United States House of Representatives elections, 1902

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
United States House of Representatives elections, 1902
United States
1900 ←
November 4, 1902[Note 1] → 1904

All 386 seats to the United States House of Representatives
194 seats were needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  JGCannon.jpg John Sharp Williams.jpg
Leader Joseph Cannon John Sharp Williams
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Illinois-18th Mississippi-8th
Last election 201 seats[Note 2] 151 seats
Seats won 210[1][2][Note 3] 176[1][2]
Seat change Increase 9 Increase 25

Speaker before election

David Henderson
Republican

Elected Speaker

Joseph Cannon
Republican

Elections to the United States House of Representatives in 1902 occurred in the middle of President Theodore Roosevelt's first term, about a year after the assassination of President William McKinley in September 1901.

Due to the increased size of the House and the reapportionment that resulted from the 1900 U.S. Census, both the Republican Party and the Democratic Party gained seats simultaneously, which has not occurred in any future elections to date. The Democrats increased their share of the House, but not by enough to regain control. With a stable economy and no cornerstone issue, Democratic gains can mostly be linked to the effects of redistricting. Many of the new seats were in areas that featured a high number of immigrants, either Eastern and Southern European industrial workers or Northern European farmers. New immigrant groups trended Democratic. The Populist Party disappeared from the House, with its supporters almost unanimously switching to the Democratic Party.[citation needed] Notable freshmen included future Vice President and Speaker John Nance Garner (D-Texas).

This election marked the third and most recent time in American history where the incumbent President's party gained House seats in a midterm election while still losing seats in the Senate, the first two being in 1814 and 1822.

Election summaries[edit]

29 new seats were added in reapportionment following the 1900 Census.[3] No states lost seats, 16 had no change in apportionment, 14 gained 1 seat, 3 gained 2 seats, and 3 gained 3 seats. Two of the states that gained representation elected the new seat at-large.

207 3 176
Republican IR Democratic
State Type Total seats Republican Democratic
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 9 Steady 0 Steady 9 Steady
Arkansas District 7 Increase 1 0 Steady 7 Increase 1
California District 8 Increase 1 5 Decrease 2 3 Increase 3
Colorado District
+at-large[Note 4]
3[Note 5] Increase 1 3 Increase 2[Note 6] 0 Steady
Connecticut District
+at-large[Note 4]
5 Increase 1 5 Increase 1 0 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 Steady 0 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1
Florida District 3 Increase 1 0 Steady 3 Increase 1
Georgia District 11 Steady 0 Steady 11 Steady
Idaho At-large 1[Note 5] Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Illinois District 25 Increase 3 17 Increase 6 8 Decrease 3
Indiana District 13 Steady 9 Steady 4 Steady
Iowa District 11 Steady 10 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1
Kansas District
+at-large
8 Steady 8 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1
Kentucky District 11 Steady 1 Decrease 1 10 Increase 1
Louisiana District 7 Increase 1 0 Steady 7 Increase 1
Maine[Note 7] District 4 Steady 4 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland District 6 Steady 4 Decrease 2 2 Increase 2
Massachusetts District 14 Increase 1 10 Steady 4 Increase 1
Michigan District 12 Steady 11 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1
Minnesota District 9 Increase 2 8 Increase 1 1 Increase 1
Mississippi District 8 Increase 1 0 Steady 8 Increase 1
Missouri District 16 Increase 1 1 Decrease 2 15 Increase 3
Montana At-large 1[Note 5] Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Nebraska District 6[Note 8] Steady 5 Increase 3 1 Decrease 1
Nevada At-large 1 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady
New Hampshire District 2 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
New Jersey District 10 Increase 2 7 Increase 1 3 Increase 1
New York District 37 Increase 3 20 Decrease 1 17 Increase 4
North Carolina District 10 Increase 1 0 Decrease 2 10 Increase 3
North Dakota District[Note 9] 2 Increase 1 2 Increase 1 0 Steady
Ohio District 21 Steady 17 Steady 4 Steady
Oregon[Note 7] District 2 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District[Note 10] 32 Increase 2 29[Note 3] Increase 3 3 Decrease 1
Rhode Island District 2 Steady 1 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1
South Carolina District 7 Steady 0 Steady 7 Steady
South Dakota At-large 2 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Tennessee District 10 Steady 2 Steady 8 Steady
Texas District 16 Increase 3 0 Steady 16 Increase 3
Utah At-large 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Vermont[Note 7] District 2 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia District 10 Steady 1 Increase 1 9 Decrease 1
Washington At-large 3 Increase 1 3 Increase 1 0 Steady
West Virginia District 5 Increase 1 5 Increase 1 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 11 Increase 1 10 Steady 1 Increase 1
Wyoming At-large 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Total 386 Increase 29 210[Note 3]
54.4%
Increase 9 176
45.6%
Increase 25
House seats
Republican
  
54.40%
Democratic
  
45.60%

The previous election had 5 Populists, but the party completely disappeared from the U.S. House in the 1902 elections.

House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80.1-100% Democratic
  80.1-100% Republican
  60.1-80% Democratic
  60.1-80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  no net change

Early election dates[edit]

In 1902, three states, with 8 seats among them, held elections early:

Complete returns[edit]

Party abbreviations:

California[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
California 1 Samuel D. Woods
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Republican 1900 Retired
Republican hold
James N. Gillett (R) 50.5%
Thomas S. Ford (D) 46.7%
M. E. Shore (S) 1.9%
W. O. Clark (Pr) 0.9%
California 2 Frank Coombs
Redistricted from the 1st district
Republican 1900 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Theodore A. Bell (D) 49.2%
Frank Coombs (R) 48.3%
G. H. Rogers (S) 1.7%
W. P. Fassett (Pr) 0.8%
California 3 Victor H. Metcalf Republican 1898 Re-elected Victor H. Metcalf (R) 66.2%
Calvin B. White (D) 27.7%
M. W. Wilkins (S) 5%
T. H. Montgomery (Pr) 1.1%
California 4 Julius Kahn Republican 1898 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Edward J. Livernash (D) 49.2%
Julius Kahn (R) 48.7%
William Costley (S) 1.9%
Joseph Rowell (Pr) 0.2%
California 5 Eugene F. Loud Republican 1890 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
William J. Wynn (D) 56.5%
Eugene F. Loud (R) 41.2%
Joseph Lawrence (S) 1.5%
Frank W. Caton (Pr) 0.7%
California 6 James C. Needham
Redistricted from the 7th district
Republican 1898 Re-elected James C. Needham (R) 53.5%
Gaston N. Ashe (D) 42.5%
J. L. Cobb (S) 2.5%
L. C. Jolley (Pr) 1.4%
California 7 James McLachlan
Redistricted from the 6th district
Republican 1900 Re-elected James McLachlan (R) 64.8%
Carl A. Johnson (D) 27%
George H. Hewes (S) 4.2%
Frederick F. Wheeler (Pr) 4%
California 8 None (District created) New district
Republican gain
Milton J. Daniels (R) 51.9%
William E. Smythe (D) 40.8%
Noble A. Richardson (S) 5.4%
Ellsworth Leonardson (Pr) 2%

Florida[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida 1 Stephen M. Sparkman Democratic 1894 Re-elected Stephen M. Sparkman (D) 100%
Florida 2 Robert Wyche Davis Democratic 1896 Re-elected Robert Wyche Davis (D) 100%
Florida 3 None (District created) Democratic win William B. Lamar (D) 100%

South Carolina[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 William Elliott Democratic 1886
1896
Retired to run for the Senate
Democratic hold
George Swinton Legaré (D) 95.5%
Aaron P. Prioleau (R) 4.5%
South Carolina 2 W. Jasper Talbert Democratic 1892 Retired to run for Governor
Democratic hold
George W. Croft (D) 94.9%
W. S. Dixon (R) 5.0%
Others 0.1%
South Carolina 3 Asbury Latimer Democratic 1892 Retired to run for the Senate
Democratic hold
Wyatt Aiken (D) 98.9%
John Scott (R) 1.1%
South Carolina 4 Joseph T. Johnson Democratic 1900 Re-elected Joseph T. Johnson (D) 98.7%
L. W. C. Blalock (R) 1.3%
South Carolina 5 David E. Finley Democratic 1898 Re-elected David E. Finley (D) 99.3%
C. P. T. White (R) 0.7%
South Carolina 6 Robert B. Scarborough Democratic 1900 Re-elected Robert B. Scarborough (D) 100%
South Carolina 7 Asbury F. Lever Democratic 1901 (special) Re-elected Asbury F. Lever (D) 96.2%
Alexander D. Dantzler (R) 3.8%

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Three states held early elections between June 2 and September 18.
  2. ^ Included 1 member of the Silver Republican faction, John F. Shafroth, of CO-01.
  3. ^ a b c Includes 3 Independent Republicans elected to PA-29, PA-31, and PA-32 in the Pittsburgh area.
  4. ^ a b Additional seat elected at-large due to State delaying redistricting.
  5. ^ a b c Election of 1900 saw the election of 1 Populist.
  6. ^ There was one member of the Silver Republican Party faction elected in 1900, John F. Shafroth. Shafroth attempted to get elected as a Democrat in 1902, but his election was contested and overturned.
  7. ^ a b c Elections held early.
  8. ^ Election of 1900 saw the election of 2 Populists in Nebraska.
  9. ^ Changed from at-large.
  10. ^ At-large seats eliminated in redistricting.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, United States House of Representatives. Retrieved May 18, 2015. 
  2. ^ a b Martis, pp. 156–157.
  3. ^ Apportionment Act of 1901

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]