United States House of Representatives elections, 1810

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1810
United States
1808 ←
April 24, 1810 - August 2, 1811[1]
→ 1812

All 143[2] seats to the United States House of Representatives
72 seats were needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Henry Clay.jpg TimothyPitkin.jpg
Leader Henry Clay Timothy Pitkin
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Leader's seat Kentucky-3rd Connecticut-AL
Last election 93 49
Seats won 107[2] 36
Seat change Increase 14 Decrease 13

Speaker before election

Joseph Bradley Varnum
Democratic-Republican

Elected Speaker

Henry Clay
Democratic-Republican

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 12th Congress were held in the various states at various dates between April 1810 (in New York) and August 1811 (in Tennessee). Louisiana elected its first representative in September 1812. Congress assembled on November 4, 1811. The first session witnessed the unprecedented occurrence of a new member, Henry Clay, being elected Speaker of the House on the very first day that he entered the chamber.[3] No other individual has ever repeated this feat.

With the repeal of the Embargo Act of 1807, the Democratic-Republicans enjoyed a renewed popularity. As the economy improved following the reopening of the export market, many of the seats that had entered Federalist hands over economic concerns reverted to the Democratic-Republicans, who were able to re-claim the two-thirds majority they lost in the previous election.

Election summaries[edit]

One new seat was added with the admission of Louisiana in 1812, during the 2nd session of the 12th Congress[4]

107 36
Democratic-Republican Federalist
State Type Date Total
seats
Democratic-
Republican
Federalist
Seats Change Seats Change
Connecticut At-large September 17, 1810 7 0 Steady 7 Steady
Delaware At-large October 2, 1810 1 0 Steady 1 Steady
Georgia At-large October 1, 1810 4 4 Steady 0 Steady
Kentucky District (6) August 6, 1810 6 6 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland District (8[5]) October 1, 1810 9 6 Steady 3 Steady
Massachusetts District (17) November 5, 1810[6] 17 9 Increase2 8 Decrease2
New Hampshire At-large August 27, 1810[7] 5 4 Increase4 1 Decrease4
New Jersey At-large October 8–9, 1810 6 6 Steady 0 Steady
New York District (15[8]) April 24–26, 1810 17 12 Increase3 5 Decrease3
North Carolina District (12) August 9, 1810 12 10 Increase1 2 Decrease1
Ohio At-large October 9, 1810 1 1 Steady 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District (11[9]) October 9, 1810 18 17 Increase1 1 Decrease1
Rhode Island At-large August 28, 1810 2 0 Steady 2 Steady
South Carolina District (8) October 8–9, 1810 8 8 Steady 0 Steady
Vermont District (4) November 4, 1810 4 3 Increase2 1 Decrease2
1811 elections
Tennessee District (3) August 1–2, 1811 3 3 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia District (22) April, 1811 22 17 Steady 5 Steady
1812 elections
Louisiana At-large September 28–30, 1812 1 1 Increase1 0 Steady
Total[2] 143 107
74.8%
Increase14 36
25.2%
Decrease13
House seats
D-R
  
74.83%
Federalist
  
25.17%

Complete returns[edit]

Louisiana elected its first representative in 1812.

Connecticut[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Connecticut at-large
7 seats on a general ticket
Benjamin Tallmadge Federalist 1801 (special) Re-elected Lewis B. Sturges (F) 14.8%
Jonathan O. Moseley (F) 13.9%
Benjamin Tallmadge (F) 13.8%
Epaphroditus Champion (F) 13.6%
Timothy Pitkin (F) 12.2%
Lyman Law (F) 11.0%
John Davenport (F) 8.4%

Ebenezer Huntington[10] (F) 3.9%
Samuel B. Sherwood (F) 3.2%
Nathan Smith (F) 2.0%
Nathaniel Terry (F) 1.2%
Sylvanus Backus (F) 1.0%Sylvester Gilbert (F) 0.3%
John Caldwell (F) 0.3%
Uriel Holmes (F) 0.2%
Asa Bacon, Jr. (F) 0.2%
Jonathan O. Moseley Federalist 1804 Re-elected
Epaphroditus Champion Federalist 1806 Re-elected
Timothy Pitkin Federalist 1805 (special) Re-elected
Lewis B. Sturges Federalist 1805 (special) Re-elected
John Davenport Federalist 1798 Re-elected
Previous incumbent Samuel W. Dana (F) resigned to accept appointment to the Senate Federalist hold

At the same time as the general election, a special election was held to fill the vacancy left by Dana's resignation, which was won by Ebenezer Huntington (F).

Delaware[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Delaware at-large Nicholas Van Dyke Federalist 1807 (Special) Retired
Federalist hold
Henry M. Ridgely (F) 50.1%
Richard Dale (DR) 49.9%

Georgia[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Georgia at-large
4 seats on a general ticket
Howell Cobb Democratic-Republican 1806 Re-elected William W. Bibb (DR) 24.4%
George M. Troup (DR) 22.7%
Howell Cobb (DR) 16.9%
Bolling Hall (DR) 12.6%

Elijah Clarke (DR) 10.7%
John Forsyth (DR) 9.1%
James Elliot (F) 3.6%
George M. Troup Democratic-Republican 1806 Re-elected
Dennis Smelt Democratic-Republican 1806 (special) Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
William W. Bibb Democratic-Republican 1806 Re-elected

At some point in 1812, Howell Cobb resigned to accept a captain's commission in the army in the War of 1812. He was replaced in a special election on October 5, 1812 by William Barnett (DR).[11]

Kentucky[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Kentucky 1 Matthew Lyon Democratic-Republican 1796[12]
1803
Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
Anthony New (DR) 60.3%
Matthew Lyon (DR) 39.7%
Kentucky 2 Samuel McKee Democratic-Republican 1808 Re-elected Samuel McKee (DR) 100%
Kentucky 3 Henry Crist Democratic-Republican 1808 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Stephen Ormsby[13] (DR)
Philip Quinton
Kentucky 4 Richard M. Johnson Democratic-Republican 1806 Re-elected Richard M. Johnson[13] (DR)
John S. Hunter
Kentucky 5 Previous incumbent Benjamin Howard (DR) had resigned his seat in the House April 10, 1810 after being named Governor of Louisiana Territory Democratic-Republican hold Henry Clay (DR) 100%
Kentucky 6 Joseph Desha Democratic-Republican 1806 Re-elected Joseph Desha (DR) 100%

At the same time as the general election, a special election was held in the 5th district to fill the vacancy for the remainder of the 11th Congress, which was won by William T. Barry (DR) without opposition.

Maryland[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[14]
Maryland 1 John Campbell Federalist 1801 Retired
Federalist hold
Philip Stuart (F) 98.3%
John Parnham (DR) 1.1%
Maryland 2 Archibald Van Horne Democratic-Republican 1806 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Joseph Kent (DR) 56.4%
John F. Mercer (F) 43.6%
Maryland 3 Philip Barton Key Federalist 1806 Re-elected Philip Barton Key (F) 100%
Maryland 4 Previous incumbent Roger Nelson (DR) resigned May 14, 1810 Democratic-Republican hold Samuel Ringgold[10] (DR) 95.7%
Benjamin Galloway (F) 2.0%
Maryland 5
Plural district with 2 seats
Nicholas R. Moore Democratic-Republican 1803 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
Alexander McKim (DR) 27.7%
Peter Little (DR) 25.7%

Nicholas R. Moore (DR) 24.4%
Joshua Barney (DR) 22.2%
Alexander McKim Democratic-Republican 1808 Re-elected
Maryland 6 John Montgomery Democratic-Republican 1806 Re-elected John Montgomery (DR) 98.1%
Thomas G. Moffit 1.7%
Maryland 7 John Brown Democratic-Republican 1808 Re-elected John Brown (DR) 99.7%
Maryland 8 Charles Goldsborough Federalist 1804 Re-elected Charles Goldsborough (F) 72.3%
Thomas Williams (DR) 27.5%

John Montgomery (DR) of the 6th district resigned April 29, 1811 and was replaced in a special election by Stevenson Archer (DR)

Shortly after being re-elected, John Brown (DR) of the 7th district resigned in late October to take up an appointment as clerk of the county court of Queen Anne's County, producing vacancies for both the remainder of the 11th Congress and for the upcoming 12th Congress. A special election was held on November 15 to fill both vacancies, with a single ballot for both.

Massachusetts[edit]

Massachusetts' electoral law at the time required a majority for election. This was not met in the 15th district necessitating a second election.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[14]
First ballot Second ballot
Massachusetts 1
Known as the Suffolk district
Josiah Quincy Federalist 1804 Re-elected Josiah Quincy (F) 68.9%
David Tilden (DR) 31.1%
Massachusetts 2
Known as the Essex South district
Benjamin Pickman, Jr. Federalist 1808 Retired
Federalist hold
William Reed (F) 53.6%
Daniel Kilham (DR) 46.4%
Massachusetts 3
Known as the Essex North district
Edward St. Loe Livermore Federalist 1806 Retired
Federalist hold
Leonard White (F) 62.6%
Thomas Kitteridge (DR) 33.5%
Nehemiah Cleveland (F) 3.9%
Massachusetts 4
Known as the Middlesex district
Joseph Bradley Varnum Democratic-Republican 1794 Re-elected Joseph Bradley Varnum (DR) 69.2%
Loammi Baldwin, Jr. (F) 30.8%
Massachusetts 5
Known as the Hampshire South district
William Ely Federalist 1804 Re-elected William Ely (F) 70.4%
Samuel Fowler (DR) 29.0%
Massachusetts 6
Known as the Hampshire North district
Samuel Taggart Federalist 1803 Re-elected Samuel Taggart (F) 72.1%
Solomon Snead (DR) 27.9%
Massachusetts 7
Known as Called the Plymouth district
Charles Turner, Jr. Democratic-Republican 1808 Re-elected Charles Turner, Jr. (DR) 53.5%
William Baylies (F) 46.5%
Massachusetts 8
Known as the Barnstable district
Gideon Gardner Democratic-Republican 1808 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Isaiah L. Green (DR) 57.1%
Francis Rotch (F) 42.7%
Massachusetts 9
Known as the Bristol district
Laban Wheaton Federalist 1808 Re-elected Laban Wheaton (F) 51.8%
Nathaniel Morton (DR) 48.0%
Massachusetts 10
Known as the Worcester South district
Previous incumbent Jabez Upham (F) resigned in 1810 Federalist hold Elijah Brigham (F) 53.5%
John Spurr (DR) 46.4%
Massachusetts 11
Known as the Worcester North district
Previous incumbent William Stedman (F) resigned July 16, 1810 Federalist hold Abijah Bigelow (F) 70.6%
Timothy Whiting (DR) 28.5%
Massachusetts 12
Known as the Berkshire district
Ezekiel Bacon Democratic-Republican 1807 (special) Re-elected Ezekiel Bacon (DR) 56.1%
Thomas Ives (DR) 43.9%
Massachusetts 13
Known as the Norfolk district
Ebenezer Seaver Democratic-Republican 1803 Re-elected Ebenezer Seaver (DR) 63.2%
Timothy Jackson (F) 21.2%
James Richardson 10.2%
James Mann 4.2%
Others 1.2%
District of Maine Massachusetts 14
Known as the York district
Richard Cutts Democratic-Republicans 1801 Re-elected Richard Cutts (DR) 62.7%
Cyrus King (F) 37.3%
Massachusetts 15
Known as the Cumberland district
Ezekiel Whitman Federalist 1808 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican gain
Ezekiel Whitman[15] (F) 47.8%
William Widgery[15] (DR) 47.8%
Others 4.4%
William Widgery (DR) 53.2%
Ezekiel Whitman (F) 46.8%
Massachusetts 16
Known as the Lincoln district
Orchard Cook Democratic-Republican 1804 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Peleg Tallman (DR) 61.1%
Alden Bradford (F) 38.9%
Massachusetts 17
Known as the Kennebec district
Barzillai Gannett Democratic-Republican 1808 Re-elected Barzillai Gannett (DR) 60.5%
Thomas Rice (F) 39.5%

In the 4th district, Joseph Bradley Varnum (DR) resigned from the House upon being elected to the Senate on June 29, 1811 and was replaced in a special election by William M. Richardson (DR)

In the 17th district, Barzillai Gannett (DR) resigned sometime in 1812 and was replaced in a special election by Francis Carr (DR)

New Hampshire[edit]

New Hampshire's electoral law required a candidate to receive votes from a majority of voters (10%). In the initial election, only two candidates won a majority, so a second election was held for the remaining three seats. The data from the source used give majorities to all the top five candidates, suggesting that the data are incomplete.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
First ballot Second ballot
New Hampshire at-large
5 seats on a general ticket
Daniel Blaisdell Federalist 1808 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican gain
Josiah Bartlett, Jr. (DR) 10.2%
Samuel Dinsmoor (DR) 10.1%

George Sullivan (F) 10.1%
William Hale (F) 10.1%
Roger Vose (F) 10.0%
Daniel Blaisdell (F) 10.0%
Obed Hall (DR) 10.0%
John Adams Harper (DR) 9.9%
James Wilson (F) 9.8%
David Morrill (DR) 9.8%
John Adams Harper (DR) 21.2%
Obed Hall (DR) 21.2%
George Sullivan (F) 19.2%

William Hale (F) 19.1%
Daniel Blaisdell (F) 18.9%
Roger Vose (F) 0.3%
John Curtis Chamberlain Federalist 1808 Retired
Democratic-Republican gain
William Hale Federalist 1808 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican gain
Nathaniel Appleton Haven Federalist 1808 Retired
Democratic-Republican gain
James Wilson Federalist 1808 Lost re-election
Federalist hod

New Jersey[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[14]
New Jersey at-large
6 seats on a general ticket
Adam Boyd Democratic-Republican 1803
1808 (special)
Re-elected Adam Boyd (DR) 16.4%
Lewis Condict (DR) 16.4%
George C. Maxwell (DR) 16.4%
Jacob Hufty (DR) 16.3%
Thomas Newbold (DR) 16.3%
James Morgan (DR) 16.1%

Aaron Ogden (F) 0.6%
William Coxe, Jr. (F) 0.4%
John Neilson (F) 0.4%
Richard Stockton (F) 0.3%
Thomas Sinnickson (F) 0.2%
John Beatty (F) 0.2%
Thomas Newbold Democratic-Republican 1806 Re-elected
William Helms Democratic-Republican 1800 Retired
Federalist hold
John A. Scudder Democratic-Republican 1810 (special) Retired
Federalist hold
Henry Southard Democratic-Republican 1800 Retired
Federalist hold
Jacob Hufty Democratic-Republican 1808 Re-elected

The Federalists ran no official ticket in 1810, but votes were received for various Federalists in some counties.[16]

New York[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New York 1 Samuel Riker Democratic-Republican 1806 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Ebenezer Sage (DR) 93.5%
David Gardiner (F) 6.5%
New York 2
Plural district with 2 seats
Gurdon S. Mumford Democratic-Republican 1804 (Special) Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Samuel L. Mitchill[10] (DR) 26.4%
William Paulding, Jr. (DR) 26.1%

John B. Coles (F) 23.8%
Peter A. Jay (F) 23.7%
Representative-elect William Denning never took his seat Democratic-Republican hold
New York 3 Jonathan Fisk Democratic-Republican 1808 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Pierre Van Cortlandt, Jr. (DR) 63.9%
John Bradner (F) 36.1%
New York 4 James Emott Federalist 1808 Re-elected James Emott (F) 51.1%
Daniel C. Verplanck (DR) 48.9%
New York 5 Barent Gardenier Federalist 1806 Retired
Democratic-Republican gain
Thomas B. Cooke (DR) 52.1%
Gerrit Abeel (F) 47.9%
New York 6
Plural district with 2 seats
Herman Knickerbocker Federalist 1808 Retired
Federalist hold
Asa Fitch (F) 25.6%
Robert Le Roy Livingston (F) 25.6%

Roger Skinner (DR) 24.4%
James L. Hogeboom (DR) 24.4%
Robert Le Roy Livingston Federalist 1808 Re-elected
New York 7 Killian Van Rensselaer Federalist 1800 Retired
Federalist hold
Harmanus Bleecker (F) 57.6%
John V. Veeder (DR) 42.4%
New York 8 John Thompson Democratic-Republican 1806 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Benjamin Pond (DR) 57.6%
James McCrea (F) 42.4%
New York 9 Thomas Sammons Federalist 1808 Re-elected as Democratic-Republican
Democratic-Republican gain
Thomas Sammons (DR) 52.6%
Richard Van Horne (F) 47.4%
New York 10 John Nicholson Democratic-Republican 1808 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Silas Stow (DR) 51.3%
Simeon Ford (F) 48.7%
New York 11 Thomas R. Gold Federalist 1808 Re-elected Thomas R. Gold (F) 52.6%
Thomas Skinner (DR) 47.4%
New York 12 Erastus Root Democratic-Republican 1808 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Arunah Metcalf (DR) 56.2%
John M. Bowers (F) 43.8%
New York 13 Uri Tracy Democratic-Republican 1808 Re-elected Uri Tracy (DR) 60.2%
Nathaniel Waldron (F) 39.8%
New York 14 Vincent Mathews Federalist 1808 Retired
Democratic-Republican gain
Daniel Avery (DR) 69.8%
John Harris (F) 30.2%
New York 15 Peter B. Porter Democratic-Republican 1808 Re-elected Peter B. Porter (DR) 59.1%
Ebenezer F. Norton (F) 40.9%

On May 6, 1812, Robert Le Roy Livingston (F) of the 6th district resigned to serve in the War of 1812 and was replaced in a special election by Thomas P. Grosvenor (F)

North Carolina[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
North Carolina 1 Lemuel Sawyer Democratic-Republican 1806 Re-elected Lemuel Sawyer (DR) 61.4%
William Hinton (DR) 37.1%
Joseph Riddick (DR) 1.5%
North Carolina 2 Willis Alston Democratic-Republican 1798 Re-elected Willis Alston (DR) 65.9%
Joseph H. Bryon (F) 34.1%
North Carolina 3 William Kennedy Democratic-Republican 1803
1808
Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Thomas Blount[13] (DR)
North Carolina 4 John Stanly Federalist 1800
1808
Retired
Democratic-Republican gain
William Blackledge (DR) 54.8%
William Gaston (F) 45.2%
North Carolina 5 Thomas Kenan Democratic-Republican 1805 (special) Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
William R. King (DR) 67.8%
Christopher Dudley (F) 32.2%
North Carolina 6 Nathaniel Macon Democratic-Republican 1791 Re-elected Nathaniel Macon (DR) 100%
North Carolina 7 Archibald McBryde Federalist 1808 Re-elected Archibald McBryde (F) 57.4%
John Culpepper (F) 42.6%
North Carolina 8 Richard Stanford Democratic-Republican 1796 Re-elected Richard Stanford (DR) 100%
North Carolina 9 James Cochran Democratic-Republican 1808 Re-elected James Cochran (DR) 57.0%
Theophilus Lacy (DR) 43.0%
North Carolina 10 Joseph Pearson Federalist 1808 Re-elected Joseph Pearson (F) 63.8%
James Wallis (DR) 36.4%
North Carolina 11 James Holland Democratic-Republican 1800 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Israel Pickens (DR) 50.5%
Felix Walker (DR) 39.8%
John Stevelie (DR) 9.7%
North Carolina 12 Meshack Franklin Democratic-Republican 1806 Re-elected Meshack Franklin[13] (DR)

A special election was held in the 3rd District after Thomas Blount died in office on February 7, 1812. William Kennedy was returned to office.

Ohio[edit]

This was the last election in which Ohio had a single at-large district. Due to rapid population growth in the state, the at-large district had become disproportionately populous by this point.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Ohio at-large Jeremiah Morrow Democratic-Republican 1803 Re-elected Jeremiah Morrow (DR) 99.4%
Others 0.6%

Pennsylvania[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[17]
Pennsylvania 1
Plural district with 3 seats
Adam Seybert Democratic-Republican 1809 (Special) Re-elected Adam Seybert (DR) 19.8%
William Anderson (DR) 19.6%
James Milnor (F) 13.7%

Thomas Truxton (F) 13.7%
Thomas Dick (F) 13.4%
John Porter (DR) 9.9%
Robert McMullin (DR) 9.9%
William Anderson Democratic-Republican 1808 Re-elected
John Porter Democratic-Republican 1806 Lost re-election
Federalist gain
Pennsylvania 2
Plural district with 3 seats
Robert Brown Democratic-Republican 1798 (special) Re-elected Robert Brown (DR) 19.1%
Jonathan Roberts (DR) 19.0%
William Rodman (DR) 18.9%

William Milnor (F) 14.5%
Levi Paulding (F) 14.2%
William Latimere (F) 13.9%
Charles Miner (F) 0.4%
William Milnor Federalist 1806 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican gain
John Ross Democratic-Republican 1808 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Pennsylvania 3
Plural district with 3 seats
Robert Jenkins Federalist 1806 Retired
Democratic-Republican gain
Joseph Lefever (DR) 18.4%
Roger Davis (DR) 18.3%
John M. Hyneman (DR) 17.2%

Daniel Hiester (F[18]) 16.0%
Samuel Bethel (F) 15.1%
Mark J. Biddle (F) 15.0%
Matthias Richards Democratic-Republican 1806 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Daniel Hiester Democratic-Republican 1808 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
Pennsylvania 4
Plural district with 2 seats
Robert Whitehill Democratic-Republican 1805 (special) Re-elected David Bard (DR) 50.0%
Robert Whitehill (DR) 50.0%
David Bard Democratic-Republican 1802 Re-elected
Pennsylvania 5 George Smith Democratic-Republican 1808 Re-elected George Smith (DR) 100%
Pennsylvania 6 William Crawford Democratic-Republican 1808 Re-elected William Crawford (DR) 56.6%
David Cassat (F) 43.4%
Pennsylvania 7 John Rea Democratic-Republican 1802 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
William Piper (DR) 58.5%
John Rea (DR) 41.5%
Pennsylvania 8 William Findley Democratic-Republican 1802 Re-elected William Findley (DR) 60.9%
John Kirkpatrick (DR) 39.1%
Pennsylvania 9 John Smilie Democratic-Republican 1792
1798
Re-elected John Smilie (DR) 100%
Pennsylvania 10 Aaron Lyle Democratic-Republican 1808 Re-elected Aaron Lyle (DR) 70.4%
Thomas L. Birch (F) 29.6%
Pennsylvania 11 Samuel Smith Democratic-Republican 1805 (Special) Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
Abner Lacock (DR) 51.0%
Alexander Tannehill (DR) 43.2%
Samuel Smith (DR) 5.7%

John Smilie (DR) of the 9th district died on December 30, 1812. His seat remained vacant for the remainder of the 12th Congress.

Rhode Island[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Rhode Island at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
Richard Jackson, Jr. Federalist 1808 Re-elected Elisha R. Potter (F) 25.7%
Richard Jackson, Jr. (F) 25.6%

Nathaniel Hazard (DR) 24.5%
Nathan Brown (DR) 24.2%
Elisah R. Potter Federalist 1808 Re-elected

South Carolina[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1
Also known as the Charleston district
Previous incumbent Robert Marion (DR) resigned October 4, 1810 Democratic-Republican hold Langdon Cheves[10] (DR) 89.2%[19]
Others 10.8%
South Carolina 2
Also known at the Beaufort district
William Butler, Sr. Democratic-Republican 1800 Re-elected William Butler, Sr.[13] (DR)
Edmund Bacon (DR)
Francisco Annone (F)
South Carolina 3
Also known as the Georgetown district
Robert Witherspoon Democratic-Republican 1808 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
David R. Williams (DR) 94.4%[19]
Moses Glover (F) 5.6%
South Carolina 4
Also known as the Orangeburgh district
John Taylor Democratic-Republican 1806 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
William Lowndes (DR) 52.2%[19]
John Taylor (DR) 47.8%
South Carolina 5
Also known as the Sumter district
Richard Winn Democratic-Republican 1802 (special) Re-elected Richard Winn (DR) 100%
South Carolina 6
Also known as the Abbeville district
Joseph Calhoun Democratic-Republican 1807 (special) Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
John C. Calhoun (DR) 72.2%[19]
John A. Elmore (DR) 27.8%
Eastland[20] (F)
South Carolina 7
Also known as the Chester district
Thomas Moore Democratic-Republican 1800 Re-elected Thomas Moore (DR) 100%
South Carolina 8
Also known as the Pendleton district
Lemuel J. Alston Democratic-Republican 1806 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Elias Earle (DR) 58.0%
William Hunter (F) 42.0%

Tennessee[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Tennessee 1 John Rhea Democratic-Republican 1803 Re-elected John Rhea (DR) 100%
Tennessee 2 Robert Weakley Democratic-Republican 1808 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
John Sevier (DR) 100%
Tennessee 3 Pleasant M. Miller Democratic-Republican 1808 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Felix Grundy (DR) 60.4%
Isaac Roberts 21.7%
James Winchester 17.9%

Vermont[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[14]
Vermont 1 Samuel Shaw Democratic-Republican 1808 Re-elected Samuel Shaw (DR) 64.4%
Chauncey Langdon (F) 33.5%
Vermont 2 Jonathan H. Hubbard Federalist 1808 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican gain
William Strong (DR) 53.4%
Jonathan H. Hubbard (F) 42.1%
Aaron Leland (DR) 1.7%
Vermont 3 William Chamberlain Federalist 1802
1808
Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican gain
James Fisk (DR) 56.7%
William Chamberlain (F) 41.3%
Vermont 4 Martin Chittenden Federalist 1802 Re-elected Martin Chittenden (F) 50.0%
Ezra Butler (DR) 47.5%

Virginia[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[14]
Virginia 1 William McKinley Democratic-Republican 1810 (special) Lost re-election
Federalist gain
Thomas Wilson (F) 52.3%
William McKinley (DR) 47.7%
Virginia 2 James Stephenson Federalist 1809 Retired
Federalist hold
John Baker (F) 56.5%
Daniel Morgan (DR) 43.5%
Virginia 3 John Smith Democratic-Republican 1801 Re-elected John Smith (DR) 100%
Virginia 4 Jacob Swoope Federalist 1809 Retired
Democratic-Republican gain
William McCoy (DR) 52.6%
Samuel Blackburn (F) 47.4%
Virginia 5 James Breckinridge Federalist 1809 Re-elected James Breckinridge (F) 58.4%
Thomas L. Preston (DR) 41.6%
Virginia 6 Daniel Sheffey Federalist 1809 Re-elected Daniel Sheffey (F) 100%
Virginia 7 Joseph Lewis, Jr. Federalist 1803 Re-elected Joseph Lewis, Jr. (F) 80.0%
John Love[21] (DR) 19.9%
Virginia 8 Walter Jones Democratic-Republican 1803 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
John Hungerford (DR) 50.2%
John Taliaferro[22] (DR) 49.8%
Virginia 9 Previous incumbent John Love (DR) moved to the 7th district and ran for election there Democratic-Republican hold Aylett Hawes (DR) 72.7%
George F. Strother (DR) 26.3%
Virginia 10 John Dawson Democratic-Republican 1797 Re-elected John Dawson (DR) 100%
Virginia 11 John Roane Democratic-Republican 1809 Re-elected John Roane[13] (DR)
Virginia 12 Burwell Bassett Democratic-Republican 1805 Re-elected Burwell Bassett (DR) 59.5%[19]
John Eyre (F) 40.5%
Virginia 13 William A. Burwell Democratic-Republican 1806 (special) Re-elected William A. Burwell (DR) 100%
Virginia 14 Matthew Clay Democratic-Republican 1797 Re-elected Matthew Clay[23] (DR)
John Kerr (DR)
Virginia 15 John Randolph Democratic-Republican 1799 Re-elected John Randolph (DR) 67.8%
John W. Eppes[24] (DR) 32.2%
Virginia 16 Previous incumbent John W. Eppes (DR) moved to 15th district and ran for election there Democratic-Republican hold James Pleasants (DR) 100%
Virginia 17 Thomas Gholson, Jr. Democratic-Republican 1808 (special) Re-elected Thomas Gholson, Jr.[13] (DR)
Virginia 18 Peterson Goodwyn Democratic-Republican 1803 Re-elected Peterson Goodwyn (DR) 100%
Virginia 19 Edwin Gray Democratic-Republican 1799 Re-elected Edwin Gray (DR) 62.2%
Samuel Butler (DR) 37.8%
Virginia 20 Thomas Newton, Jr. Democratic-Republican 1799 Re-elected Thomas Newton, Jr. (DR) 97.7%
Robert B. Taylor (F) 2.3%
Virginia 21 David S. Garland Democratic-Republican 1809 (special) Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Hugh Nelson (DR) 100%
Virginia 22 John Clopton Democratic-Republican 1801 Re-elected John Clopton (DR) 100%

In the 8th district, John P. Hungerford (DR) was initially declared as the winner by a 6-vote margin (769-763),[25] however, the election was subsequently challenged by John Taliaferro (DR), and the House Committee on Elections ruled in Taliaferro's favor. He took his seat on December 2, 1811.[11]

Non-voting delegates[edit]

There were five territories with the right to send non-voting delegates to the 12th Congress. Two of them, Illinois Territory and Missouri Territory elected their first representative near the end of the 12th Congress in 1812, while Orleans Territory's seat remained vacant until the territory was admitted as the State of Louisiana.

District Incumbent First
elected
Result Candidates[14]
Indiana Territory at-large Jonathan Jennings 1809 Re-elected Jonathan Jennings 65.1%
Thomas Randolph 34.9%
Mississippi Territory at-large George Poindexter 1806 Re-elected George Poindexter 64.6%
Robert Williams 28.2%
David Cooper 6.7%

References[edit]

  1. ^ Excludes states admitted during the 12th Congress
  2. ^ a b c Includes late elections
  3. ^ Frederick Muhlenberg was elected on the first day that the 1st Congress achieved a quorum, but that was not the first day that Muhlenberg was in the Capitol
  4. ^ Stat. 703
  5. ^ Includes 1 plural district
  6. ^ Majority required for election, which was not met in one district, a second election held April 1, 1811
  7. ^ Majority required for election, which requirement was not met for 3 seats, a second election was held April 1, 1811
  8. ^ Includes 2 plural districts
  9. ^ Includes 4 plural districts
  10. ^ a b c d Elected in special election to fill vacancy in 11th Congress
  11. ^ a b Congressional roster for the 12th Congress
  12. ^ In Vermont
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Numbers of votes missing or incomplete in source
  14. ^ a b c d e f Only candidates with at least 1% of the vote listed
  15. ^ a b Tied
  16. ^ A New Nation Votes - New Jersey 1810
  17. ^ Wilkes University Elections Statistics Project
  18. ^ Changed parties
  19. ^ a b c d e Based on incomplete returns
  20. ^ Source did not have full name
  21. ^ 9th district incumbent
  22. ^ Successfully contested Hungerford's election
  23. ^ Detailed data not available, but margin of victory given as 223 votes
  24. ^ 16th district incumbent
  25. ^ A New Nation Votes - Virginia 8: 1811