:

Marines:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1], Japan Times, 10 Aug 2013
  2. ^ 疑惑が晴れるのはいつか, Okinawa Times, 16 May 1999
  3. ^ Yoshida, Reiji, "Basics of the U.S. military presence", Japan Times, 25 March 2008, p. 3.
  4. ^ 思いやり予算8億円減で日米合意、光熱水料を3年間で, Yomiuri Shinbun, December 12, 2007
  5. ^ PRESS RELEASE U.S. and Japan Sign Alliance Support Agreement, The embassy of the United States in Japan
  6. ^ "Purpose and Duties". Labor Management Organization. Retrieved 2012-03-10. 
  7. ^ Tritten, Travis J., "Evacuation from Japan a vacation? Not so much", Stars and Stripes, 31 May 2011.
  8. ^ a b Seales, Rebecca (27 April 2012). "End of an era: U.S. cuts back presence in Okinawa as 9,000 Marines prepare to move out". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 27 April 2012. 
  9. ^ a b "US agrees to Okinawa troop redeployment". Al Jazeera. 27 April 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2012. 
  10. ^ Shanker, Thom (26 April 2012). "U.S. Agrees to Reduce Size of Force on Okinawa". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 April 2012. 
  11. ^ a b c Greg Jaffe and Emily Heil (27 April 2012). "U.S. comes to agreement with Japan to move 9,000 Marines off Okinawa". The Washington Post. Retrieved 27 April 2012. 
  12. ^ "Okinawa deal between US and Japan to move marines". BBC. 27 April 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2012. 
  13. ^ "U.S., Japan unveil revised plan for Okinawa". The Asahi Shimbun. 27 April 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2012. 
  14. ^ Quintana, Miguel (28 April 2012). "Japan Welcomes US Base Agreement". Voice of America. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  15. ^ [2], Okinawa Prefectural Government
  16. ^ 自衛隊・防衛問題に関する世論調査, The Cabinet Office of Japan
  17. ^ "Japanese protest against US base". BBC News. 8 November 2009. 
  18. ^ "毎日世論調査:辺野古移設に反対84% 沖縄県民対象". Megalodon.jp. Retrieved 2012-03-10. 
  19. ^ 基地騒音の問題, Yamato City
  20. ^ 横田基地における騒音防止対策の徹底について(要請), Tokyo Metropolitan Government
  21. ^ 嘉手納町の概要, Kadena Town
  22. ^ [3], Ethos Data
  23. ^ [4], SOFA Agreement
  24. ^ "在日米軍・沖縄駐留米軍の犯罪率を考える - 駄犬日誌". D.hatena.ne.jp. 2008-02-14. Retrieved 2012-03-10. 
  25. ^ "US Osprey military aircraft begin Okinawa base move". BBC News. 1 October 2012. 
  26. ^ http://www.japantimes.co.jp/text/nn20121002a3.html
  27. ^ a b c d e A Soldier in Kyushu, By Capt. William B. Koons, October 1, 1947

External links[edit]