United States House of Representatives elections, 1894

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1894
United States
1892 ←
November 6, 1894
(3 states held early elections)
→ 1896

All 357[1] seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
179 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Republican Democratic
Last election 133 seats 212 seats
Seats won 244 105
Seat change Increase 111 Decrease 107

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Populist Silver
Last election 11 seats 1 seat
Seats won 7 1
Seat change Decrease 4 Steady

Speaker before election

Charles Crisp
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Thomas Reed
Republican

The elections to the United States House of Representatives 1894 comprised a significant realigning election — a major Republican landslide that set the stage for the decisive election of 1896. The elections of members of the United States House of Representatives in 1894 came in the middle of President Grover Cleveland's second term. The nation was in its deepest economic depression ever following the Panic of 1893, so economic issues were at the forefront. In the spring, a major coal strike damaged the economy of the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic. It was accompanied by violence; the miners lost and many moved toward the Populist party. Immediately after the coal strike concluded, Eugene V. Debs led a nationwide railroad strike, called the Pullman Strike. It shut down the nation's transportation system west of Detroit for weeks, until President Cleveland's use of federal troops ended the strike. Debs went to prison (for disobeying a court order). Illinois's Governor John Peter Altgeld, a Democrat, broke bitterly with Cleveland.

The fragmented and disoriented Democratic Party was crushed everywhere outside the South, losing more than half its seats to the Republican Party. Even in the South, the Democrats lost seats to Republican-Populist electoral fusion in Alabama, Texas, Tennessee, and North Carolina.[2][3] The Democrats lost 107 seats in the election while the Republicans gained 111 seats. This is the largest swing in the history of the House of Representatives, and also makes the 1894 election the single largest midterm election victory in the entire history of the United States.

The main issues revolved around the severe economic depression, which the Republicans blamed on the conservative Bourbon Democrats led by Cleveland. Cleveland supporters lost heavily, weakening their hold on the party and setting the stage for an 1896 takeover by the silverist wing of the party. The Populist Party ran candidates in the South and Midwest, but generally lost ground, outside Alabama, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas where state-level fusion with the Republicans was successful despite Populist and Republican antagonism at the national level. The Democrats tried to raise a religious issue, claiming the GOP was in cahoots with the American Protective Association. The allegations seem to have fallen flat as Catholics moved toward the GOP. [Jensen (1971) ch 9]. Democrat William Jennings Bryan lost the Senate race in Nebraska, but came back to win the 1896 presidential nomination.

Election summaries[edit]

One seat was added for the new State of Utah.

244 1 7 105
Republican S P Democratic
State Type Total
seats
Republican Democratic Populist Silver
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 9 0 Steady 8 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Arkansas District 6 0 Steady 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
California District 7 6 Increase 3 1 Decrease 2 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Colorado District 2 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 1 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Connecticut District 4 4 Increase 3 0 Decrease 3 0 Steady 0 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Florida District 2 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia District 11 0 Steady 11 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Idaho At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District[4] 22 20 Increase 9 2 Decrease 9 0 Steady 0 Steady
Indiana District 13 13 Increase 11 0 Decrease 11 0 Steady 0 Steady
Iowa District 11 11 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Kansas District
+at-large
8 7 Increase 4 0 Steady 1 Decrease 4 0 Steady
Kentucky District 11 5 Increase 4 6 Decrease 4 0 Steady 0 Steady
Louisiana District 6 0 Steady 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maine[5] District 4 4 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland District 6 3 Increase 3 3 Decrease 3 0 Steady 0 Steady
Massachusetts District 13 12 Increase 3 1 Decrease 3 0 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan District 12 12 Increase 5 0 Decrease 5 0 Steady 0 Steady
Minnesota District 7 7 Increase 3 0 Decrease 2 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Mississippi District 7 0 Steady 7 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri District 15 10 Increase 8 5 Decrease 8 0 Steady 0 Steady
Montana At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Nebraska District 6 5 Increase 2 0 Decrease 1 1 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Nevada At-large 1 0 Steady 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 1 Increase 1
New Hampshire District 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Jersey District 8 8 Increase 6 0 Decrease 6 0 Steady 0 Steady
New York District 34 28 Increase 8 6 Decrease 8 0 Steady 0 Steady
North Carolina District 9 3 Increase 2 3 Decrease 5 3 Increase 3 0 Steady
North Dakota At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Ohio District 21 19 Increase 9 2 Decrease 9 0 Steady 0 Steady
Oregon[5] District 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District
+2 at-large
30 28 Increase 8 2 Decrease 8 0 Steady 0 Steady
Rhode Island District 2 2 Increase 2 0 Decrease 2 0 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina District 7 0 Decrease 1 7 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
South Dakota At-large 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Tennessee District 10 4 Increase 2 6 Decrease 2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Texas District 13 1 Increase 1 12 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Vermont[5] District 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia District 10 1 Increase 1 9 Decrease 2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Washington At-large 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
West Virginia District 4 4 Increase 4 0 Decrease 4 0 Steady 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 10 10 Increase 6 0 Decrease 6 0 Steady 0 Steady
Wyoming At-large 1 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
1895 election
Utah[6] At-large 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Total[1] 357 244
68.3%
Increase 111 105
29.4%
Decrease 107 7
2.0%
Decrease 4 1
0.3%
Increase 1
House seats
Republican
  
68.35%
Democratic
  
29.41%
Populist
  
1.96%
Silver
  
0.28%

Three states, with 8 seats between them, held elections early in 1894:

House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80.1-100% Democratic
  80.1-100% Republican
  60.1-80% Democratic
  60.1-80% Republican
  ≤60% Democratic
  ≤60% Republican
  No net change
  1-2 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Populist gain
  6+ Republican gain

Complete returns[edit]

California[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
California 1 Thomas J. Geary Democratic 1890 Lost re-election
Republican gain
John All Barham (R) 41.1%
Thomas J. Geary (D) 37.0%
Roger F. Grigsby (Pop) 19.7%
J. R. Gregory (Pr)
California 2 Anthony Caminetti Democratic 1890 Lost re-election
Republican gain
Grove L. Johnson (R) 43.0%
Anthony Caminetti (D) 35.1%
Burdelli Cornell (Pop) 20.0%
Elam Briggs (Pr) 1.9%
California 3 Warren B. English Democratic 1892[7] Lost re-election
Republican gain
Samuel G. Hilborn[8] (R) 45.5%
Warren B. English (D) 37.8%
W. A. Vann (Pop) 14.9%
L. B. Scranton (Pr) 1.8%
California 4 James G. Maguire Democratic 1892 Re-elected James G. Maguire (D) 48.3%
Thomas Bowles Shannon (R) 32.0%
B. K. Collier (Pop) 18.4%
Joseph Rowell (Pr) 1.3%
California 5 Eugene F. Loud Republican 1890 Re-elected Eugene F. Loud (R) 36.8%
Joseph P. Kelly (D) 23.0%
James T. Rogers (Pop) 21.5%
James Denman (Pr) 18.7%
California 6 Marion Cannon Populist 1892 Retired
Republican gain
James McLachlan (R) 44.3%
George S. Patton (D) 27.6%
W. C. Bowman (Pop) 23.1%
J. E. McComas (Pr) 5.0%
California 7 William W. Bowers Republican 1890 Re-elected William W. Bowers (R) 42.9%
W. H. Alford (D) 28.2%
J. L. Gilbert (Pop) 25.0%
W. H. Somers (Pr) 3.9%

Florida[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida 1 Stephen R. Mallory Democratic 1890 Retired
Democratic hold
Stephen M. Sparkman (D) 85.3%
D. L. McKinnon (Pop) 14.7%
Florida 2 Charles Merian Cooper Democratic 1892 Re-elected Charles Merian Cooper (D) 79.8%
Montholom Atkinson (Pop) 20.2%

Ohio[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[9]
Ohio 1 Bellamy Storer Republican 1890 Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 2 Jacob H. Bromwell Republican 1894 (s) Re-elected
Ohio 3 Paul J. Sorg Democratic 1894 (s) Re-elected
Ohio 4 Fernando C. Layton Democratic 1892 Re-elected
Ohio 5 Dennis D. Donovan Democratic 1892 Lost re-nomination
Republican gain
Ohio 6 George W. Hulick Republican 1892 Re-elected
Ohio 7 George W. Wilson Republican 1892 Re-elected
Ohio 8 Luther M. Strong Republican 1892 Re-elected
Ohio 9 Byron F. Ritchie Democratic 1892 Lost re-election
Republican gain
Ohio 10 Hezekiah S. Bundy Republican 1893 (s) Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 11 Charles H. Grosvenor Republican 1892 Re-elected
Ohio 12 Joseph H. Outhwaite Democratic 1892 Lost re-election
Republican gain
Ohio 13 Darius D. Hare Democratic 1892 Retired
Republican gain
Ohio 14 Michael D. Harter Democratic 1892 Retired
Republican gain
Ohio 15 H. Clay Van Voorhis Republican 1892 Re-elected
Ohio 16 Albert J. Pearson Democratic 1892 Retired
Republican gain
Ohio 17 James A. D. Richards Democratic 1892 Lost re-election
Republican gain
Ohio 18 George P. Ikirt Democratic 1892 Retired
Republican gain
Ohio 19 Stephen A. Northway Republican 1892 Re-elected
Ohio 20 William J. White Republican 1892 Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 21 Tom L. Johnson Democratic 1890 Lost re-election
Republican gain

South Carolina[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 George W. Murray
Redistricted from the 7th district
Republican 1892 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
William Elliott (D) 59.1%
George W. Murray (R) 40.9%
South Carolina 2 W. Jasper Talbert Democratic 1892 Re-elected W. Jasper Talbert (D) 99.5%
Others 0.5%
South Carolina 3 Asbury Latimer Democratic 1892 Re-elected Asbury Latimer (D) 81.3%
Robert Moorman (R) 13.9%
Others 4.8%
South Carolina 4 George W. Shell Democratic 1890 Retired
Democratic hold
Stanyarne Wilson (D) 75.1%
Lawson D. Melton (R) 24.7%
Others 0.2%
South Carolina 5 Thomas J. Strait Democratic 1892 Re-elected Thomas J. Strait (D) 67.6%
G. G. Alexander (R) 17.0%
W. R. Davie (I) 12.8%
Others 2.6%
South Carolina 6 John L. McLaurin Democratic 1892 Re-elected John L. McLaurin (D) 76.9%
J. P. Wilson (R) 23.1%
South Carolina 7 None (open seat due to redistricting) Democratic gain J. William Stokes (D) 73.0%
T. B. Johnson (R) 26.3%
Others 0.7%

In the 1st district, Murray successfully challenged Elliott's election and was awarded the seat on June 4, 1896.

The election in the 7th district was declared void on June 1, 1896 due to electoral fraud

Utah[edit]

This was Utah's first election for Representatives.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Utah at-large None (new state) Republican win Clarence E. Allen (R) 49.7%
Brigham H. Roberts (D) 47.5%
J. Hogan (Pr) 2.8%

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Includes late elections
  2. ^ http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9A00E7DF1231E033A2575AC0A9679D94659ED7CF
  3. ^ http://history.missouristate.edu/wrmiller/Populism/Texts/Documents/Bibliography/african_American.htm
  4. ^ At-large seats eliminated in redistricting
  5. ^ a b c Elections held early
  6. ^ New state
  7. ^ After contested election
  8. ^ Had been the initial winner in 1892 but lost contested election
  9. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 656, 657. 

See also[edit]