United States House of Representatives elections, 1876

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1876
United States
1874 ←
November 7, 1876[1] → 1878

All 293 seats to the United States House of Representatives
147 seats were needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party Third party
 
Party Democratic Republican Independent
Last election 178 seats 106 seats 9 seats[2]
Seats before 182 seats[3] 102 seats[4] 9 seats[5]
Seats won 150 seats 141 seats 2[6]
Seat change Decrease 32 Increase 39 Decrease 7
Popular vote 4,175,350 3,887,508
Percentage 50.2% 46.8%
Swing Increase 4.5% Increase 3.2%

Speaker before election

Vacancy
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Samuel Randall
Democratic

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1876 (with one state in 1877) for Representatives to the 45th Congress. These elections coincided with the (heavily contested) election of President Rutherford B. Hayes and the United States Centennial.

Hayes' Republican Party was able to recover from the Democratic Party many of the seats it had lost two years before as the economy improved slightly. However, the Democrats retained a majority and were able to use the disinterest of the people in Republican Reconstruction-led projects to help keep crucial seats. Republican Congressional leadership had a difficult time distancing itself from the corruption of the Grant administration or the legislature's impact on the economy downturn.

Election summaries[edit]

150 2 141
Democratic I Republican
State Type Total
seats
Democratic Republican
Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District[7] 8 8 Increase 2 0 Decrease 2
Arkansas District 4 4[8] Steady 0 Steady
California District 4 1 Decrease 2 3 Increase 2
Colorado At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady
Connecticut District 4 3 Steady 1 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady
Florida District 2 1 Increase 1 1 Decrease 1
Georgia[9] District 9 9[8] Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District 19 8 Decrease 2 11 Increase 4
Indiana[9] District 13 4 Decrease 4 9 Increase 4
Iowa[9] District 9 0 Decrease 1 9 Increase 1
Kansas District 3 0 Decrease 1 3 Increase 1
Kentucky District 10 10 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1
Louisiana District 6 4 Increase 1 2 Decrease 1
Maine[9] District 5 0 Steady 5 Steady
Maryland District 6 6 Steady 0 Steady
Massachusetts District 11 1 Decrease 3 10 Increase 5
Michigan District 9 1 Decrease 2 8 Increase 2
Minnesota District 3 0 Steady 3 Steady
Mississippi District 6 6 Increase 2 0 Decrease 2
Missouri District 13 9 Decrease 4 4 Increase 4
Nebraska At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady
Nevada At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady
New Hampshire[10] District 3 1 Decrease 1 2 Increase 1
New Jersey District 7 4 Decrease 1 3 Increase 1
New York District 33 16 Decrease 1 17 Increase 1
North Carolina District 8 7 Steady 1 Steady
Ohio[9] District 20 8 Decrease 5 12 Increase 5
Oregon[9] At-large 1 0 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1
Pennsylvania District 27 10 Decrease 7 17 Increase 7
Rhode Island District 2 0 Steady 2 Steady
South Carolina District 5 2 Increase 2 3 Decrease 2
Tennessee District 10 8 Decrease 1 2 Increase 1
Texas District 6 6 Steady 0 Steady
Vermont[9] District 3 0 Steady 3 Steady
Virginia District 9 8 Steady 1 Steady
West Virginia[9] District 3 3 Steady 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 8 3 Steady 5 Steady
Total 293 152[11]
51.9%
Decrease 27 141
48.1%
Increase 31
House seats
Democratic
  
51.88%
Republican
  
48.12%

The previous election included 4 Independents, in Illinois and Massachusetts.

In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform nationwide date for choosing Presidential electors. This law did not affect election dates for Congress, which remained within the jurisdiction of State governments, but over time, the States moved their Congressional elections to that date. By the 1870s, the majority of states had moved their elections to that date. In 1876/7, there were still 8 states with earlier election dates, and 1 state with a later election date.

House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80.1-100% Republican
  80.1-100% Democratic
  60.1-80% Republican
  60.1-80% Democratic
  <=60% Republican
  <=60% Democratic
  6+ Republican gain
  6+ Democratic gain
  3-5 Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  no net change


All races[edit]

California[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
California 1 William Adam Piper Democratic
1874
Lost re-election
Republican gain
Horace Davis (R) 53.3%
William A. Piper (D) 46.7%
California 2 Horace F. Page Republican
1872
Incumbent re-elected Horace F. Page (R) 56.7%
G. J. Carpenter (D) 43.3%
California 3 John K. Luttrell Democratic
1872
Incumbent re-elected John K. Luttrell (D) 51.1%
Joseph McKenna (R) 48.9%
California 4 Peter D. Wigginton Democratic
1874
Lost re-election
Republican gain
Romualdo Pacheco (R) 50%
Peter D. Wigginton (D) 50%

Florida[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida 1 William J. Purman Republican 1872 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Robert H. M. Davidson (D) 51.2%
William J. Purman (R) 48.8%
Florida 2 Jesse J. Finley Democratic 1874[12] Lost re-election
Republican gain
Horatio Bisbee, Jr. (R) 50.0%
Jesse J. Finley (D) 50.0%

The election in the 2nd district was extremely close, with initial returns showing a difference between the two candidates of only 3 votes. Finley challenged Bisbee's election and was eventually seated on February 20, 1879

South Carolina[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 Joseph Rainey Republican 1870 (special) Re-elected Joseph Rainey (R) 52.2%
John S. Richardson (D) 47.8%
South Carolina 2 Seat declared vacant by Congress on July 19, 1876 due to contested election of previous incumbent Edmund W. M. Mackey (IR) Republican hold Richard H. Cain (R) 62.1%
Michael P. O'Connor (D) 37.9%
South Carolina 3 Solomon L. Hoge Republican 1874 Retired
Democratic gain
D. Wyatt Aiken (D) 58.0%
Lewis C. Carpenter (R) 42.0%
South Carolina 4 Alexander S. Wallace Republican 1868 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
John H. Evins (D) 57.6%
Alexander S. Wallace (R) 42.4%
South Carolina 5 Robert Smalls Republican 1874 Re-elected Robert Smalls (R) 51.9%
George D. Tillman (D) 48.1%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Most states. Nine states held elections on different dates between June 5, 1876 and March 13, 1877
  2. ^ 4 Independents, 4 Independent-Republicans, and 1 Independent-Democrat
  3. ^ (Including 2 Vacancies)
  4. ^ (Including 1 Vacancy)
  5. ^ 4 Independents, 4 Independent-Republicans (1 Vacant), and 1 Independent-Democrat
  6. ^ 2 Independent-Democrats
  7. ^ At-large seats eliminated in districting
  8. ^ a b Includes 1 Independent Democrat
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Elections held early
  10. ^ Elections held late
  11. ^ Includes 2 Independent Democrats
  12. ^ After disputed election