United States House of Representatives elections, 1794

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1794
United States
1792 ←
August 24, 1794 - September 5, 1795[1]
→ 1796

All 105[2] seats to the United States House of Representatives
53 seats were needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Muhlenberg.jpg JDayton.jpg
Leader Frederick Muhlenberg Jonathan Dayton [3]
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Leader's seat Pennsylvania-2nd New Jersey-AL
Last election 54 51
Seats won 59[4] 47
Seat change Increase 5 Decrease 4

Speaker before election

Frederick Muhlenberg
Democratic-Republican

Elected Speaker

Jonathan Dayton
Federalist

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 4th Congress were held on various dates in each state between August 25, 1794 (New Hampshire) and September 5, 1795 (Kentucky). The election was held during President George Washington's second term. The voters of Tennessee elected their first congressional representative (Andrew Jackson) on October 7, 1796.

In the second election for the House of Representatives with organized political parties, the Democratic-Republican Party, led by Thomas Jefferson, once again defeated the Federalist Party, led by Alexander Hamilton, and slightly increased their majority. These new wins by the Democratic-Republicans can mostly be attributed to the popularity of Jeffersonian ideas of agrarian democracy in the Western territories of the United States.

Election summaries[edit]

During this period, each state fixed its own date for a congressional general election. Elections took place both in the even-numbered year before and in the odd-numbered year when a Congress convened. In some states, the congressional delegation was not elected until after the legal start of the Congress (on the 4th day of March in the odd-numbered year).

One new seat was added during the 4th Congress upon the admission of Tennessee on June 1, 1796.[5] Tennessee was not represented in the 1st session.

59 47
Democratic-Republican Federalist
State Type Date Total
seats
Democratic-
Republican
[6]
Federalist[7]
Seats Change Seats Change
Connecticut At-large September 15, 1794 7 0 Steady 7 Steady
Delaware At-large October 5, 1794 1 1 Increase1 0 Decrease1
Georgia At-large October 6, 1794 2 2 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland District (8) October 6, 1794 8 4 Steady 4 Steady
Massachusetts District (14)[8] November 3, 1794[9] 14 4 Increase1 10 Decrease1
New Hampshire At-large August 25, 1794[10] 4 1 Steady 3 Steady
New Jersey At-large December 30, 1794 5 0 Steady 5 Steady
New York District (10) December 12, 1794 10 6 Increase3 4 Decrease3
Pennsylvania District[11] (12[12]) October 14, 1794 13 9 Increase1 4 Decrease1
Rhode Island At-large August 26, 1794 2 0 Steady 2 Steady
South Carolina District (6) October 14, 1794 6 4 Decrease1 2 Increase1
Vermont District (2) December 30, 1794[13] 2 1 Decrease1 1 Increase1
1795 elections
North Carolina District (10) February 13, 1795 10 9 Steady 1 Steady
Kentucky District (2) September 5, 1795 2 2 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia District (19) March 16, 1795 19 17 Increase2 2 Decrease2
1796 election
Tennessee At-large October 7, 1796 1 1 Increase1[14] 0 Steady
Total[4] 106 59
55.7%
Increase5 47
44.3%
Decrease4
House seats
D-R
  
55.66%
Federalist
  
44.34%

Late elections to 3rd Congress[edit]

Non-voting delegates[edit]

On September 3, 1796, the 3rd Congress admitted the first Delegate after some debate. The individual elected, James White, represented voters in the Southwest Territory. He also served during the 4th Congress. The delegate was elected by the Territorial legislature.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Southwest Territory at-large None (District created) Non-partisan James White 11
William Cocke 7

Complete returns[edit]

Tennessee elected its first representative in 1796 for this Congress.

Connecticut[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Connecticut At-Large
7 seats on a general ticket
James Hillhouse Pro-Administration 1790 Re-elected Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. (F) 13.1%
Uriah Tracy (F) 12.5%
James Hillhouse (F) 12.4%
Joshua Coit (F) 10.8%
Roger Griswold (F) 10.2%
Zephaniah Swift (F) 9.7%
Chauncey Goodrich (F) 6.7%

Nathaniel Smith[15] (F) 5.7%
James Davenport[15] (F) 5.1%
Samuel W. Dana[15] (F) 3.7%
William Edmond (F) 3.4%
John Allen (F) 2.5%
John Treadwell (F) 2.3%
David Daggett (F) 2.2%
Amasa Learned Pro-Administration 1790 Retired
Federalist hold
Joshua Coit Pro-Administration 1792 Re-elected
Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. Pro-Administration 1788 Re-elected
Jeremiah Wadsworth Pro-Administration 1788 Retired
Federalist hold
Zephariah Swift Pro-Administration 1792 Re-elected
Uriah Tracy Pro-Administration 1792 Re-elected

There were three subsequent vacancies in Connecticut's representation. The first occurred before the start of the 4th Congress when Trumbull was elected to the Senate and was filled by Nathaniel Smith. Then, on July 1, 1796, Hillhouse resigned, having also been elected to the Senate, and was replaced by James Davenport (F). The third occurred when Uriah Tracy resigned on October 13, 1796, having been elected to the Senate to replace Trumbull. Tracy, in turn, was replaced by Samuel W. Dana (F)

Delaware[edit]

Only two candidates are recorded for Delaware's congressional election in 1794, suggesting that the voting procedure in place for the first three Congresses for two candidates had been changed.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Delaware At-Large Henry Latimer Pro-Administration 1792 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican gain
John Patten (DR) 51.3%
Henry Latimer (F) 48.7%

Georgia[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Georgia At-Large
2 seats on a general ticket
Abraham Baldwin Anti-Administration 1789 Re-elected John Milledge (DR) 20.6%
Abraham Baldwin (DR) 19.3%

Thomas P. Carnes (DR) 16.0%
Jacob B. Waldburber 15.9%
James Sims 13.1%
Francis Willis (DR) 10.6%
Lachlan MacIntosh 4.0%
James Adcock 0.5%
Thomas P. Carnes Anti-Administration 1792 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold

Kentucky[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Kentucky 1
Known as the Southern district
Christopher Greenup Anti-Administration 1792 Re-elected Christopher Greenup[16] (DR)
Kentucky 2
Known as the Northern district
Alexander D. Orr Anti-Administration 1792 Re-elected Alexander D. Orr[16] (DR)

Maryland[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Maryland 1 George Dent Pro-Administration 1792 Re-elected George Dent (F) 67.6%
Philip Key (F) 32.4%
Maryland 2 Incumbent John F. Mercer (A) resigned April 13, 1794 Democratic-Republican hold Gabriel Duvall (DR) 69.5%[17]
Richard A. Contee (F) 30.5%
Maryland 3 Uriah Forrest Pro-Administration 1792 Retired
Federalist hold
Jeremiah Crabb (F) 100%
Maryland 4 Thomas Sprigg Anti-Administration 1792 Re-elected Thomas Sprigg (DR) 61.4%
Roger Nelson (F) 38.6%
Maryland 5 Samuel Smith Anti-Administration 1792 Re-elected Samuel Smith (DR)[16]
Maryland 6 Gabriel Christie Anti-Administration 1792 Re-elected Gabriel Christie (DR) 70.4%
Robert Wright (F) 29.6%
Maryland 7 William Hindman Pro-Administration 1792 Re-elected William Hindman (F) 63.8%
George Jackson (DR) 26.8%
William Whitely (DR) 9.3%
Maryland 8 William V. Murray Pro-Administration 1790 Re-elected William V. Murray (F) 100%

Gabriel Duvall (DR) of the 2nd district resigned on March 28, 1796 to become Chief Justice of the Maryland General Court and was replaced in a special election by Richard Sprigg, Jr. (DR).

Jeremiah Crabb (F) of the 3rd district resigned on June 1, 1796 and was replaced in a special election by William Craik (F)

Massachusetts[edit]

Massachusetts redistricted between the 3rd and 4th Congress, dividing itself into 14 districts. The 12th-14th districts were in the District of Maine (the modern State of Maine). A majority was required for election. Additional ballots were required in five districts due to the majority requirement not being met on the first ballot.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
First ballot Second ballot Third ballot Fourth ballot
Massachusetts 1
Known as the 1st Western District
Theodore Sedgwick
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Pro-Administration 1788 Re-elected Theodore Sedgwick (F) 53.8%
Thomson J. Skinner (DR) 46.2%
Massachusetts 2
Known as the 2nd Western District
William Lyman Anti-Administration 1792 Re-elected William Lyman (DR) 52.1%
William Shepard (F) 47.9%
Massachusetts 3
Known as the 3rd Western District
None (District created) New seat
Federalist gain
Samuel Lyman (F) 65.5%
Daniel Bigelow (DR) 34.5%
Massachusetts 4
Known as the 4th Western District
Dwight Foster
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Pro-Administration 1792 Re-elected Dwight Foster (F) 50.8%
Levi Lincoln, Sr. (DR) 46.1%
Samuel Blackburn 3.1%
Massachusetts 5
Known as the 1st Southern District
Peleg Coffin, Jr.
Redistricts from the 3rd district
Pro-Administration 1792 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican gain
Nathaniel Freeman, Jr. (DR) 70.0%
Peleg Coffin, Jr. (F) 30.0%
Massachusetts 6
Known as the 2nd Southern District
None (District created) New seat
Federalist gain
John Reed, Sr. (F) 74.5%
George Partridge 25.5%
Massachusetts 7
Known as the 3rd Southern District
David Cobb
Redistricted from the at-large district
Pro-Administration 1792 Lost re-election
Federalist hold
David Cobb (F) 42.3%
George Leonard (F) 35.8%
Phanuel Bishop (DR) 21.9%
David Cobb (F) 39.9%
George Leonard (F) 39.9%
Phanuel Bishop (DR) 20.2%
George Leonard (F) 48.9%
David Cobb (F) 17.4%
John Smith 13.7%
Phanuel Bishop (DR) 12.5%
Scattering 7.6%
George Leonard (F) 76.3%
Elisha May 16.5%
Phanuel Bishop (DR) 7.2%
Massachusetts 8
Known as the 1st Middle District
Fisher Ames
Redistricted from the 1st district
Pro-Administration 1788 Re-elected Fisher Ames (F) 56.6%
Charles Jarvis (DR) 43.4%
Massachusetts 9
Known as the 2nd Middle District
Samuel Dexter
Redistricted from the 1st district
Pro-Administration 1792 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican gain
Samuel Dexter (F) 40.5%
Elbridge Gerry (DR) 30.9%
Joseph Bradley Varnum (DR) 28.6%
Joseph Bradley Varnum (DR) 49.4%
Samuel Dexter (F) 48.8%
Scattering 1.8%
Joseph Bradley Varnum (DR) 51.4%
Samuel Dexter (F) 48.6%
Massachusetts 10
Known as the 3rd Middle District
Benjamin Goodhue
Redistricted from the 1st district
Pro-Administration 1788 Re-elected Benjamin Goodhue (F) 68.2%
Samuel Holten (F[18]) 31.8%
Samuel Holten
Redistricted from the 1st district
Anti-Administration 1792 Lost re-election
Federalist gain
Massachusetts 11
Known as the 4th Middle District
None (District created) New seat
Federalist gain
Theophilus Bradbury (F) 43.5%
Bailey Bartlett (F) 19.8%
Josiah Smith (DR) 10.5%
Stephen Cross 9.1%
Theophilus Parsons 7.0%
Scattering 10.1%
Theophilus Bradbury (F) 38.1%
William Pearson 36.6%
Bailey Bartlett (F) 25.3%
Theophilus Bradbury (F) 100%
District of Maine Massachusetts 12
Known as the 1st Eastern District
Henry Dearborn
Redistricted from the 4th district
Anti-Administration 1792 Re-elected Henry Dearborn (DR) 64.1%
John Bowman 35.9%
Massachusetts 13
Known as the 2nd Eastern District
Peleg Wadsworth
Redistricted from the 4th district
Pro-Administration 1792 Re-elected Peleg Wadsworth (F) 44.1%
William Widgery (DR) 33.4%
Stephen Longfellow 10.0%
Samuel Thompson 5.3%
Scattering 7.3%
Peleg Wadsworth (F) 60.3%
William Widgery (DR) 39.7%
Massachusetts 14
Known as the 3rd Eastern District
George Thatcher
Redistricted from the 4th district
Pro-Administration 1788 Re-elected George Thatcher (F) 45.7%
Nathaniel Wells 31.6%
Ichabod Godwin 8.8%
Joseph Tucker 6.4%
Scattering 7.4%
George Thatcher (F) 68.4%
Scattering 31.6%

Theodore Sedgwick (F) of the 1st district resigned upon being elected to the Senate and was replaced in a special election by Thomson J. Skinner (DR).

In the 9th district, a petition by various citizens of Massachusetts contested the election of Varnum. The Committee on Elections ruled in Varnum's favor and added "that the attempt to deprive him of his seat was rather the act of malevolence than a desire to promote the public good." On January 25, 1797, these words were stricken out and expressions of compliment to the sitting Member were substituted, and the report was agreed to.[19]

Benjamin Goodhue (F) of the 10th district resigned upon being elected to the Senate and was replaced in a special election by Samuel Sewall (F).

New Hampshire[edit]

Under New Hampshire's electoral laws, a majority of voters (12.5% of votes) was required for election. Only three candidates achieved a majority, and so a run-off election was held for the fourth seat.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
First ballot Second ballot
New Hampshire at-large
4 seats on a general ticket
Jeremiah Smith Pro-Administration 1790 Re-elected Jeremiah Smith (F) 20.5%
John Samuel Sherburne (DR) 17.2%
Nicholas Gilman (F) 13.0%

Abiel Foster (F) 11.1%
Paine Wingate (F) 8.1%
Others 30.1%
Abiel Foster (F) 82.7%
Paine Wingate (F) 17.3%
John Samuel Sherburne Anti-Administration 1792 Re-elected
Nicholas Gilman Pro-Administration 1788 Re-elected
Paine Wingate Pro-Administration 1792 Lost re-election
Federalist hold

New Jersey[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New Jersey At-Large
5 seats on a general ticket
Elias Boudinot Pro-Administration 1789 Retired
Federalist hold
Jonathan Dayton (F) 13.6%
Aaron Kitchell[17] (F) 11.0%
Thomas Henderson (F) 9.3%
Isaac Smith (F) 7.9%
Mark Thomson (F) 7.9%

Thomas Sinnickson (F) 7.5%
Joseph Bloomfield 6.6%
John Beatty (F) 6.4%
James Linn 6.3%
Ebenezer Elmer 5.8%
James Schureman (F) 4.1%
Lambert Cadwalader (F) 4.0%
Richard Smith 3.0%
Charles Stewart 2.3%
Jonathan Elmer (F) 2.1%
John Harring 1.4%
Robert Ogden 0.7%
James F. Armstrong 0.2%
Previous incumbent Abraham Clark (P) died September 15, 1794 Federalist hold
Jonathan Dayton Pro-Administration 1791 Re-elected
Lambert Cadwalader Pro-Administration 1789
1792
Federalist hold
John Beatty Pro-Administration 1792 Lost re-election
Federalist hold

New York[edit]

New York's districts were not numbered at the time, but were later numbered retroactively.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New York 1 Thomas Tredwell Anti-Administration 1791 (Special) Ran for election in district 7
Democratic-Republican hold
Jonathan Nicoll Havens (DR) 38.6%
Whitehead Cornwell (DR) 26.2%
Samuel Jones (F) 23.4%
John Smith (DR) 11.9%
New York 2 John Watts Pro-Administration 1793 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican gain
Edward Livingston (DR) 52.9%
John Watts (F) 47.1%
New York 3 Philip Van Courtlandt Anti-Administration 1793 Re-elected Philip Van Courtlandt (DR) 50.5%
Richard Morris 49.5%
New York 4 Peter Van Gaasbeck Pro-Administration 1793 Retired
Democratic-Republican gain
John Hathorn (DR) 70.8%
Conrad E. Elmendorf (F) 27.2%
William Thompson (F) 1.9%
Peter Gansevoort (DR) 0.1%
New York 5 Theodorus Bailey Anti-Administration 1793 Re-elected Theodorus Bailey (F) 57.1%
David Brooks (F) 42.9%
New York 6 Ezekiel Gilbert Pro-Administration 1793 Re-elected Ezekiel Gilbert (F) 57.6%
John Bay (DR) 21.7%
Matthew Adgate (DR) 20.7%
New York 7 John E. Van Alen Pro-Administration 1793 Re-elected John E. Van Alen (F) 78.8%
Thomas Tredwell (DR) 21.2%[20]
New York 8 Henry Glen Pro-Administration 1793 Re-elected Henry Glen (F) 94.0%
Abraham Yates (DR) 2.8%
John Tayler (DR) 2.6%
James Fairlie (DR) 0.6%
New York 9 James Gordon Pro-Administration 1790 Retired
Democratic-Republican gain
John Williams (DR) 48.4%
Ebenezer Russel (F) 40.2%
Alexander Webster (DR) 11.4%
New York 10 Vacant Incumbent Silas Talbot (P) had resigned earlier to accept an appointment to the Navy
Federalist hold
William Cooper (F) 55.9%
John Winn (DR) 31.4%
James Cochran (F) 11.8%
Jonathan Fitch (DR) 0.9%

North Carolina[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
North Carolina 1 Joseph McDowell Anti-Administration 1793 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
James Holland (DR)[16]
Joseph McDowell (DR)
North Carolina 2 Matthew Locke Anti-Administration 1793 Re-elected Matthew Locke (DR)[16]
North Carolina 3 Joseph Winston Anti-Administration 1793 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
Jesse Franklin (DR)[16]
Joseph Winston (DR)
North Carolina 4 Alexander Mebane Anti-Administration 1793 Re-elected Alexander Mebane (DR) 75.8%
Samuel Benton (F) 19.5%
Stephen Moore (F) 4.7%
North Carolina 5 Nathaniel Macon Anti-Administration 1791 Re-elected Nathaniel Macon (DR)[16]
North Carolina 6 James Gillespie Anti-Administration 1793 Re-elected James Gillespie (DR)[16]
William H. Hill (F)
North Carolina 7 William B. Grove Pro-Administration 1791 Re-elected William B. Grove (F)[16]
North Carolina 8 William J. Dawson Anti-Administration 1793 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
Dempsey Burges (DR)[16]
John Baker (DR)
Clement Hale (DR)
David Stone (F)
William J. Dawson (DR)
Charles Johnson (F)
North Carolina 9 Thomas Blount Anti-Administration 1793 Re-elected Thomas Blount (DR)[16]
John Benford (F)
Willis Alston (F)
North Carolina 10 Benjamin Williams Anti-Administration 1793 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
Nathan Bryan (DR) 61.0%
Benjamin Williams (F[18]) 29.6%
David Witherspoon (F) 9.4%

There were two special elections in the 4th district. The first was held to fill a vacancy left by the death of Alexander Mebane (DR) on July 5, 1795, before the first meeting of the 4th Congress, which elected Absalom Tatom (DR). Tatom, in turn, resigned June 1, 1796 and a special election was held to fill that vacancy, won by William F. Strudwick (F)

Pennsylvania[edit]

Pennsylvania once again divided itself into districts instead of electing representatives at-large, as it had for the 3rd Congress. The state divided intself into 12 districts, one of which (the 4th) had two seats. Pennsylvania would continue to use one or more plural districts until 1842.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[21]
Pennsylvania 1 Thomas Fitzsimons
Redistricted from the at-large district
Pro-Administration 1788 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican gain
John Swanwick (DR) 51.2%
Thomas Fitzsimons (F) 48.8%
Pennsylvania 2 Frederick Muhlenberg
Redistricted from at-large district
Anti-Administration 1788 Re-elected Frederick Muhlenberg (DR) 56.3%
Samuel Miles (F) 43.7%
Pennsylvania 3 None (District created) New seat
Federalist gain
Richard Thomas (F) 68.2%
Thomas Ross (DR) 31.8%
Pennsylvania 4
Plural district with 2 seats
None (District created) New seat
Federalist gain
Samuel Sitgreaves (F) 36.2%
John Richards (DR) 20.0%

James Morris (DR) 20.2%
Robert Lollar (DR) 13.1%
Peter Muhlenberg (DR) 8.1%
James Barclay 2.4%
Peter Muhlenberg
Redistricted from the at-large district
Anti-Administration 1788
1792
Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
Pennsylvania 5 Daniel Hiester
Redistricted from at-large district
Anti-Administration 1788 Re-elected Daniel Hiester (DR) (unopposed)
Pennsylvania 6 None (District created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain
Samuel Maclay (DR) 46.0%
John A. Hanna (DR) 43.3%
John Carson (F) 10.7%
Pennsylvania 7 John W. Kittera
Redistricted from at-large district
Pro-Administration 1791 Re-elected John W. Kittera (F) (unopposed)
Pennsylvania 8 Thomas Hartley
Redistricted from at-large district
Pro-Administration 1788 re-elected Thomas Hartley (F) (unopposed)
Pennsylvania 9 Andrew Gregg
Redistricted from at-large district
Anti-Administration 1791 Re-elected Andrew Gregg (DR)[16]
James Wallace (F)
William Irvine (DR)
William Irvine
Redistricted from the at-large district
Anti-Administration 1792 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
Pennsylvania 10 None (District created) New seat
Democratic-Republican gain
David Bard (DR) 52.9%
James McLane (DR) 31.9%
James Chambers (F) 15.2%
Pennsylvania 11 William Findley
Redistricted from at-large district
Anti-Administration 1791 Re-elected William Findley (DR) (unopposed)
Pennsylvania 12 Thomas Scott
Redistricted from at-large district
Pro-Administration 1788
1792
Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican gain
Albert Gallatin (DR) 33.1%
Thomas Scott (F) 27.7%
Daniel Hamilton (DR) 16.2%
Isaac Tichenor (F) 11.0%
Hugh H. Brackenridge (DR?) 6.0%
John Woods (F) 5.9%

The 2nd seat in the 4th district was disputed between John Richards and James Morris. The original returns showed Morris in 2nd place and Richards in a close 3rd place, but Richards disputed it, and the Governor of Pennsylvania only issued certification for Samuel Sitgreaves (F) leaving the other seat undecided. Morris died on July 10, 1795, before the House could act. The House Committee on Elections ruled in favor of Richards on January 10, 1798.

In the 5th district, Daniel Hiester (DR) resigned on July 1, 1796. A special election was held to fill the resulting vacancy which elected George Ege (F).

Rhode Island[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Rhode Island At-Large Seat A Benjamin Bourne Pro-Administration 1790 Re-elected Benjamin Bourne (F) 62.3%
Peleg Arnold (DR) 37.7%
Rhode Island At-Large Seat B Francis Malbone Pro-Administration 1792 Re-elected Francis Malbone (F) 61.9%
Joseph Stanton, Jr. (DR) 38.1%

Benjamin Bourne (F) resigned in 1796, and was replaced in a special election by Elisha Potter (F)

South Carolina[edit]

Electoral data are only available for the 1st and 5th district of South Carolina's 6 districts at the time of the elections of 1794.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 William L. Smith Pro-Administration 1788 Re-elected William L. Smith (F) 51.7%
John Rutledge, Jr. (F) 37.3%
Thomas Tucker 11.0%
South Carolina 2 John Hunter Anti-Administration 1793 Ran for election in 5th district
Democratic-Republican hold
Robert Barnwell[16]
South Carolina 3 Lemuel Benton Anti-Administration 1793 Re-elected Lemuel Benton (DR)[16]
South Carolina 4 Richard Winn Anti-Administration 1793 Re-elected Richard Winn (DR)[16]
South Carolina 5 Previous incumbent Alexander Gillon (A) died in office on October 6, 1794 Federalist gain Robert Goodloe Harper[17] (F) 58.3%
John Hunter[22] (DR) 41.7%
South Carolina 6 Andrew Pickens Anti-Administration 1793 Democratic-Republican hold[23] Samuel Earle (DR)[16]

Representative-elect Barnwell of the 2nd district declined to serve. A special election was held to fill the resulting vacancy, electing Wade Hampton (DR).

Vermont[edit]

Vermont's laws required a majority for election to Congress, with a second election to be held if the first did not return a majority. Run-off elections were required in both districts.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[24]
First ballot Second ballot
Vermont 1
Known as the Western District
Israel Smith Anti-Administration 1791 Re-elected Matthew Lyon (DR) 41.7%
Israel Smith (DR) 32.9%
Isaac Tichenor (F) 9.9%
Gideon Olin (DR) 8.7%
Others 6.8%
Israel Smith (DR) 48.5%
Matthew Lyon (DR) 48.0%
Others 3.5%
Vermont 2
Known as the Eastern District
Nathaniel Niles Anti-Administration 1791 Lost re-election
Federalist gain
Nathaniel Niles (DR) 31.6%
Daniel Buck (F) 21.2%
Jonathan Hunt 11.0%
Stephen Jacob 10.9%
Lewis R. Morris (F) 8.3%
Cornelius Lynde 4.7%
Paul Brigham 3.3%
Lot Hall 2.7%
Elijah Robinson 1.3%
Others 4.8%
Daniel Buck (F) 55.6%
Nathaniel Niles (DR) 39.1%
Jonathan Hunt 2.3%
Stephen Jacob 1.8% 1.2%

In the 1st district, Lyon unsuccessfully contested Smith's election[19]

Virginia[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Virginia 1 Robert Rutherford Anti-Administration 1793 Re-elected Robert Rutherford (DR)[16]
Daniel Morgan (F)
Virginia 2 Andrew Moore Anti-Administration 1789 Re-elected Andrew Moore (DR)[16]
Virginia 3 Joseph Neville Anti-Administration 1793 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
George Jackson (DR)[16]
Joseph Neville (DR)
Thomas Wilson
John Skidmore
Virginia 4 Francis Preston Anti-Administration 1793 Re-elected Francis Preston (DR)[16]
Arthur Campbell
Virginia 5 George Hancock Pro-Administration 1793 Re-elected George Hancock (F)[16]
Virginia 6 Isaac Coles Anti-Administration 1793 Re-elected Isaac Coles (DR)[16]
Simon Crae MacMahon
Matthew Clay (DR)
Virginia 7 Abraham B. Venable Anti-Administration 1790 Re-elected Abraham B. Venable (DR) 61.0%
Thomas Woodson 19.8%
Joseph Wyatt 18.9%
Peter Johnson 0.2%
William Wilson 0.1%
Virginia 8 Thomas Claiborne Anti-Administration 1793 Re-elected Thomas Claiborne (DR)[16]
Jesse Brown
Samuel Hopkins
Samuel Goode (DR)
Sterling Edmunds
Virginia 9 William B. Giles Anti-Administration 1790 Re-elected William B. Giles (DR)[16]
Virginia 10 Carter B. Harrison Anti-Administration 1793 Re-elected Carter B. Harrison (DR)[16]
Virginia 11 Josiah Parker Pro-Administration 1789 Re-elected Josiah Parker (F)[16]
Robert Cowper
Virginia 12 John Page Anti-Administration 1789 Re-elected John Page (DR)[16]
Virginia 13 Samuel Griffin Pro-Administration 1789 Retired
Democratic-Republican gain
John Clopton (DR)[16]
Burwell Bassett (DR)
Miles Selden
Meriwether Jones
Virginia 14 Francis Walker Anti-Administration 1793 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Samuel J. Cabell (DR)[16]
Virginia 15 James Madison, Jr. Anti-Administration 1789 Re-elected James Madison, Jr. (DR)[16]
Virginia 16 Anthony New Anti-Administration 1793 Re-elected Anthony New (DR)[16]
Virginia 17 Richard Bland Lee Pro-Administration 1789 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican gain
Richard Brent (DR)[16]
Richard Bland Lee (P)
Virginia 18 John Nicholas Anti-Administration 1793 Re-elected John Nicholas (DR)[16]
Virginia 19 John Heath Anti-Administration 1793 Re-elected John Heath (DR)[16]

In the 13th district, Burwell unsuccessfully contested Clopton's election[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Excluding states admitted during the 4th Congress
  2. ^ 1 more seat was added by the admission of Tennessee after the start of this Congress
  3. ^ Speaker of the House
  4. ^ a b Including late elections
  5. ^ Stat. 492
  6. ^ Previously Anti-Administration
  7. ^ Previously Pro-Administration
  8. ^ Previously 4 plural districts + 1 at-large district
  9. ^ Majority required for election, 3 additional ballots were required in 5 districts held January 17, March 23, and June 1, 1795
  10. ^ Majority required for election, a run-off was required for the 4th seat held on December 8, 1794
  11. ^ Changed from at-large method
  12. ^ Includes 1 plural district
  13. ^ Majority required for election, an additional ballot was required in both districts held on February 10, 1795
  14. ^ New state
  15. ^ a b c Elected in subsequent special election
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Source does not give numbers of votes or has incomplete data
  17. ^ a b c Elected to fill vacancy in 3rd Congress
  18. ^ a b Changed parties
  19. ^ a b c Membership roster for the 4th Congress
  20. ^ Originally from district 1, Tredwell moved to district 7 and ran there
  21. ^ Wilkes University Elections Statistics Project
  22. ^ 2nd district incumbent
  23. ^ No information available in source on whether incumbent lost re-election or did not run
  24. ^ Only candidates with at least 1% of the vote listed