United States House of Representatives elections, 1882

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1882
United States
1880 ←
November 7, 1882[Note 1] → 1884

All 325 seats to the United States House of Representatives
163 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  John Griffin Carlisle, Brady-Handy photo portrait, ca1870-1880.jpg J. Warren Keifer - Brady-Handy.jpg
Leader John G. Carlisle J. Warren Keifer
Party Democratic Republican
Last election 131 seats[Note 2] 151 seats
Seats won 199[1][Note 3][Note 4] 118[1][Note 3][Note 5]
Seat change Increase 59 Decrease 29

  Third party Fourth party Fifth party
  No image.svg No image.svg No image.svg
Leader Luman Hamlin Weller
Party Readjuster Greenback Independent
Last election 0 seats[Note 7] 10 seats 1 seats
Seats won 4[1][Note 8] 2[1] 2[1][Note 6]
Seat change Increase 4 Decrease 8 Increase 1

Speaker before election

Joseph Keifer
Republican

Elected Speaker

John Carlisle
Democratic

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1882 for the 48th Congress, during President Chester A. Arthur's term.

Arthur's Republican Party was badly defeated, losing its majority to the opposition Democratic Party after a campaign that focused on the resistance of Republican leaders to reforming the Spoils system under which government jobs were handed to supporters of winning candidates. After the election, Arthur agreed with the Democrats to pass the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act, establishing a professional civil service. However, his actions were too late, as the image of the Republican Party as corrupt was already engrained in the minds of voters. This election also saw the decline of the pro-paper money Greenback Party, and the pick up of several Virginian seats by the Readjuster Party which promoted fiscal responsibility and shunned elitism, though the Virginia-based Readjuster Party all but disappeared following this election.

Election summaries[edit]

Following the 1880 Census, 32 new seats were apportioned.[2] Three States lost 1 seat each, 13 States had no change in apportionment, 14 States gained 1 seat each, 6 States gained 2 seats, 1 State gained 4 seats, and 1 State gained 5 seats. Several States that gained one or more seats did not redistrict immediately, electing the new Representatives at-large, while one state (Maine) which lost a Representative also delayed redistricting, electing all of its Representatives at-large for this Congress only.

196 3 4 2 2 1 117
Democratic ID Rj I Gb IR Republican
State Type Total
seats
Democratic Republican Others
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 8 Steady 7 Increase 1 1 Steady 0 Steady
Arkansas District
+ at-large[Note 9]
5 Increase 1 5 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
California District
+ 2 at-large[Note 9]
6 Increase 2 6 Increase 4 0 Decrease 2 0 Steady
Colorado At-large 1 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Connecticut District 4 Steady 3 Increase 2 1 Decrease 2 0 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Florida District 2 Steady 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia District
+ at-large[Note 9]
10 Increase 1 10 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District 20 Increase 1 9[Note 10] Increase 3 11 Decrease 2 0
Indiana District 13 Steady 10 Increase 5 3 Decrease 5 0 Steady
Iowa[Note 11] District 11 Increase 2 3 Increase 2 7 Decrease 1 1[Note 12] Increase 1
Kansas District
+ 4 at-large[Note 9]
7 Increase 4 0 Steady 7 Increase 4 0 Steady
Kentucky District 11 Increase 1 9[Note 10] Steady 2 Increase 1 0 Steady
Louisiana District 6 Steady 5 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Maine[Note 11] At-large[Note 13] 4 Decrease 1 0 Steady 4 Increase 1 0 Decrease 2[Note 12]
Maryland District 6 Steady 4 Decrease 1 2 Increase 1 0 Steady
Massachusetts District 12 Increase 1 3 Increase 2 9[Note 5] Decrease 1 0 Steady
Michigan District 11 Increase 2 6 Increase 6 5 Decrease 4 0 Steady
Minnesota District 5 Increase 2 0 Steady 5 Increase 2 0 Steady
Mississippi District 7 Increase 1 5 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 1[Note 14] Increase 1
Missouri District 14 Increase 1 14 Increase 6 0 Decrease 1 0 Decrease 4[Note 12]
Nebraska District[Note 15] 3 Increase 2 0 Steady 3 Increase 2 0 Steady
Nevada At-large 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Hampshire District 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady
New Jersey District 7 Steady 3 Steady 4 Steady 0 Steady
New York District
+ at-large[Note 9]
34 Increase 1 21 Increase 1 13 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1[Note 14]
North Carolina District
+ at-large[Note 9]
9 Increase 1 7[Note 10] Steady 2 Increase 1 0 Steady
Ohio[Note 11] District 21 Increase 1 15 Increase 10 6 Decrease 9 0 Steady
Oregon[Note 11] At-large 1 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District
+ at-large[Note 9]
28 Increase 1 12 Increase 5 15 Decrease 3 1[Note 12] Decrease 1
Rhode Island District 2 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina District 7 Increase 2 6 Increase 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Tennessee District 10 Steady 8 Increase 1 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Texas District 11 Increase 5 10 Increase 5 0 Steady 1[Note 14] Steady[Note 16]
Vermont[Note 11] District 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Virginia District
+ at-large[Note 9]
10 Increase 1 6 Decrease 1 0 Decrease 2 4[Note 8] Increase 4[Note 17]
West Virginia District 4 Increase 1 3 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 9 Increase 1 6 Steady 3 Increase 1 0 Steady
Total 325 Increase 32 199[1][Note 4]
61.2%
Increase 59 118[1][Note 5]
36.3%
Decrease 26 8[1]
2.8%
Decrease 2
House seats
Democratic
  
61.23%
Republican
  
36.31%
Readjuster
  
1.23%
Greenback
  
0.62%
Independent
  
0.62%

There were a total of 8 Representatives elected from third parties, 4 from the Virginia-based Readjuster Party, 2 from the declining Greenback Party, and 2 Independents. The previous election of 1880 had had 10 Greenbacks and 1 Independent.

House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+ to 100% Democratic
 
  80+ to 100% Republican
  60+ to 80% Democratic
 
  60+ to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Readjuster
  Up to 60% Republican
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
 
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
  3-5 Readjuster gain
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Independent gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  no net change

Early election dates[edit]

In 1882, five states, with 39 seats among them, held Congressional elections before the rest of the Union:

All races[edit]

Party abbreviations

A slash between two abbreviations indicates a fusion ticket

California[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
California 1 William Rosecrans Democratic 1880 Re-elected William Rosecrans (D) 59.5%
Paul Neuman (R) 38.8%
James McMillan Shafter (Pr) 1.5%
H. S. Fitch (GB) 0.2%
California 2 Horace F. Page Republican 1872 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
James Budd (D) 50.5%
Horace F. Page (R) 48.1%
J. L. Coles (Pr) 1.2%
F. J. Woodward (GB) 0.2%
California 3 Campbell P. Berry Democratic 1879 Retired
Democratic hold
Barclay Henley (D) 51.3%
John J. De Haven (R) 45.8%
H. S. Graves (Pr) 2%
W. O. Howe (GB) 0.9%
California 4 Romualdo Pacheco Republican 1876 Retired
Democratic gain
Pleasant B. Tully (D) 54.4%
George L. Woods (R) 43.3%
M. V. Wright (Pr) 1.5%
Isaac Kinley (GB) 0.8%
California at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
None (New seat) New seat
Democratic gain
John R. Glascock (D) 26.5%
Charles A. Sumner (D) 26.5%

William W. Morrow (R) 22.4%
Henry Edgerton (R) 22.3%
A. B. Hotchkiss (Pr) 0.8%
Jesse Yarnell (Pr) 0.8%
Warren Chase (GB) 0.3%
Stephen Maybell (GB) 0.3%
None (New seat) New seat
Democratic gain

Florida[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida 1 Robert H. M. Davidson Democratic 1876 Re-elected Robert H. M. Davidson (D) 51.5%
Emory F. Skinner (R) 32.2%
D. L. McKinnon (IR) 16.3%
Florida 2 Horatio Bisbee, Jr. Republican 1880[Note 18] Re-elected Horatio Bisbee, Jr. (R) 50.5%
Jesse J. Finley (D) 49.5%

South Carolina[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 John S. Richardson Democratic 1878 Retired
Democratic hold
Samuel Dibble (D) 56.9%
J. B. Campbell (GB/L) 43.1%
South Carolina 2 George D. Tillman
Redistricted from the 5th district
Democratic 1878 Re-elected George D. Tillman (D) 67.8%
E. M. Brayon (GB/L) 31.9%
Others 0.3%
South Carolina 3 D. Wyatt Aiken Democratic 1876 Re-elected D. Wyatt Aiken (D) 84.6%
T. H. Russell (GB/L) 15.4%
South Carolina 4 John H. Evins Democratic 1876 Re-elected John H. Evins (D) 71.8%
D. R. Elkins (GB/L) 27.2%
South Carolina 5 None (open seat) Democratic hold John J. Hemphill (D) 56.0%
E. B. C. Cash (GB/L) 44.0%
South Carolina 6 None (District created) New seat
Democratic gain
George W. Dargan (D) 64.7%
Edmund H. Deas (R) 21.7%
A. H. Bowen (GB/L) 13.6%
South Carolina 7 None (District created) New seat
Republican gain
Edmund W. M. Mackey (R) 64.8%
Samuel Lee (IR) 35.2%

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Five states held early elections between June 5 and October 10.
  2. ^ Included 1 Independent Democrat (and 2 "Readjuster Democrats" – see Readjusters elsewhere).
  3. ^ a b Dubin (p. 263) counts 192 Democrats, 5 Readjusters, 2 Independent Democrats, 119 Republicans, 1 Liberal, 2 Greenbacks and 2 Independents (along with 2 vacancies) at the start of the 48th United States Congress.
  4. ^ a b Includes 3 Independent Democrats elected to IL-02, KY-01, and NC-07.
  5. ^ a b c Includes 1 Independent Republican, Theodore Lyman, elected to MA-09.
  6. ^ Includes 2 Independents, James R. Chalmers elected to MS-02, and Thomas P. Ochiltree elected to TX-07.
  7. ^ There were two "Readjuster Democrats" elected to the previous congress in 1880.
  8. ^ a b Includes 4 Readjusters elected to VA-02, VA-04, VA-09, and VA-AL.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h New seat or seats added without immediate redistricting.
  10. ^ a b c Includes 1 Independent Democrat.
  11. ^ a b c d e Elections held early.
  12. ^ a b c d Greenback Party
  13. ^ Changed from districts.
  14. ^ a b c Independent.
  15. ^ Changed from at-large.
  16. ^ Previous election had 1 Greenback.
  17. ^ Previous election saw 2 "Readjuster Democrats" elected to VA-07 and VA-09.
  18. ^ Seated after successful electoral challenge.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Martis, pp. 136–137.
  2. ^ 22 Stat. 5

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]