Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district

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Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district
Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district - since January 3, 2013.
Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district - since January 3, 2013.
Current Representative Niki Tsongas (DLowell)
Cook PVI D+8[1]

Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district is located in northeastern and central Massachusetts.

Massachusetts congressional redistricting after the 2010 census has greatly changed the borders of this congressional district, largely dividing it between the new 2nd and 4th districts, with the new 3rd district covering only a few towns from the old district.[2] Effective with the elections of 2012, Worcester is in the new 2nd district and the new 3rd district is similar to the old 5th district, largely covering the Merrimack valley including Lowell, Lawrence and Haverhill.

The district is represented by Democrat Niki Tsongas.

Cities and towns in the district[edit]

In Essex County: Precincts 2 through 7 and Precinct 9 in Andover, Haverhill, Lawrence, and Methuen.

In Middlesex County: Acton, Ashby, Ayer, Boxborough, Carlisle, Chelmsford, Concord, Dracut, Dunstable, Groton, Hudson, Littleton, Lowell, Marlborough, Maynard, Pepperell, Shirley, Stow, Townsend, Tyngsborough, Westford, and Precinct 1 in Sudbury.

In Worcester County: Ashburnham, Berlin, Bolton, Clinton, Fitchburg, Gardner, Harvard, Lancaster, Lunenburg, Westminster, and Precincts 1A, 2 and 3 in Winchendon.

Cities and towns in the district 2003-2013[edit]

In Bristol County: Attleboro, Fall River (Wards 1-3; Ward 4, Precincts A and B; Ward 5, Precincts A and B; Ward 6, Precincts B and C; and Ward 8, Precinct D), North Attleborough, Rehoboth, Seekonk, Somerset, Swansea.

In Middlesex County: Ashland, Holliston, Hopkinton, Marlborough.

In Norfolk County: Franklin, Medway, Plainville, Wrentham.

In Worcester County: Auburn, Boylston, Clinton, Holden, Northborough, Paxton, Princeton, Rutland, Shrewsbury, Southborough, West Boylston, Westborough, Worcester.

Maps[edit]

List of representatives[edit]

Cong
ress
Representative Party Years Electoral history District area
1
2
Elbridge-gerry-painting.jpg
Elbridge Gerry
Anti-Administration March 4, 1789 –
March 4, 1793
First elected in 1788
Re-elected in 1790
Retired
Middlesex County: All
3 Shearjashub Bourne Pro-Administration General ticket:
March 4, 1793 –
March 4, 1795
Redistricted from the 5th district and re-elected here in 1792 Barnstable County: All
Plymouth County: All
Peleg Coffin, Jr. Pro-Administration Elected in 1792
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Bristol County: All
Dukes County: All
Nantucket County: All
4
5
6
Samuel Lyman Federalist March 4, 1795 –
November 6, 1800
Resigned Hampshire County: Amherst, Belchertown, Brimfield, Granby, Greenwich, Holland, Leverett, Longmeadow, Ludlow, New Salem, Orange, Palmer, Pelham, Shutesbury, South Brimfield, South Hadley, Springfield, Ware, Warwick, Wendell, Wilbraham
Worcester County: Athol, Barre, Gardner, Gerry, Hardwick, New Braintree, Petersham, Royalston, Sturbridge, Templeton, Western, Winchendon
6
Vacant November 7, 1800 –
February 1, 1801
6 Ebenezer Mattoon Federalist February 2, 1801 –
March 4, 1803
Elected to finish Lyman's term
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
7
8 ManassehCutler.jpg
Manasseh Cutler
Federalist March 4, 1803 –
March 4, 1805
Redistricted from the 11th district and re-elected here in 1802
Retired
Essex County: Amesbury, Andover, Boxford, Bradford, Hamilton, Haverhill, Ipswich, Methuen, Middleton, Newbury, Newburyport, Rowley, Salisbury, Topsfield
9 Jeremiah Nelson.png
Jeremiah Nelson
Federalist March 4, 1805 –
March 4, 1807
Retired
10
11
Edward St. Loe Livermore Federalist March 4, 1807 –
March 4, 1811
Retired
12 Leonard White Federalist March 4, 1811 –
March 4, 1813
13 TimothyPickering.jpg
Timothy Pickering
Federalist March 4, 1813 –
March 4, 1815
Redistricted to the 2nd district Essex County: Beverly, Boxford, Bradford, Gloucester, Hamilton, Ipswich, Manchester, Newbury, Newburyport, Rowley, Salisbury, Topsfield, Wenham
14 Jeremiah Nelson.png
Jeremiah Nelson
Federalist March 4, 1815 –
March 4, 1817
Retired Essex County: Amesbury, Andover, Boxford, Bradford, Hamilton, Haverhill, Ipswich, Methuen, Middleton, Newbury, Newburyport, Rowley, Salisbury, Saugus, Topsfield
Middlesex County: South Reading
15
16
17
March 4, 1817 –
March 4, 1823
Essex County: Amesbury, Andover, Boxford, Bradford, Hamilton, Haverhill, Ipswich, Methuen, Middleton, Newbury, Newburyport, Rowley, Salisbury, Saugus, Topsfield, West Newbury
Middlesex County: Dracut
18 Adams-Clay Federalist March 4, 1823 –
March 4, 1825
Essex County: Amesbury, Andover, Boxford, Bradford, Essex, Hamilton, Haverhill, Ipswich, Methuen, Middleton, Newbury, Newburyport, Rowley, Salisbury, Topsfield, Wenham, West Newbury
Middlesex County: Billerica, Dracut, Tewksbury, Wilmington
19
20
John Varnum Adams March 4, 1825 –
March 4, 1829
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
21 National Republican March 4, 1829 –
March 4, 1831
22 Jeremiah Nelson.png
Jeremiah Nelson
Anti-Jacksonian March 4, 1831 –
March 4, 1833
Retired
23 Gayton P. Osgood Jacksonian March 4, 1833 –
March 4, 1835
Lost re-nomination Essex County: Amesbury, Andover, Boxford, Bradford, Haverhill, Methuen, Middleton, Newbury, Newburyport, Rowley, Salisbury, Topsfield, West Newbury
Middlesex County: Dracut, Lowell, Reading, Tewksbury, South Reading, Wilmington
24 Caleb Cushing.jpg
Caleb Cushing
Anti-Jacksonian March 4, 1835 –
March 4, 1837
Retired
25
26
27
Whig March 4, 1837 –
March 4, 1843
28
29
30
Amos Abbott Whig March 4, 1843 –
March 4, 1849
Retired Essex County: Amesbury, Andover, Boxford, Bradford, Georgetown, Haverhill, Methuen, Newbury, Newburyport, Rowley, Salisbury, West Newbury
Middlesex County: Billerica, Carlisle, Chelmsford, Dracut, Dunstable, Groton, Littleton, Lowell, Tewksbury, Tyngsborough, Westford, Wilmington[3]
31
32
James H. Duncan Whig March 4, 1849 –
March 4, 1853
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
33 J. Wiley Edmands Whig March 4, 1853 –
March 4, 1855
Retired Norfolk County: Bellingam, Braintree, Canton, Dedham, Dorchester, Dover, Foxborough, Franklin, Medfield, Medway, Milton, Needham, Quincy, Randolph, Sharon, Stoughton, Walpole, West Roxbury, Weymouth, Wrentham
Middlesex County: Brighton, Holliston, Newton, Sherborn, Watertown
Worcester County: Blackstone, Mendon, Milford, Northbridge, Upton, Uxbridge
34 William S. Damrell American/Know-Nothing March 4, 1855 –
March 4, 1857
Retired due to failing health
35 Republican March 4, 1857 –
March 4, 1859
36 Charles Francis Adams.jpg
Charles Adams
Republican March 4, 1859 –
May 1, 1861
Resigned to become U.S. Minister to England
37
Vacant May 1, 1861 –
June 11, 1861
Benjamin Thomas[4] Union June 11, 1861 –
March 4, 1863
First elected to finish Adams's term
Retired
38
39
AHRice.jpg
Alexander H. Rice
Republican March 4, 1863 –
March 4, 1867
Redistricted from the 4th district and re-elected here in 1802
Retired
Norfolk County: Roxbury, Brookline
Suffolk County: Boston (wards 4, 7, 8, 10 thru 12)
40
41[5]
42
Ginery Twichell late 1870's.png
Ginery Twichell
Republican March 4, 1867 –
March 4, 1873
Retired Norfolk County: Roxbury, Brookline
Suffolk County: Boston (wards 5, 7, 8, 10 thru 12)[5]
43 William Whiting.png
William Whiting
Republican March 4, 1873 –
June 29, 1873
Died Suffolk County: Boston (wards 7, 8, 10 thru 16)
Vacant June 29, 1873 –
December 1, 1873
Henry L. Pierce - Brady-Handy.jpg
Henry L. Pierce
Republican December 1, 1873 –
March 4, 1877
First elected to finish Whiting's term
Retired
44
45 Walbridge A Field.png
Walbridge A. Field
Republican March 4, 1877 –
March 28, 1878
Dean successfully challenged Field's election Suffolk County: Boston (wards 13 thru 21, 24)[6]
Benjamin Dean - Brady-Handy.jpg
Benjamin Dean[7]
Democratic March 28, 1878 –
March 4, 1879
Retired
46 Walbridge A Field.png
Walbridge A. Field
Republican March 4, 1879 –
March 4, 1881
Retired
47[8] Ambrose Ranney.png
Ambrose Ranney
Republican March 4, 1881 –
March 4, 1883
Lost re-election
48
49
March 4, 1883 –
March 4, 1887
Norfolk County: Milton
Suffolk County: Boston (ward 11, ward 15 (Pct. 3 & 4), wards 17-24)[9]
50 Leopold Morse.png
Leopold Morse
Democratic March 4, 1887 –
March 4, 1889
Retired
51
52
John Forrester Andrew.png
John F. Andrew
Democratic March 4, 1889 –
March 4, 1893
Lost re-election
53
54
55[10]
Joseph Henry Walker.png
Joseph H. Walker
Republican March 4, 1893 –
March 4, 1899
Redistricted from the 10th district and re-elected here in 1892
Lost re-election
Middlesex County: Hopkinton
Worcester County: Auburn, Blackstone, Charlton, Douglas, Dudley, Grafton, Holden, Leicester, Mendon, Millbury, Northbridge, Oxford, Paxton, Rutland, Shrewsbury, Southbrige, Spencer, Sturbridge, Sutton, Upton, Uxbridge, Webster, Westborough, West Boylston, Worcester
56
57
John Randolph Thayer.png
John R. Thayer
Democratic March 4, 1899 –
March 4, 1903
Retired
58[11] March 4, 1903 –
March 4, 1905
Worcester County: Auburn, Charlton, Douglas, Dudley, Grafton, Holden, Leicester, Millbury, Northbridge, Oxford, Paxton, Rutland, Shrewsbury, Southbrige, Spencer, Sturbridge, Sutton, Uxbridge, Webster, Westborough, West Boylston, Worcester
59 Rockwood Hoar.jpg
Rockwood Hoar
Republican March 4, 1905 –
November 1, 1906
Died
Vacant November 1, 1906 –
December 18, 1906
Charles G. Washburn Massachusetts Congressman circa 1908.png
Charles G. Washburn
Republican December 18, 1906 –
March 4, 1911
First elected to finish Hoar's term
Lost re-election
60[12]
61
62 John Alden Thayer Massachusetts Congressman circa 1912.png
John A. Thayer
Democratic March 4, 1911 –
March 4, 1913
Lost re-election
63 William Wilder Massachusetts Congressman circa 1912.png
William H. Wilder
Republican March 4, 1913 –
September 11, 1913
Redistricted from the 4th district and re-elected here in 1912
Died
Franklin County: New Salem, Orange
Hampshire County: Greenwich, Prescott
Middlesex County: Ashby, Townsend
Hampden County: Brimfield, Holland, Monson, Palmer, Wales
Worcester County: Ashburnham, Athol, Barre, Boylston, Brookfield, Charlton, Clinton, Dana, Dudley, East Brookfield, Fitchburg, Gardner, Hardwick, Holden, Hubbardston, Lancaster, Leicester, Leominster, Lunenburg, New Braintree, North Brookfield, Oakham, Oxford, Paxton, Petersham, Phillipston, Princeton, Royalston, Rutland, Southbrige, Spencer, Sterling, Sturbridge, Templeton, Warren, Webster, West Boylston, West Brookfield, Westminster, Winchendon[13]
Vacant September 11, 1913 –
November 4, 1913
63 Calvin DeWitt Paige.png
Calvin Paige
Republican November 4, 1913 –
March 4, 1925
First elected to finish Wilder's term
Re-elected in 1914
Re-elected in 1916
Re-elected in 1918
Re-elected in 1920
Re-elected in 1922
Retired
64
65
66
67
68
69 Frank H. Foss.png
Frank H. Foss
Republican March 4, 1925 –
March 4, 1927
Lost re-election
70
71
72
March 4, 1927 –
March 4, 1933
Franklin County: Erving, New Salem, Orange, Shutesbury, Warwick, Wendell
Hampden County: Brimfield, Holland, Monson, Palmer, Wales
Hampshire County: Belchertown, Enfield, Greenwich, Pelham, Prescott, Ware
Worcester County: Ashburnham, Athol, Barre, Boylston, Brookfield, Charlton, Clinton, Dana, Dudley, East Brookfield, Fitchburg, Gardner, Hardwick, Holden, Hubbardston, Lancaster, Leicester, Leominster, Lunenburg, New Braintree, North Brookfield, Oakham, Oxford, Paxton, Petersham, Phillipston, Princeton, Royalston, Rutland, Southbrige, Spencer, Sterling, Sturbridge, Templeton, Warren, Webster, West Boylston, West Brookfield, Westminster, Winchendon
73 March 4, 1933 –
January 3, 1935
Hampden County: Brimfield, Holland, Monson, Palmer, Wales
Hampshire County: Ware
Middlesex County: Ashby, Boxborough, Framingham, Hudson, Marlborough, Maynard, Pepperell, Shirley, Stow, Sudbury, Townsend, Wayland
Worcester County: Ashburnham, Barre, Berlin, Bolton, Brookfield, Charlton, Clinton, Dana, Dudley, East Brookfield, Fitchburg, Gardner, Hardwick, Harvard, Hubbardston, Lancaster, Leicester, Leominster, Lunenburg, New Braintree, North Brookfield, Oakham, Oxford, Paxton, Petersham, Phillipston, Princeton, Rutland, Southbrige, Spencer, Sterling, Sturbridge, Templeton, Warren, Webster, West Brookfield, Westminster, Winchendon
74
75[14]
76
77
Joseph E. Casey Democratic January 3, 1935 –
January 3, 1943
Retired to run for U.S. Senator
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
Philip Philbin.jpg
Philip J. Philbin
Democratic January 3, 1943 –
January 3, 1963
Lost re-nomination Hampden County: Palmer
Hampshire County: Ware
Middlesex County: Hudson, Marlborough, Maynard, Shirley, Stow
Worcester County: Ashburnham, Barre, Blackstone, Bolton, Brookfield, Charlton, Clinton, Douglas, Dudley, East Brookfield, Fitchburg, Gardner, Hardwick, Harvard, Hubbardston, Lancaster, Leicester, Leominster, Lunenburg, Milford, Millbury, Millville, New Braintree, Northbridge, North Brookfield, Oakham, Oxford, Paxton, Princeton, Rutland, Southbrige, Spencer, Sturbridge, Sutton, Upton, Uxbridge, Warren, Webster, West Brookfield, Westminster, Winchendon
88
89
90[15]
January 3, 1963 –
January 3, 1969
Worcester County: Ashburnham, Barre, Berlin, Blackstone, Bolton, Charlton, Clinton, Douglas, Dudley, Fitchburg, Gardner, Hardwick, Harvard, Hopedale, Hubbardston, Lancaster, Leicester, Leominster, Lunenburg, Mendon, Milford, Millbury, Millville, New Braintree, Northbridge, Oakham, Oxford, Paxton, Princeton, Rutland, Southbrige, Spencer, Sterling, Sutton, Upton, Uxbridge, Webster, Westminster, Winchendon
Middlesex County: Acton, Ashby, Ayer, Boxborough, Dunstable, Groton, Holliston, Hudson, Littleton, Marlborough, Maynard, Natick, Pepperell, Sherborn, Shirley, Stow, Townsend, Tyngsborough, Westford
Norfolk County: Bellingham, Franklin, Medway, Millis
91 January 3, 1969 –
January 3, 1971
Middlesex County: Acton, Ashby, Ayer, Boxborough, Concord, Hudson, Lincoln, Littleton, Marlborough, Maynard, Newton, Shirley, Stow, Townsend, Waltham, Watertown, Westford, Weston
Worcester County: Ashburnham, Berlin, Bolton, Clinton, Fitchburg, Gardner, Harvard, Lancaster, Leominster, Lunenburg, Sterling, Westminster, Winchendon
92 Robert Drinan.jpg
Robert Drinan
Democratic January 3, 1971 –
January 3, 1973
Redistricted to the 4th district
93 Harold Donohue image.jpg
Harold Donohue
Democratic January 3, 1973 –
December 31, 1974
Redistricted from the 4th district and re-elected here in 1972
Retired, and resigned early
Middlesex County: Ashland, Holliston, Hopkinton, Hudson, Marlborough
Norfolk County: Bellingham, Franklin, Medway
Worcester County: Auburn, Berlin, Blackstone, Boylston, Clinton, Grafton, Hopedale, Leicester, Mendon, Milford, Millbury, Millville, Northborough, Northbridge, Shrewsbury, Southborough, Sutton, Upton, Uxbridge, Westborough, West Boylston, Worcester[16]
Vacant December 31, 1974 –
January 3, 1975
94
95
96
97
98
JosephDEarly.jpg
Joseph D. Early
Democratic January 3, 1975 –
January 3, 1983
Lost re-election
99
100
101
102[17]
January 3, 1983 –
January 3, 1993
Middlesex County: Ashland, Holliston, Hopkinton, Hudson, Marlborough, Sherborn, Stow
Norfolk County: Bellingham, Franklin, Medway, Millis, Norfolk[18]
Worcester County: Auburn, Berlin, Blackstone, Bolton, Boylston, Clinton, Douglas, Grafton, Hopedale, Lancaster, Leicester, Lunenburg, Mendon, Milford, Millbury, Millville, Northborough, Northbridge, Shrewsbury, Southborough, Sutton, Upton, Uxbridge, Westborough, West Boylston, Worcester
103
104
Peter Blute B000576.jpg
Peter I. Blute
Republican January 3, 1993 –
January 3, 1997
First elected in 1992
Re-elected in 1994
Lost re-election
Bristol County: Attleboro, Dartmouth, Fall River (all of wards 1, 2 & 3, ward 6 pcts. A & B, ward 4 pct. A, parts of B & C), Mansfield (pcts. 1, 2 & parts of 3 & 4), North Attleboro, Seekonk, Somerset, Swansea, Westport.[18]
Middlesex County: Holliston, Hopkinton
Norfolk County: Foxborough (pct. 5, parts of pcts. 1, 3, 4), Franklin, Medway, Plainville, Wrentham
Worcester County: Auburn (parts of pcts. 1, 3 & 4), Berlin, Boylston, Clinton, Grafton, Holden, Lancaster (parts of pcts. 1 & 2), Northborough, Northbridge, Paxton, Princeton, Rutland, Shrewsbury, Sterling, Upton, Westborough, West Boylston, Worcester[19]
105
106
107
Jim McGovern, official 111th Congress photo.jpg
Jim McGovern
Democratic January 3, 1997 –
January 3, 2003
First elected in 1996
Re-elected in 1998
Re-elected in 2000
Re-elected in 2002
Re-elected in 2004
Re-elected in 2006
Re-elected in 2008
Re-elected in 2010
Redistricted to the 2nd district
108
109
110
111
112
January 3, 2003 –
January 3, 2013
Bristol County: Attleboro, Fall River (wards 1-3; ward 4, Precincts A & B; ward 5, Precincts A & B; ward 6, Precincts B & C; & ward 8, Precinct D), North Attleborough, Rehoboth, Seekonk, Somerset, Swansea
Middlesex County: Ashland, Holliston, Hopkinton, Marlborough
Norfolk County: Franklin, Medway, Plainville, Wrentham.
Worcester County: Auburn, Boylston, Clinton, Holden, Northborough, Paxton, Princeton, Rutland, Shrewsbury, Southborough, West Boylston, Westborough, Worcester.
113 Niki Tsongas, official 110th Congress photo portrait.jpg
Niki Tsongas
Democratic January 3, 2013 – Present Redistricted from the 5th district and re-elected here in 2012 See Cities and towns in the district from 2013 to 2023, above
Cong
ress
Representative Party Years Electoral history District area

Recent election results[edit]

Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district election, 2002
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Jim McGovern (Incumbent) 155,697 73.34%
write-in 1,848 0.87%
blank 54,759 25.79%
Majority 153,849 72.47
Voter turnout  %
Democratic hold
Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district election, 2004
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Jim McGovern (Incumbent) 192,036 67.15 -6.19
Republican Ronald Crews 80,197 28.04 +28.04
write-in 179 0.06 -0.81
blank 13,584 4.75 -21.04
Majority 111,839 39.11 -33.36
Turnout 285,996
Democratic hold Swing
Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district election, 2006
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Jim McGovern (Incumbent) 166,973 77.63 +10.48
write-in 1,983 0.92 +0.86
blank 46,145 21.45 +16.70
Majority 164,990 76.70 +37.59
Turnout 215,101
Democratic hold Swing
Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district election, 2008
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Jim McGovern (Incumbent) 227,619 75.04 -2.59
write-in 3,488 1.15 +0.23
blank 72,208 23.81 +2.36
Majority 224,131 73.89 -2.81
Turnout 303,315
Democratic hold Swing
Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district election, 2010
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Jim McGovern (Incumbent) 122,357 56.5%
Republican Marty Lamb 84,972 39.2%
Independent Patrick Barron 9,304 4.3%
Totals 216,633 100%
Voter turnout  %
Democratic hold

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Partisan Voting Index Districts of the 113th Congress: 2004 & 2008". The Cook Political Report. 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-10. 
  2. ^ http://www.sec.state.ma.us/spr/sprcat/catpdf2010/cong2010/CongressionalDistrict_2011State.pdf Access Date March 29, 2012
  3. ^ "State Apportionment". Massachusetts Register ... for 1843. Boston: Loring. 
  4. ^ "Massachusetts". Congressional Directory for the Second Session of the Thirty-Seventh Congress. Washington DC: House of Representatives. 1861. 
  5. ^ a b Poore, Ben. Perley (1869). "Massachusetts". Congressional Directory for the First Session of the Forty-First Congress (2nd ed.). Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 
  6. ^ "Congressional Districts of Massachusetts". Massachusetts Register and Business Directory, 1878. Boston: Sampson, Davenport, and Co. 
  7. ^ Poore, Ben. Perley (1878). "Massachusetts". Congressional Directory: 45th Congress (3rd ed.). Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 
  8. ^ Poore, Ben. Perley (1882). "Massachusetts". Congressional Directory: 47th Congress (3rd ed.). Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 
  9. ^ Poore, Ben. Perley (1884). "Massachusetts". Congressional Directory: Forty-Eighth Congress (2nd ed.). Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 
  10. ^ Coolidge, L.A. (1897). "Massachusetts". Official Congressional Directory: Fifty-Fifth Congress. Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 
  11. ^ Halford, A.J. (1903). "Massachusetts". Official Congressional Directory: Fifty-Eighth Congress. Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 
  12. ^ Halford, A.J. (1909). "Massachusetts". Congressional Directory: 60th Congress (2nd ed.). Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 
  13. ^ "Massachusetts". Official Congressional Directory: 64th Congress (2nd ed.). Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1916. 
  14. ^ "Massachusetts". Official Congressional Directory: 75th Congress (2nd ed.). Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1938. 
  15. ^ "Massachusetts". Official Congressional Directory: 90th Congress. Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1968. 
  16. ^ "Massachusetts", 1977 Official Congressional Directory: 95th Congress, Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977 
  17. ^ "Massachusetts". 1991-1992 Official Congressional Directory: 102nd Congress. Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1991. 
  18. ^ a b O'Neill, Edward B.; MacQueen, Robert E. (1983). A Manual for the use of the General Court. Boston, MA: Causeway Print. 
  19. ^ Congressional Directory for the 105th Congress (1997-1998), Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997, retrieved November 26, 2013 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 42°35′22″N 71°34′22″W / 42.58944°N 71.57278°W / 42.58944; -71.57278