United States House of Representatives elections, 1872

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1872
United States
1870 ←
November 5, 1872[1] → 1874

All 292 seats to the United States House of Representatives
147 seats were needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  JamesGBlaine.png Fernando Wood - Brady-Handy.jpg
Leader James Blaine Fernando Wood
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Maine-3rd New York-10th
Last election 141 seats 102 seats
Seats won 203[2] 89[3]
Seat change Increase 62 Decrease 13
Popular vote 3,401,847 2,903,521
Percentage 51.0% 43.3%
Swing Increase 2.8% Decrease 4.9%

Speaker before election

James Blaine
Republican

Elected Speaker

James Blaine
Republican

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1872 and 1873 for representatives to the 43rd Congress, coinciding with the re-election of President Ulysses S. Grant.

Grant's Republican Party increased its majority greatly at the expense of the opposition Democratic Party. The pro-industry outlook of the Republicans appealed to many Northern voters, especially as the post-war economy exploded, and this allowed the party to flourish as the Industrial Revolution grew more widespread. The Republicans also benefited from a continuing association with Civil War victory as well as disarray amongst Democratic leadership.

Election summaries[edit]

Following the 1870 Census, the House was reapportioned, initially adding 40 seats,[4] followed by a subsequent amendment to the apportionment act adding another seat to 9 States,[5] resulting in a total increase of 49 seats. No States lost seats, 10 States had no change, 13 States gained 1 seat each, 9 States gained 2 seats, 3 States gained 3 seats, 1 State gained 4 seats, and 1 State gained 5 Seats. Prior to the supplemental act, two States (New Hampshire and Vermont) had each lost 1 seat. This was the first reapportionment after the repeal of the three-fifths compromise by the 14th Amendment

203 89
Republican Democratic
State Type Total
seats
Republican Democratic
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District
+ 2 at-large
8 Increase 2 6[6] Increase 3 2 Decrease 1
Arkansas District
+ at-large
4 Increase 1 4[6] Increase 2 0 Decrease 1
California District 4 Increase 1 3 Steady 1 Increase 1
Connecticut[7] District 4 Steady 3 Steady 1 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1
Florida At-large 2 Increase 1 2 Increase 1 0 Steady
Georgia District 9 Increase 2 2 Decrease 1 7 Increase 3
Illinois District 19 Increase 5 14 Increase 6 5 Decrease 1
Indiana[8] District
+ 3 at-large
13 Increase 2 10 Increase 4 3 Decrease 2
Iowa District 9 Increase 3 9 Increase 3 0 Steady
Kansas At-large 3 Increase 2 3 Increase 2 0 Steady
Kentucky District 10 Increase 1 0 Steady 10 Increase 1
Louisiana District
+ 1 at-large
6 Increase 1 6[6] Increase 1 0 Steady
Maine[8] District 5 Steady 5 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland District 6 Increase 1 2 Increase 2 4 Decrease 1
Massachusetts District 11 Increase 1 11 Increase 1 0 Steady
Michigan District 9 Increase 3 9 Increase 4 0 Decrease 1
Minnesota District 3 Increase 1 3 Increase 1 0 Steady
Mississippi District 6 Increase 1 5 Steady 1 Increase 1
Missouri District 13 Increase 4 4 Decrease 1 9 Increase 5
Nebraska[8] At-large 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Nevada At-large 1 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady
New Hampshire[7] District 3 Steady 2 Increase 2 1 Decrease 2
New Jersey District 7 Increase 2 6 Increase 3 1 Decrease 1
New York District
+ 1 at-large
33 Increase 2 24 Increase 9 9 Decrease 7
North Carolina[8] District 8 Increase 1 3 Increase 1 5 Steady
Ohio[8] District 20 Increase 1 14[6] Steady 6 Increase 1
Oregon[8] At-large 1 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1
Pennsylvania[8] District
+ 3 at-large
27 Increase 3 22 Increase 9 5 Decrease 6
Rhode Island District 2 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina District
+ 1 at-large
5 Increase 1 5 Increase 1 0 Steady
Tennessee District
+ 1 at-large
10 Increase 2 7 Increase 5 3 Decrease 3
Texas District
+ 2 at-large
6 Increase 2 0 Decrease 1 6 Increase 3
Vermont[8] District 3 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia District 9 Increase 1 4 Increase 1 5 Steady
West Virginia[8] District 3 Steady 1 Steady 2[3] Steady
Wisconsin District 8 Increase 2 6 Increase 2 2 Steady
Total 292 Increase 49 203[2]
69.5%
Increase 62
30.5%
89[3]
30.5%
Decrease 13
House seats
Republican
  
69.52%
Democratic
  
30.48%

In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform nationwide date for choosing Presidential electors. This law did not affect election dates for Congress, which remained within the jurisdiction of State governments, but over time, the States moved their Congressional elections to that date. By the 1870s, the majority of states had moved their elections to that date. In 1872/3, there were still 9 states with earlier election dates, and 2 states with later election dates.

Complete returns[edit]

California[edit]

A new seat was added, following the 1870 U.S. Census, bringing the delegation up from three to four Representatives.

District Incumbent Party First elected Result Candidates
California 1 None (Incumbent redistricted to 4th district) New seat
Republican gain
Charles Clayton (R) 52.3%
William A. Piper (D) 47.7%
California 2 Aaron Augustus Sargent Republican 1868 Retired
Republican hold
Horace F. Page (R) 51.8%
Paschal Coggins (D) 48.2%
California 3 John M. Coghlan Republican 1871 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
John K. Luttrell (D) 51.7%
John M. Coghlan (R) 48.3%
California 4 Sherman O. Houghton
(Redistricted from the 1st district)
Republican 1871 Re-elected Sherman O. Houghton (R) 53.6%
E. J. C. Kewen (D) 46.4%

Florida[edit]

Florida gained a second seat after the 1870 census, but delayed districting until 1874, electing both Representatives at-large for this election.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
Josiah T. Walls Republican 1870 Re-elected William J. Purman (R) 26.3%
Josiah T. Walls (R) 26.2%

Silas L. Niblack (D) 23.8%
Charles W. Jones (D) 23.7%
None (seat created) New seat
Republican gain

Ohio[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[9]
Ohio 1 Ozro J. Dodds Democratic 1872 (s) Retired
Democratic hold
Ohio 2 Job E. Stevenson Republican 1868 Retired
Democratic gain
Ohio 3 Lewis D. Campbell Democratic 1870 Retired
Republican gain
Ohio 4 John F. McKinney Democratic 1870 Retired
Republican gain
Ohio 5 Charles N. Lamison Democratic 1870 Re-elected
Ohio 6 John Armstrong Smith Republican 1868 Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 7 Samuel Shellabarger Republican 1870 Retired
Democratic gain
Ohio 8 John Beatty Republican 1868 (s) Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 9 Charles Foster Republican 1870 Re-districted
Republican hold
Ohio 10 Erasmus D. Peck Republican 1870 (s) Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 11 John Thomas Wilson Republican 1866 Re-districted
Republican hold
Ohio 12 Philadelph Van Trump Democratic 1866 Retired
Democratic hold
Ohio 13 George W. Morgan Democratic 1868 Re-districted
Democratic hold
Ohio 14 James Monroe Republican 1870 Re-districted
Democratic gain
  • John Berry (D) 57.9%
  • Thomas E. Douglas (R) 42.1%
Ohio 15 William P. Sprague Republican 1870 Re-elected
Ohio 16 John Bingham Republican 1864 Lost Re-nomination
Republican hold
Ohio 17 Jacob A. Ambler Republican 1868 Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 18 William H. Upson Republican 1868 Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 19 James A. Garfield Republican 1862 Re-elected
Ohio 20 None (district recreated) Republican gain

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ In most states; 11 states held elections on different dates between June 4, 1872 and April 7, 1873
  2. ^ a b Includes 4 Liberal Republicans
  3. ^ a b c Includes 1 Independent Democrat
  4. ^ 17 Stat. 28
  5. ^ 17 Stat. 192
  6. ^ a b c d Includes 1 Liberal Republican
  7. ^ a b Elections held late
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Elections held early
  9. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. p. 306.