United States House of Representatives elections, 1812

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1812
United States
1810 ←
August 3, 1812 - April 30, 1813 → 1814

All 182 seats to the United States House of Representatives
92 seats were needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Henry Clay.jpg TimothyPitkin.jpg
Leader Henry Clay Timothy Pitkin
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Leader's seat Kentucky-2nd Connecticut-AL
Last election 107 36
Seats won 114 68
Seat change Increase 7 Increase 32

Speaker before election

Henry Clay
Democratic-Republican

Elected Speaker

Henry Clay
Democratic-Republican

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 13th Congress were held at different dates in the various states between August 3, 1812 (in Kentucky) and April 30, 1813 (in North Carolina). The Congress convened on May 24, 1813.

A significant expansion in the size of the House occurred as a result of population increases revealed in the 1810 Census. The largest number of new seats were created to accommodate the rapid settlement of Western territories. After America's entry into the War of 1812 against Britain, the Democratic-Republican and Federalist Parties effectively served as pro-war and anti-war camps. Democratic-Republican representatives from Southern and Western states had been the primary leaders in the push to declare war, asserting that the British had violated America's sovereign rights. High levels of support for the conflict in agrarian regions resulted in the Democratic-Republicans taking many newly created rural districts. In contrast, the Federalists and their key supporters in New England opposed the war from the start, citing its potential for damaging American trade and infrastructure. This position found widespread support in the country. The 1812 elections were indeed marked by massive Federalist gains, with many coming in the mid-Atlantic States, where support for the war became lukewarm after the initial shots were fired. Nonetheless, the Federalists were unable to secure anywhere near enough seats to secure a majority in the House of Representatives.

Election summaries[edit]

Following the 1810 Census, the House was reapportioned, adding 39 new seats,[1] with 13 States gaining between 1 and 10 seats, 5 States having no change, and no States losing seats.

114 68
Democratic-Republican Federalist
State Type Date Total
seats
Democratic-
Republican
Federalist
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Connecticut At-large September 21, 1812 7 Steady 0 Steady 7 Steady
Delaware At-large October 6, 1812 2 Increase1 0 Steady 2 Increase1
Georgia At-large October 5, 1812 6 Increase2 6 Increase2 0 Steady
Kentucky District (10) August 3, 1812 10 Increase4 10 Increase4 0 Steady
Louisiana At-large September 28–30, 1812 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland District (8[2]) October 12, 1812 9 Steady 6 Steady 3 Steady
Massachusetts District (20) November 5, 1812 20 Increase3 4 Decrease5 16 Increase8
New Hampshire At-large August 31, 1812 6 Increase1 0 Decrease4 6 Increase5
New York District (21[3]) December 15–17, 1812 27 Increase10 9 Decrease3 18 Increase13
Ohio District[4] (6) October 13, 1812 6 Increase5 6 Increase5 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District (15[3]) October 13, 1812 23 Increase5 22 Increase5 1 Steady
Rhode Island At-large August 25, 1812 2 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady
South Carolina District (9) October 12–13, 1812 9 Increase1 9 Increase1 0 Steady
Vermont At-large[5] September 1, 1812 6 Increase2 6 Increase3 0 Decrease1
1813 elections
New Jersey District (3[4]) January 12–13, 1813 6 Steady 2 Decrease4 4 Increase4
North Carolina District (13) April 30, 1813 13 Increase1 10 Steady 3 Increase1
Tennessee District (6) April 1–2, 1813 6 Increase3 6 Increase3 0 Steady
Virginia District (23) April, 1813 23 Increase1 17 Steady 6 Increase1
Total 182 Increase39 114
62.6%
Increase7 68
37.4%
Increase32
House seats
D-R
  
62.64%
Federalist
  
37.36%

Late elections to the 12th Congress[edit]

Louisiana[edit]

Louisiana held its election for the 12th Congress at the same time as the election for the 13th Congress, with nearly-identical results.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[6]
Louisiana at-large None (District created) Democratic-Republican gain Thomas B. Robertson (DR) 35.1%
Henry Johnson (DR) 22.8%
Stephen Hopkins 18.1%
Edward Livingston (DR) 12.0%
Elegis Fromentin 11.6%

Non-voting delegates[edit]

Two territories elected delegates in 1812 for the 12th Congress. Illinois Territory had been created in 1809, but was not awarded a delegate until 1812, whereas Missouri Territory was created in 1812 at the same time that the State of Louisiana was admitted to the Union.

District Incumbent First
elected
Candidates[6]
Illinois Territory at-large None (District created) Shadrack Bond[7]
Missouri Territory at-large None (District created) Edward Hempstead 40.8%
Samuel Hammond 35.3%
Rufus Easton 23.3%
Matthew Lyon 0.7%

Complete returns[edit]

Connecticut[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[8]
Connecticut at-large
7 seats on a general ticket
Benjamin Tallmadge Federalist 1801 (special) Re-elected Benjamin Tallmadge (F) 14.6%
Timothy Pitkin (F) 14.2%
John Davenport (F) 13.9%
Lewis B. Sturges (F) 13.8%
Jonathan O. Moseley (F) 13.5%
Epaphroditus Champion (F) 13.1%
Lyman Law (F) 13.0%

Nathan Smith (F) 1.0%
Sylvanus Backus (F) 0.6%
Samuel B. Sherwood (F) 0.6%
Nathaniel Terry (F) 0.6%
James Gould (F) 0.5%
Ebenezer Huntington (F) 0.3%
Jonathan O. Moseley Federalist 1804 Re-elected
Epaphroditus Champion Federalist 1806 Re-elected
Timothy Pitkin Federalist 1805 (special) Re-elected
Lewis B. Sturges Federalist 1805 (special) Re-elected
John Davenport Federalist 1798 Re-elected
Lyman Law Federalist 1810 Re-elected

Delaware[edit]

Delaware gained a seat after the 1810 Census, and chose to elect both seats on a general ticket. The ten years between 1813 and 1823 were the only time when Delaware was represented by more than one Representative, and is one of only three states (the other two being Alaska and Wyoming) that have never been divided into districts.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Delaware at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
Henry M. Ridgely Federalist 1810 Re-elected Henry M. Ridgely (F) 28.3%
Thomas Cooper (F) 28.2%

David Hall (DR) 21.8%
Richard Dale (DR) 21.7%
None (Seat created) Federalist gain

Georgia[edit]

Georgia gained two seats after the 1810 Census.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Georgia at-large
6 seats on a general ticket
Previous incumbent Howell Cobb had resigned to accept a Captain's commission in the War of 1812 Democratic-Republican hold William W. Bibb (DR) 18.1%
George M. Troup (DR) 16.8%
William Barnett[9] (DR) 15.9%
Thomas Telfair (DR) 15.9%
Bolling Hall (DR) 15.1%
John Forsyth (DR) 14.0%

George Dent (F) 4.1%
George M. Troup Democratic-Republican 1806 Re-elected
Bolling Hall Democratic-Republican 1810 Re-elected
William W. Bibb Democratic-Republican 1806 Re-elected
None (Seat created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain
None (Seat created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain

William W. Bibb (DR) resigned November 6, 1813 after being elected to the Senate, and was replaced in a special election by Alfred Cuthbert (DR)

Kentucky[edit]

Kentucky gained four seats after the 1810 Census.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Kentucky 1 None (District created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain
James Clark (DR) 100%
Kentucky 2 Henry Clay
Redistricted from the 5th district
Democratic-Republican 1810 Re-elected Henry Clay (DR) 100%
Kentucky 3 Richard M. Johnson
Redistricted from the 4th district
Democratic-Republican 1806 Re-elected Richard M. Johnson (DR) 100%
Kentucky 4 Joseph Desha
Redistricted from the 6th district
Democratic-Republican 1806 Re-elected Joseph Desha (DR) 100%
Kentucky 5 Anthony New
Redistricted from the 1st district
Democratic-Republican 1810 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Samuel Hopkins (DR) 49.2%
Rezin Davidge 31.4%
Matthew Lyon (DR) 19.4%
Kentucky 6 None (District created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain
Solomon P. Sharp (DR) 69.9%
Anthony Butler 30.1%
Kentucky 7 Samuel McKee
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Democratic-Republican 1808 Re-elected Samuel McKee (DR) 100%
Kentucky 8 Stephen Ormsby
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Democratic-Republican 1810 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
John Simpson[10] (DR)
Stephen Ormsby[11] (DR)
Kentucky 9 None (District created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain
Thomas Montgomery[12] (DR)
Henry James
Micah Taul (DR)
Kentucky 10 None (District created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain
William P. Duval[7] (DR)

In the 8th district, Representative-elect John Simpson was killed at the Battle of Frenchtown in the War of 1812. In a subsequent special election, Stephen Ormsby was elected to the 8th district and took his seat on May 28, 1813.[13]

On January 19, 1814, Henry Clay of the 2nd district resigned to accept a "special and important diplomatic mission." He was replaced in a special election by Joseph H. Hawkins (DR), who took his seat on March 29 of that year.[13]

Louisiana[edit]

Louisiana held its election for the 13th Congress at the same time as the election for the 12th Congress, with nearly-identical results.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[6]
Louisiana at-large Vacant (Elections for 12th and 13th Congresses held at the same time) Democratic-Republican win Thomas B. Robertson (DR) 35.3%
Henry Johnson (DR) 22.5%
Stephen Hopkins 18.3%
Edward Livingston (DR) 12.7%
Elegis Fromentin 10.4%

Maryland[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[6]
Maryland 1 Philip Stuart Federalist 1810 Re-elected Philip Stuart (F) 98.9%
Maryland 2 Joseph Kent Democratic-Republican 1810 Re-elected Joseph Kent (DR) 52.0%
Archibald Van Horne (F) 48.0%
Maryland 3 Philip Barton Key Federalist 1806 Retired
Federalist hold
Alexander C. Hanson (F) 60.3%
John Linthicum (DR) 39.7%
Maryland 4 Samuel Ringgold Democratic-Republican 1810 Re-elected Samuel Ringgold (DR) 53.5%
Roger B. Taney (F) 46.5%
Maryland 5
Plural district with 2 seats
Peter Little Democratic-Republican 1810 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
Alexander McKim (DR) 38.0%
Nicholas R. Moore (DR) 32.7%

Peter Little (DR) 29.2%
Alexander McKim Democratic-Republican 1808 Re-elected
Maryland 6 Stevenson Archer Democratic-Republican 1811 (special) Re-elected Stevenson Archer (DR) 99.9%
Maryland 7 Robert Wright Democratic-Republican 1810 (special) Re-elected Robert Wright (DR) 53.7%
Samuel W. Thomas (F) 46.3%
Maryland 8 Charles Goldsborough Federalist 1804 Re-elected Charles Goldsborough (F) 64.7%
Thomas Williams (DR) 35.3%

Massachusetts[edit]

Massachusetts gained three seats after the 1810 Census, all of which were added to the District of Maine. Massachusetts' electoral law required a majority for election. This was not met in the 19th district requiring a second election.

District[14] Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
First ballot Second ballot
Massachusetts 1
Known as the Suffolk district
Josiah Quincy Federalist 1804 Retired
Federalist hold
Artemas Ward, Jr. (F) 98.7%
Others 1.3%
Massachusetts 2
Known as the Essex South district
William Reed Federalist 1810 Re-elected William Reed (F) 56.1%
Benjamin W. Crowninshield (DR) 43.9%
Massachusetts 3
Known as the Essex North district
Leonard White Federalist 1810 Retired
Federalist hold
Timothy Pickering (F) 95.6%
Others 4.4%
Massachusetts 4
Known as the Middlesex district
William M. Richardson Democratic-Republican 1811 (special) Re-elected William M. Richardson (DR) 51.8%
Asahel Stearns (F) 46.8%
William Reed (DR) 1.4%
Massachusetts 5
Known as the Hampshire South district
William Ely Federalist 1804 Re-elected William Ely (F) 67.5%
Enos Foot (DR) 19.6%
Joseph Lyman (F) 11.3%
Samuel Fowler (DR) 1.6%
Massachusetts 6
Known as the Hampshire North district
Samuel Taggart Federalist 1803 Re-elected Samuel Taggart (F) 87.3%
Solomon Snead (DR) 9.3%
Joseph Rice (F) 3.4%
Massachusetts 7
Known as the Plymouth district
Charles Turner, Jr. Democratic-Republican 1808 Lost re-election
Federalist gain
William Baylies (F) 59.0%
Charles Turner, Jr. (DR) 41.0%
Massachusetts 8
Known as the Barnstable district
Isaiah L. Green Democratic-Republican 1810 Lost re-election
Federalist gain
John Reed, Jr. (F) 67.9%
Thomas Hazard, Jr. (DR) 26.5%
Isaiah L. Green (DR) 5.6%
Massachusetts 9
Known as the Bristol district
Laban Wheaton Federalist 1808 Re-elected Laban Wheaton (F) 60.2%
John Hawes (DR) 39.8%
Massachusetts 10
Known as the Worcester South district
Elijah Brigham Federalist 1810 Re-elected Elijah Brigham (F) 55.1%
Estes Howe (DR) 44.4%
Jonas Sibley (DR) 0.6%
Massachusetts 11
Known as the Worcester North district
Abijah Bigelow Federalist 1810 Re-elected Abijah Bigelow (F) 76.6%
Edmund Cushing (DR) 23.4%
Massachusetts 12
Known as the Berkshire district
Ezekiel Bacon Democratic-Republican 1807 (special) Retired
Federalist gain
Daniel Dewey (F) 53.4%
Samuel Wheeler (DR) 46.6%
Massachusetts 13
Known as the Norfolk district
Ebenezer Seaver Democratic-Republican 1803 Lost re-election
Federalist gain
Nathaniel Ruggles (F) 55.3%
Ebenezer Seaver (DR) 44.7%
District of Maine Massachusetts 14
Known as the 1st Eastern district
Richard Cutts Democratic-Republican 1801 Lost re-election
Federalist gain
Cyrus King (F) 59.3%
Richard Cutts (DR) 37.8%
Others 2.9%
Massachusetts 15
Known as the 2nd Eastern district
William Widgery Democratic-Republican 1810 Lost re-election
Federalist gain
George Bradbury (F) 58.2%
William Widgery (DR) 41.8%
Massachusetts 16
Known as the 3rd Eastern district
None (District created) New seat
Federalist gain
Samuel Davis (F) 61.5%
Benjamin Ames (DR) 38.5%
Massachusetts 17
Known as the 4th Eastern district
None (District created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain
Abiel Wood (DR) 85.5%
Joshua Head (F) 5.8%
Others 8.8%
Massachusetts 18
Known as the 5th Eastern district
Francis Carr
Redistricted from the 17th district
Democratic-Republican 1812 (special) Lost re-election
Federalist gain
John Wilson (F) 57.7%
Francis Carr (DR) 42.3%
Massachusetts 19
Known as the 6th Eastern district
None (District created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain
James Parker (DR) 49.3%
Thomas Rice (F) 49.0%
Others 1.7%
James Parker (DR) 54.8%
Thomas Rice (F) 45.2%
Massachusetts 20
Known as the 7th Eastern district
None (District created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain
Levi Hubbard (DR) 52.6%
Ebenezer Fessenden (F) 47.4%

In the 4th district, William M. Richardson (DR) resigned April 18, 1814 and was replaced in a special election by Samuel Dana (DR)

In the 12th district, Daniel Dewey (F) resigned February 24, 1814 and was replaced in a special election by John W. Hulbert (F)

New Hampshire[edit]

New Hampshire gained one seat after the 1810 Census.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New Hampshire at-large
6 seats on a general ticket
Josiah Bartlett, Jr. Democratic-Republican 1810 Retired
Federalist gain
Roger Vose (F) 9.0%
Daniel Webster (F) 9.0%
Bradbury Cilley (F) 9.0%
William Hale (F) 9.0%
Samuel Smith (F) 9.0%
Jeduthun Wilcox (F) 8.9%

David Morrill (DR) 7.7%
John Parrott (DR) 7.7%
Samuel Dinsmoor (DR) 7.7%
John Adams Harper (DR) 7.7%
Jesse Johnson (DR) 7.7%
Josiah Butler (DR) 7.6%
Samuel Dinsmoor Democratic-Republican 1810 Lost re-election
Federalist gain
Obed Hall Democratic-Republican 1810 Retired
Federalist gain
John Adams Harper Democratic-Republican 1810 Lost re-election
Federalist gain
George Sullivan Federalist 1810 Retired
Federalist hold
None (Seat created) New seat
Federalist gain

New Jersey[edit]

New Jersey changed from electing its Representatives on a statewide general ticket to using three plural districts of two seats each. These districts were used only for the 1812 election, and the state returned to using a single at-large district in 1814. This was only the second time that New Jersey used districts (the first being in 1798).

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New Jersey 1
Known as the Northern district. Plural district with 2 seats
Lewis Condict
Redistricted from the at-large district
Democratic-Republican 1810 Re-elected Lewis Condict (DR) 38.8%
Thomas Ward (DR) 38.3%

Jacob S. Thompson (F) 11.3%
John M. Cumming (F) 9.7%
Adam Boyd (F) 2.0%
Adam Boyd
Redistricted from the at-large district
Democratic-Republican 1803
1808 (special)
Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
New Jersey 2
Known as the Central district. Plural district with 2 seats
James Morgan
Redistricted from the at-large district
Democratic-Republican 1810 Lost re-election
Federalist gain
James Schureman (F) 27.9%
Richard Stockton (F) 27.8%

Henry Southard (DR) 22.3%
James Morgan (DR) 22.0%
None (Seat created) New seat
Federalist gain
New Jersey 3
Known as the Southern district. Plural district with 2 seats
None (Seat created) Federalist gain William Coxe, Jr. (F) 49.8%
Jacob Hufty (F) 49.5%

Others 0.7%
Jacob Hufty
Redistricted from the at-large district
Democratic-Republican 1808 Re-elected as a Federalist

Jacob Hufty died on May 20, 1814. A special election was held to fill the vacancy left by his death on October 10–11, 1814. The election was held on an at-large basis, as New Jersey had already gone back to using a general ticket. This vacancy was filled by Thomas Bines (DR), who took his seat November 2, 1814.[13]

New York[edit]

Ten seats were added after the 1810 Census, bringing New York's representation to 27, the largest of any state at the time. New York would remain the State with the most Representatives until the 1970 Census showed that California had become the most populous state.

There were two separate House elections in 1812. The first was held in April 1812 for an un-reapportioned 17 representatives. This election was subsequently declared void and a new election was held on December 15–17, 1812. In this second election, only 3 incumbents ran, two of whom were re-elected.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New York 1
Plural district with 2 seats
Ebenezer Sage Democratic-Republican 1810 Re-elected John Lefferts (DR) 25.3%
Ebenezer Sage (DR) 25.2%

Peter A. Jay (F) 24.8%
Benjamin B. Blydenburgh (F) 24.7%
None (Seat created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain
New York 2
Plural district with 2 seats
Samuel L. Mitchill Democratic-Republican 1810 Retired
Federalist gain
Egbert Benson (F) 25.9%
Jotham Post, Jr. (F) 25.5%

John Ferguson (DR) 24.3%
William Irving[11] (DR) 24.2%
William Paulding, Jr. Democratic-Republican 1810 Retired
Federalist gain
New York 3 Pierre Van Cortlandt, Jr. Democratic-Republican 1810 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
Peter Denoyelles (DR) 43.3%
Richard V. Morris (F) 39.1%
Pierre Van Cortlandt, Jr. (DR) 17.6%
New York 4 James Emott Federalist 1808 Retired
Federalist hold
Thomas J. Oakley (F) 57.3%
Theodorus R. Van Wyck (DR) 42.7%
New York 5 Thomas B. Cooke Democratic-Republican 1810 Retired
Federalist gain
Thomas P. Grosvenor[9] (F)
New York 6 Asa Fitch Federalist 1810 Retired
Democratic-Republican gain
Jonathan Fisk (DR) 51.4%
John Bradner (F)28.4%
Anthony Davis (F) 20.1%
New York 7 Harmanus Bleecker Federalist 1810 Retired
Democratic-Republican gain
Abraham J. Hasbrouck (DR) 52.3%
Abraham T. E. De Witt (F) 47.7%
New York 8 Benjamin Pond Democratic-Republican 1810 Retired
Federalist gain
Samuel Sherwood (F) 53.6%
John Ely (DR) 46.4%
New York 9 Thomas Sammons Democratic-Republican 1808 Retired
Federalist gain
John Lovett (F)
New York 10 Silas Stow Democratic-Republican 1810 Retired
Federalist gain
Hosea Moffitt (F)
New York 11 Thomas R. Gold Federalist 1808 Retired
Democratic-Republican gain
John W. Taylor (DR) 52.8%
Samuel Stewart (F) 47.2%
New York 12
Plural district with 2 seats
Arunah Metcalf Democratic-Republican 1810 Retired
Federalist gain
Zebulon R. Shipherd (F) 27.0%
Elisha I. Winter (F) 26.5%

Melancton Smith (DR) 22.0%
Roger Skinner (DR) 21.8%
William Livingston 2.8%
None (District created) New seat
Federalist gain
New York 13 Uri Tracy Democratic-Republican 1808 Retired
Federalist gain
Alexander Boyd (F) 51.2%
John Gebhard (DR) 42.6%
Jesse Shepherd (DR) 6.2%
New York 14 None (District created) New seat
Federalist gain
Jacob Markell (F) 55.6%
James McIntyre (DR) 44.4%
New York 15
Plural district with 2 seats
Peter B. Porter Democratic-Republican 1808 Retired
Federalist gain
Joel Thompson (F) 26.7%
William Dowse (F) 26.4%

Robert Roseboom (DR) 23.5%
Amos Patterson (DR) 23.4%
None (District created) New seat
Federalist gain
New York 16 None (District created) New seat
Federalist gain
Morris S. Miller (F) 63.3%
George Brayton (DR) 36.7%
New York 17 None (District created) New seat
Federalist gain
William S. Smith (F) 56.9%
Hubbard Smith (DR) 43.1%
New York 18 None (District created) New seat
Federalist gain
Moss Kent (F) 61.2%
Jacob Brown (DR) 38.8%
New York 19 None (District created) New seat
Federalist gain
James Geddes (F) 55.7%
John Miller (DR) 44.3%
New York 20
Plural district with 2 seats
Daniel Avery
Redistricted from 14th district
Democratic-Republican 1810 Re-elected Oliver C. Comstock (DR) 32.4%
Daniel Avery (DR) 32.2%

Elijah Miller (F) 17.7%
Vincent Mathews (F) 17.7%
None (District created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain
New York 21
Plural district with 2 seats
None (District created) New seat
Federalist gain
Nathaniel W. Howell (F) 27.6%
Samuel M. Hopkins (F) 27.6%

Chauncey Lewis (DR) 22.5%
Stephen Bates (DR) 21.9%
Micah Brooks (DR) 0.5%
None (District created) New seat
Federalist gain

In the 1st district, the results of the election were contested, but no action was taken by the House.

Egbert Benson (F) of the 2nd district resigned on August 2, 1813 and was replaced in a special election by William Irving (DR)

William Dowse (F) of the 15th district died on February 18, 1813, before the Congress met. A special election was held to fill the resultant vacancy, which was won initially by John M. Bowers (F), but this result was overturned after a successful challenge by Isaac Williams, Jr. (DR).

North Carolina[edit]

North Carolina gained one representative as a result of the Census of 1810.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
North Carolina 1 Lemuel Sawyer Democratic-Republican 1806 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
William H. Murfree (DR) 45.6%
Joseph Riddick (DR) 22.1%
Lemuel Sawyer (DR) 20.4%
William Hinton (DR) 11.8%
North Carolina 2 Willis Alston Democratic-Republican 1798 Re-elected Willis Alston (DR) 56.0%
Daniel Mason (F) 44.0%
North Carolina 3 William Kennedy Democratic-Republican 1803
1813 (special)
Re-elected William Kennedy (DR) 56.5%
Robert Williams (DR) 43.5%
North Carolina 4 William Blackledge Democratic-Republican 1803
1810
Lost re-election
Federalist gain
William Gaston (F) 74.6%
William Blackledge (DR) 25.4%
North Carolina 5 William R. King Democratic-Republican 1810 Re-elected William R. King (DR) 100%
North Carolina 6 Nathaniel Macon Democratic-Republican 1791 Re-elected Nathaniel Macon[7] (DR)
North Carolina 7 Archibald McBryde Federalist 1808 Retired
Federalist hold
John Culpepper (F) 52.1%
John A. Cameron (F) 38.0%
Duncan McFarlan (DR) 9.9%
North Carolina 8 Richard Stanford Democratic-Republican 1796 Re-elected Richard Stanford (DR) 61.7%
James Mebane (DR) 38.2%
North Carolina 9 None (District created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain
Bartlett Yancey (DR) 61.1%
James Martin (F) 38.9%
North Carolina 10 Joseph Pearson Federalist 1808 Re-elected Joseph Pearson (F) 54.1%
Alexander Gary (DR) 45.9%
North Carolina 11 None (District created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain
Peter Forney (DR) 50.5%
John Phifer (F) 49.5%
North Carolina 12 Israel Pickens
Redistricted from the 11th district
Democratic-Republican 1810 Re-elected Israel Pickens[7] (DR)
Felix Walker (DR)
Joseph Hamilton
R. H. Burton
Joseph Carson
North Carolina 13 Meshack Franklin
Redistricted from the 12th district
Democratic-Republican 1806 Re-elected Meshack Franklin (DR) 38.0%
Edmund Jones (F) 31.8%
Lewis Williams (DR) 30.2%

Ohio[edit]

The 1810 Census revealed dramatic population growth in Ohio since 1800, resulting in its representation increasing from a single Representative to six, resulting in the State being broken up into 6 districts, abolishing the at-large district. Jeremiah Morrow (DR), who had served since Ohio achieved statehood in 1803, retired to run for Senator, so that all six seats were open.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[6]
Ohio 1 None (District created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain
John McLean (DR) 71.3%
Ethan Stone (F) 16.6%
John Bigger (F) 10.7%
Othneil Looker (DR) 1.4%
Ohio 2 None (District created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain
John Alexander (DR) 38.5%
John W. Campbell (DR) 35.6%
Thomas Morris (DR) 25.9%
Ohio 3 None (District created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain
Duncan McArthur (DR) 99.9%
Ohio 4 None (District created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain
James Caldwell (DR) 51.5%
Bazaleel Wells (F) 43.1%
James Pritchard (DR) 5.4%
Ohio 5 None (District created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain
James Kilbourne (DR) 24.5%
Robert J. Slaughter 23.3%
Robert Cloud 17.3%
Joseph Foos 13.2%
William W. Irvin 12.5%
Joseph H. Crane 8.9%
Ohio 6 None (District created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain
John S. Edwards (F) 60.0%
Reasin Beall (DR) 38.4%

There was a special election in the 3rd district caused by the resignation of Duncan McArthur before the beginning of Congress. He was replaced by William Creighton, Jr. (DR)

There were two special elections in the 6th district. The first was held due to the death of Representative-elect John S. Edward before Congress met. That election was won by Reasin Beall. Beall, in turn, resigned on June 7, 1814, to take up a position at the Federal Land Office in Wooster, Ohio, and in that election, David Clendenin (DR) was elected to fill the resulting vacancy.

Pennsylvania[edit]

Pennsylvania gained five seats in the House of Representatives as a result of the Census of 1810, which awarded it a total of 23 seats. Pennsylvania was re-districted into 15 districts, one with 4 seats, five with 2, and the remaining nine with 1 seat each. There were seven open seats for this election, five resulting from the increase in apportionment, and two resulting from the retirement of incumbents.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[15]
Pennsylvania 1
Plural district with 4 seats
Adam Seybert Democratic-Republican 1809 (special) Re-elected Adam Seybert (DR) 13.7%
William Anderson (DR) 13.7%
Charles J. Ingersoll (DR) 13.6%
John Conard (DR) 13.5%

Joseph Hopkinson (F) 11.4%
Joseph S. Lewis (F) 11.4%
Samuel Harvey (F) 11.4%
William Pennock (F) 11.3%
William Anderson Democratic-Republican 1808 Re-elected
James Milnor Federalist 1810 Retired
Democratic-Republican gain
None (District created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain
Pennsylvania 2
Plural district with 2 seats
Roger Davis
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Democratic-Republican 1810 Re-elected Roger Davis (DR) 26.2%
Jonathan Roberts (DR) 26.1%

Samuel Henderson (F) 23.8%
Francis Gardner (F) 23.8%
Jonathan Roberts Democratic-Republican 1810 Re-elected
Pennsylvania 3
Plural district with 2 seats
Joseph Lefever Democratic-Republican 1810 Retired
Federalist gain
James Whitehill (DR) 27.6%
John Gloninger (F) 26.1%

Jacob Bucher (DR) 23.9%
Amos Slaymaker[11] (F) 22.4%
None (District created) Democratic-Republican gain
Pennsylvania 4 None (District created) Democratic-Republican gain Hugh Glasgow (DR) 58.6%
Jacob Eichelberger (F) 41.4%
Pennsylvania 5
Plural district with 2 seats
William Crawford
Redistricted from the 6th district
Democratic-Republican 1808 Re-elected Robert Whitehill (DR) 27.5%
William Crawford (DR) 26.9%

Edward Crawford (F) 22.9%
James Duncan (F) 22.7%
Robert Whitehill
Redistricted from the 4th district
Democratic-Republican 1805 (special) Re-elected
Pennsylvania 6
Plural district with 2 seats
William Rodman
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Democratic-Republican 1810 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
Robert Brown (DR) 30.5%
Samuel D. Ingham (DR) 30.4%

William Rodman (F[16]) 19.2%
William Lattimore (F) 18.3%
Samuel Sitgreaves (F) 1.7%
Robert Brown
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Democratic-Republican 1798 (Special) Re-elected
Pennsylvania 7 John M. Hyneman
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Democratic-Republican 1810 Re-elected John M. Hyneman (DR) 59.4%
Daniel Rose (F) 40.6%
Pennsylvania 8 William Piper
Redistricted from the 7th district
Democratic-Republican 1810 Re-elected William Piper (DR) 63.5%
Samuel Riddle (F) 36.5%
Pennsylvania 9 David Bard
Redistricted from the 4th district
Democratic-Republican 1802 Re-elected David Bard (DR) 76.0%
John Blair (F) 24.0%
Pennsylvania 10
Plural district with 2 seats
George Smith
Redistricted from the 5th district
Democratic-Republican 1808 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
Jared Irwin (DR) 23.4%
Isaac Smith (DR) 22.2%

George Smith (DR) 18.8%
Daniel Montgomery (DR) 18.3%
Nathan Beach (F) 8.6%
Enoch Smith (F) 8.6%
None (District created) Democratic-Republican gain
Pennsylvania 11 William Findley
Redistricted from the 8th district
Democratic-Republican 1802 Re-elected William Findley (DR) 55.3%
Thomas Pollock (F) 44.7%
Pennsylvania 12 Aaron Lyle
Redistricted from the 10th district
Democratic-Republican 1808 Re-elected Aaron Lyle (DR) 73.5%
Joseph Pentecost (F) 25.1%
Thomas L. Burch (DR) 1.5%
Pennsylvania 13 John Smilie
Redistricted from the 9th district
Democratic-Republican 1792
1798
Re-elected John Smilie (DR) 60.4%
Thomas Meason (F) 39.6%
Pennsylvania 14 None (District created) Democratic-Republican gain Adamson Tannehill (DR) 48.0%
John Woods (F) 39.3%
John Wilson (?) 12.7%
Pennsylvania 15 Abner Lacock
Redistricted from the 11th district
Democratic-Republican 1810 Re-elected Abner Lacock (DR) 62.8%
Roger Alden (F) 24.8%
Robert Moore (DR) 12.4%

Jonathan Roberts (DR) of the 2nd district resigned February 24, 1814. A special election was held for his replacement, which was won by Samuel Henderson (F)

Two vacancies occurred in the 3rd district. The first occurred when John Gloninger (F) resigned August 2, 1813, which vacancy was filled in a special election by Edward Crouch (DR). The second vacancy occurred when James Whitehill (DR) resigned September 1, 1814. Whitehill was replaced in a special election by Amos Slaymaker (F).

Robert Whitehill (DR) of the 5th district died April 8, 1813 and was replaced in a special election by John Rea (DR).

John M. Hyneman (DR) of the 7th district resigned August 2, 1813 and was replaced in a special election by Daniel Udree (DR).

John Smilie (DR) of the 13th district died December 30, 1812 before the start of the Thirteenth Congress, a special election was held for his replacement, electing Isaac Griffin (DR). There are no surviving records of that special election, other than a single manuscript indicating a 779-vote majority for Griffin, but no indication of his opponent(s) or the total number of votes.

Abner Lacock (DR) of the 15th district resigned before the start of the 13th Congress and was replaced in a special election by Thomas Wilson (DR)

Rhode Island[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Rhode Island at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
Richard Jackson, Jr. Federalist 1808 Re-elected Richard Jackson, Jr. (F) 29.3%
Elisha R. Potter (F) 29.2%

Jonathan Russell (DR) 20.8%
Isaac Wilbour (DR) 20.7%
Elisha R. Potter Federalist 1808 Re-elected

South Carolina[edit]

South Carolina gained one representative as a result of the 1810 Census, increasing from 8 seats to 9.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 Langdon Cheves Democratic-Republican 1810 Re-elected Langdon Cheves (DR) 65.3%
John Rutledge, Jr. (F) 34.7%
South Carolina 2 William Lowndes
Redistricted from the 4th district
Democratic-Republican 1810 Re-elected William Lowndes 84.5%[17] (DR)
Stephen Elliot (F) 15.5%
South Carolina 3 None (District created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain
Theodore Gourdin[18] (DR)
James Ervin (DR)
Benjamin Huger (F)
South Carolina 4 None (District created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain
John J. Chappell (DR) 63.1%
Edmund Bacon (DR) 29.5%
John Bynum (DR) 7.4%
South Carolina 5 None (District created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain
David R. Evans (DR) 100%
South Carolina 6 John C. Calhoun Democratic-Republican 1810 Re-elected John C. Calhoun (DR) 100%
South Carolina 7 Elias Earle
Redistricted from the 8th district
Democratic-Republican 1804
1810
Re-elected Elias Earle[7] (DR)
William Hunter (F)
South Carolina 8 None (District created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain
Samuel Farrow[7] (DR)
James Duff (F)
South Carolina 9 None (District created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain
John Kershaw[7] (DR)
William Mayrant (DR)
Charles Richardson (DR)

Tennessee[edit]

Tennessee's representation increased from 3 seats to 6 as a result of the 1810 Census.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[6]
Tennessee 1 John Rhea Democratic-Republican 1803 Re-elected John Rhea (DR) 100%
Tennessee 2 John Sevier Democratic-Republican 1811 Re-elected John Sevier (DR) 100%
Tennessee 3 None (District created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain
Thomas K. Harris (DR) 31.3%
William Kelly 31.3%
James Rogers 21.9%
Bird Smith 11.9%
James R. Rogers 3.5%
Tennessee 4 None (District created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain
John H. Bowen[7] (DR)
Tennessee 5 Felix Grundy
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Democratic-Republican 1811 Re-elected Felix Grundy (DR) 81.2%
Newton Cannon (DR) 18.8%
Tennessee 6 None (District created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain
Parry W. Humphreys[7] (DR)
James B. Reynolds (DR)
J. B. Wynn[19]

In the 3rd district, the difference between the top two candidates was a single vote. William Kelly unsuccessfully contested the election.

In the 5th district, Felix Grundy (DR) resigned in 1814, and was replaced in a special election by Newton Cannon (DR).

Vermont[edit]

Vermont gained two seats after the 1810 Census. Rather than re-district, however, Vermont replaced its districts with a single at-large district. It would continue to use an at-large district in 1814, 1816, and 1818, then one more time in 1822 (with 5 seats).

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Vermont at-large
6 seats on a general ticket
Samuel Shaw
Redistricted from the 1st district
Democratic-Republican 1808 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Richard Skinner (DR) 8.4%
Ezra Butler (DR) 8.4%
James Fisk (DR) 8.4%
Charles Rich 8.4%
William Strong (DR) 8.4%
William Czar Bradley (DR) 8.4%

Martin Chittenden (F) 8.3%
Chauncey Langdon (F) 8.3%
Daniel Chipman (F) 8.3%
William Chamberlain (F) 8.3%
John Noyes (F) 8.3%
Jonathan H. Hubbard (F) 8.2%
William Strong
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Democratic-Republican 1810 Re-elected
James Fisk
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Democratic-Republican 1804
1810
Re-elected
Martin Chittenden
Redistricted from the 4th district
Federalist 1802 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
None (Seat created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain
None (Seat created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain

Virginia[edit]

Virginia gained one seat after the 1810 Census, bringing its representation in the House of Representatives to 23 seats, the largest number Virginia would ever have. Virginia went from having the most representatives to having the second-most tied with Pennsylvania. New York, with its 27 seats, surpassed Virginia and remained the most populous state until the late 1960s.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[6]
Virginia 1 Thomas Wilson Federalist 1811 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican gain
John G. Jackson (DR) 60.2%
Thomas Wilson (F) 39.8%
Virginia 2 John Baker Federalist 1811 Retired
Federalist hold
Francis White[7] (F)
Virginia 3 John Smith Democratic-Republican 1801 Re-elected John Smith (DR) 82.8%
Robert Page (F) 17.2%
Virginia 4 William McCoy Democratic-Republican 1811 Re-elected William McCoy (DR) 57.1%
Samuel Blackburn (F) 42.9%
Virginia 5 James Breckinridge Federalist 1809 Re-elected James Breckinridge (F) 53.5%
Martin MacFerrand (DR) 46.5%
Virginia 6 Daniel Sheffey Federalist 1809 Re-elected Daniel Sheffey (F) 74.3%
Edward Campbell (DR) 25.7%
Virginia 7 None (District created) New seat
Federalist gain
Hugh Caperton (F) 53.8%
Ballard Smith (DR) 46.2%
Virginia 8 Joseph Lewis, Jr.
Redistricted from the 7th district
Federalist 1803 Re-elected Joseph Lewis, Jr. (F) 57.8%
John Love (DR) 42.2%
Virginia 9 John Taliaferro
Redistricted from the 8th district
Democratic-Republican 1801
1811
Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
John P. Hungerford (DR) 50.9%
John Taliaferro[20] (DR) 49.1%
Virginia 10 Aylett Hawes
Redistricted from the 9th district
Democratic-Republican 1811 Re-elected Aylett Hawes[7] (DR)
Philip R. Thompson (DR)
Virginia 11 John Dawson
Redistricted from the 10th district
Democratic-Republican 1797 Re-elected John Dawson (DR) 97.7%
Stapleton Crutchfield 1.2%
Virginia 12 John Roane
Redistricted from the 11th district
Democratic-Republican 1809 Re-elected John Roane (DR) 73.0%
James Hunter (F) 26.8%
Virginia 13 Burwell Bassett
Redistricted from the 12th district
Democratic-Republican 1805 Lost re-election
Federalist gain
Thomas M. Bayly (F) 51.4%
Burwell Bassett (DR) 48.6%
Virginia 14 William A. Burwell
Redistricted from the 13th district
Democratic-Republican 1806 (special) Re-elected William A. Burwell[7] (DR)
Virginia 15 Matthew Clay
Redistricted from the 14th district
Democratic-Republican 1797 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
John Kerr (DR) 46.4%
Matthew Clay (DR) 34.0%
William Rice (F) 19.6%
Virginia 16 John Randolph
Redistricted from the 15th district
Democratic-Republican 1799 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
John W. Eppes (DR) 54.3%
John Randolph (DR) 45.7%
Virginia 17 James Pleasants
Redistricted from the 16th district
Democratic-Republican 1811 Re-elected James Pleasants[7] (DR)
Virginia 18 Thomas Gholson, Jr.
Redistricted from the 17th district
Democratic-Republican 1808 (special) Re-elected Thomas Gholson, Jr.[7] (DR)
Virginia 19 Peterson Goodwyn
Redistricted from the 18th district
Democratic-Republican 1803 Re-elected Peterson Goodwyn[7] (DR)
Virginia 20 Edwin Gray
Redistricted from the 19th district
Democratic-Republican 1799 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
James Johnson (DR) 67.3%
Edwin Gray (DR) 32.7%
Virginia 21 Thomas Newton, Jr.
Redistricted from the 20th district
Democratic-Republican 1799 Re-elected Thomas Newton, Jr. (DR) 64.8%
Swepson Whitehead (F) 35.2%
Virginia 22 Hugh Nelson
Redistricted from the 21st district
Democratic-Republican 1811 Re-elected Hugh Nelson[7] (DR)
Virginia 23 John Clopton
Redistricted from the 22nd district
Democratic-Republican 1801 Re-elected John Clopton (DR) 63.2%
Richard M. Morris (F)

The 9th district saw a re-match of the previous election's 8th district race. As with the previous election, Hungerford was initially declared the winner and Taliaferro challenged the results. In 1811, however, Taliaferro was unsuccessful in this challenge and Hungerford remained in Congress.

On March 31, 1814, John Dawson (DR) of the 11th district died in office. A special election was held which elected Philip P. Barbour (DR) to fill the vacancy.

Non-voting delegates[edit]

Four territories had delegates in the 13th Congress: Illinois, Indiana, Mississippi, and Missouri. Illinois Territory and Missouri Territory elected their delegates in 1812 for both the end of the 12th and the start of the 13th Congresses.

District Incumbent First
elected
Result Candidates
Indiana Territory at-large Jonathan Jennings 1809 Re-elected Jonathan Jennings 63.4%
Waller Taylor 36.6%
Mississippi Territory at-large George Poindexter 1806 Retired William Lattimore 44.9%
Cowles Mead 33.1%
Thomas B. Reed 21.9%

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stat. 669
  2. ^ Includes 1 plural district
  3. ^ a b Includes 6 plural districts
  4. ^ a b Changed from at-large election
  5. ^ Changed from districts
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Only candidates with at least 1% of the vote listed
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Numbers of votes missing or incomplete in source
  8. ^ Only candidates with at least 0.1% of the vote listed
  9. ^ a b Won special election to fill vacancy in 12th Congress
  10. ^ Detailed records not available, said to have won "by a small margin"
  11. ^ a b c Won subsequent special election
  12. ^ Vote counts not available, won by a margin of 62 votes
  13. ^ a b c Congressional roster for the 13th Congress
  14. ^ District numbers differed between source used and elsewhere on Wikipedia; district numbers used elsewhere on Wikipedia used here
  15. ^ Wilkes University Elections Statistics Project
  16. ^ Changed parties
  17. ^ Percent based on partial returns
  18. ^ Vote totals unavailable, source states that Gourdin won by 174 votes
  19. ^ Source does not give full name
  20. ^ Unsuccessfully challenged Hungerford's election