United States House of Representatives elections, 1852

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1852
United States
1850 ←
August 2, 1852 - November 8, 1853
→ 1854

All 234 seats to the United States House of Representatives
118 seats were needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party Third party
  LinnBoyd.jpg JosephRipleyChandler.png Giddings brady 1955-65rr.jpg
Leader Linn Boyd Joseph R. Chandler Joshua Reed Giddings
Party Democratic Whig Free Soil
Leader's seat Kentucky-1st Pennsylvania-2nd Ohio-20th
Last election 130 seats 86 seats 4 seats
Seats won 158[1] 71 4
Seat change Increase 28 Decrease 15 Steady

Speaker before election

Linn Boyd
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Linn Boyd
Democratic

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 33rd Congress were held at various dates in each state between August 2, 1852 (in Iowa and Missouri) and November 8, 1853 (in Mississippi).

This election cycle saw the Democrats increase their House majority and gain the presidency (under Franklin Pierce). Although sectionalism remained a huge problem, the parties got a slight boost of stability due to the unity of a bitter presidential campaign. Two small third parties, the Constitutional Unionists and States' Rights parties, quickly collapsed prior to this election, while the anti-slavery Free Soil Party held onto its four seats.

Election summaries[edit]

Following the 1850 Census, the House was reapportioned. In the initial apportionment bill, the number of seats was unchanged at 233,[2] but subsequently one additional seat was added to California's delegation, keeping its representation the same, and increasing the total apportionment by one seat to 234, due to returns from California being determined to be incomplete.[3] One State lost 2 seats, 7 States lost 1 seat each, 15 States had no change in apportionment, 6 States gained 1 seat each, and 2 States gained 2 seats each.

158 1 4 71
Democratic I FS Whig
State Type Date Total
seats
Democratic Whig Free Soil Others
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
California At-large November 2, 1852
(Election Day)[4]
2 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District 9 Increase2 5[1] Decrease1 4 Increase3 0 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan District 4 Increase1 4 Increase3 0 Decrease2 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Jersey District 5 Steady 4 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New York District 33 Decrease1 21 Increase4 10 Decrease7 1 Increase1 1[5] Increase1
Wisconsin District 3 Steady 3 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Decrease1 0 Steady
Delaware At-large November 8, 1852 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Florida At-large October 5, 1852 1 Steady 1 Increase1 0 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Indiana District October 12, 1852 11 Increase1 10 Increase2 1 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Iowa District August 2, 1852 2 Steady 1 Decrease1 1 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maine District September 13, 1852 6 Decrease1 3 Decrease2 3 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Massachusetts District November 8, 1852 11 Increase1 1 Steady 9 Increase2 1 Decrease1 0 Steady
Missouri District August 2, 1852 7 Increase2 3 Increase1 4 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Ohio District October 12, 1852 21 Steady 12 Increase1 7 Decrease1 2 Increase1 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District October 12, 1852 25 Increase1 16 Increase1 9 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Vermont District September 7, 1852 3 Decrease1 0 Decrease1 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
1853 elections
Alabama District August 8, 1853 7 Steady 6 Increase2 1 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Decrease1[6]
Arkansas District[7] August 1, 1853 2 Increase1 2 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Connecticut District April 4, 1853 4 Steady 4 Increase1 0 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia District October 3, 1853 8 Steady 6 Increase6 2 Increase2 0 Steady 0 Decrease8[8]
Kentucky District August 1, 1853 10 Steady 5 Steady 5 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Louisiana District November 1, 1853 4 Steady 3 Increase1 1 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland District November 2, 1853 6 Steady 4 Increase2 2 Decrease2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Mississippi District + 1 at-large November 7–8, 1853 5 Increase1 5 Increase5 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Decrease4[9]
New Hampshire District March 8, 1853 3 Decrease1 3 Increase1 0 Decrease2 0 Steady 0 Steady
North Carolina District August 4, 1853 8 Decrease1 5 Increase2 3 Decrease3 0 Steady 0 Steady
Rhode Island District April 6, 1853 2 Steady 2 Increase1 0 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina District February 28-March 1, 1853 6 Decrease1 6 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Tennessee District August 4, 1853 10 Decrease1 5 Decrease2 5 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Texas District August 1, 1853 2 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia District May 26, 1853 13 Decrease2 13 Steady 0 Decrease2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Total 234 Increase1 158[1]
67.5%
Increase28 71
30.3%
Decrease15 4
1.7%
Steady 1
0.4%
Decrease12
House seats
Democratic
  
67.52%
Whig
  
30.34%
Free Soil
  
1.71%
Others
  
0.43%

Complete returns[edit]

California[edit]

Note: From statehood to 1864, California's representatives were elected at-large, with the top two vote-getters winning election from 1849 to 1858; in 1860 when California gained a seat in the House the top three vote-getters were elected.

District Candidates
California At-large James A. McDougall (D) 84.4%
Milton S. Latham (D) 15.6%

Florida[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida at-large Edward C. Cabell Whig 1846 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Augustus Maxwell (D) 50.1%
Edward C. Cabell (W) 49.9%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Includes 1 Independent Democrat
  2. ^ Stat. 432
  3. ^ 10 Stat. 25
  4. ^ In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform date for choosing electors. Congressional elections were unaffected by this law, but the date was gradually adopted by the states for Congressional elections
  5. ^ 1 Independent
  6. ^ Previous election had 1 Constitutional Union member
  7. ^ Changed from at-large
  8. ^ Previous election had 6 Constitutional Union and 2 States' Rights
  9. ^ Previous election had 3 Constitutional Union and 1 States' Rights