United States House of Representatives elections, 1792

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1792
United States
1790 ←
August 27, 1792 - September 6, 1793 → 1794

All 105 seats to the United States House of Representatives
53 seats were needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Muhlenberg.jpg TheodoreSedgwick.jpg
Leader Frederick Muhlenberg Theodore Sedgwick
Party Anti-Administration Pro-Administration
Leader's seat Pennsylvania-AL Massachusetts-2nd
Last election 30 39
Seats won 54 51
Seat change Increase 24 Increase 12

Speaker before election

Jonathan Trumbull
Pro-Administration

Elected Speaker

Frederick Muhlenberg
Anti-Administration

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 3rd Congress were held in 1792 and 1793, coinciding with the re-election of George Washington as President. While Washington ran for president as an independent, his followers (more specifically, the supporters of Alexander Hamilton) formed the nation's first organized political party, the Federalist Party, whose members and sympathizers are identified as pro-Administration on this page. In response, followers of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison created the opposition Democratic-Republican Party, who are identified as anti-Administration on this page. The Federalists promoted urbanization, industrialization, mercantilism, centralized government, and a broad interpretation of the United States Constitution. In contrast, Democratic-Republicans supported the ideal of an agrarian republic made up of self-sufficient farmers and small, localized governments with limited power.

Despite nearly unanimous support for Washington as a presidential candidate, Jeffersonian ideas edged out Hamiltonian principles at the ballot box for congressional candidates, with the Democratic-Republicans taking 24 seats more than they had prior to the organization of their political movement. Most of the increase was due to the addition of new seats in Western regions as a result of the United States census of 1790. Dominated by agrarian culture, these Western territories offered strong support to Democratic-Republican congressional candidates. As a result, they secured a thin majority in the legislature.

Election summaries[edit]

In this period, each state fixed its own date for a congressional general election, as early as August 1792 (in New Hampshire and Rhode Island) and as late as September 1793 (in Kentucky). In some states, the congressional delegation was not elected until after the legal start of the Congress (on the 4th day of March in the odd-numbered year), but as the first session of Congress typically began in November or December, the elections took place before Congress actually met. The 3rd Congress first met on December 2, 1793.

These were the first elections held after reapportionment following the first census. Thirty-six new seats were added,[1] with 1 state losing 1 seat, 3 states having no change, and the remaining 11 states gaining between 1 and 9 seats. This was the first apportionment based on actual census data, the apportionment for the 1st and 2nd Congresses being set by the Constitution using estimated populations.

54 51
Anti-Administration Pro-Administration
State Type Date Total
seats
Anti-
Administration
Pro-
Administration
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Connecticut At-large September 17, 1792 7 Increase2 0 Steady 7 Increase2
Delaware At-large October 2, 1792 1 Steady 1 Increase1 0 Decrease1
Georgia At-large[2] October 1, 1792 2 Decrease1 2 Decrease1 0 Steady
Maryland District[3] October 1, 1792 8 Increase2 4 Increase1 4 Increase1
Massachusetts Mixed[4] November 2, 1792[5] 14 Increase6 3 Increase2 11 Increase4
New Hampshire At-large August 27, 1792 4 Increase1 1 Increase1 3 Steady
New Jersey At-large October 9, 1792 5 Increase1 0 Steady 5 Increase1
Pennsylvania At-large[2] October 9, 1792 13 Increase5 8 Increase4 5 Increase1
Rhode Island At-large August 28, 1792 2 Increase1 0 Increase1 2 Steady
1793 elections
Kentucky District (2) September 6, 1793 2 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
New York District (10) January 2, 1793 10 Increase4 3 Increase1 7 Increase3
North Carolina District (10) February 15, 1793 10 Increase5 9 Increase6 1 Decrease1
South Carolina District (6) February 5, 1793 6 Increase1 5 Increase3 1 Decrease2
Vermont District (2) January 7, 1793[6] 2 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia District (19) March 18, 1793 19 Increase9 15 Increase7 4 Increase2
Total 105 Increase 36 54
51.4%
Increase 24 51
48.6%
Increase 12
House seats
Anti-Administration
  
51.43%
Pro-Administration
  
48.57%

House composition[edit]

End of the last Congress[edit]

A A A A
A A A A A A A A A A
A A A A A A A A A A
A A A A A A V P P P
Majority→ P
P P P P P P P P P P
P P P P P P P P P P
P P P P P P P P P P
P P P P P P

Beginning of the next Congress[edit]

A A
A A A A A A A A A A
A A A A A A A A A A
A A A A A A A A A A
A A A A A A A A A A
A A A A A A A A A A
Majority→ A
P P P P P P P P A A
P P P P P P P P P P
P P P P P P P P P P
P P P P P P P P P P
P P P P P P P P P P
P P
Key:
A = Anti-Administration
P = Pro-Administration
V = Vacant

Late elections to the 2nd Congress[edit]

Kentucky[edit]

Kentucky was admitted to the union near the end of the 2nd Congress and elected two representatives to serve during the last sessions of that Congress.

District Result Candidates
Kentucky 1
Called the Southern District
Anti-Administration win Christopher Greenup (A)[7]
Robert Brackenridge
Kentucky 2
Called the Northern District
Anti-Administration win Alexander D. Orr (A)[7]
Hubbard Taylor

Greenup took his seat on November 9, 1792 and Orr on November 8, 1792.[8]

Complete returns[edit]

The first delegate was elected from the Southwest Territory to the 3rd Congress in 1794.

Connecticut[edit]

Connecticut gained two seats in reapportionment following the 1790 census.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Connecticut At-large
7 seats on a general ticket
James Hillhouse Pro-Administration 1790 Re-elected Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. (P) 14.1%
James Hillhouse (P) 13.0%
Jonathan Sturges (P) 11.5%
Benjamin Huntington (P) 10.6%
Jeremiah Wadsworth (P) 10.4%
Amasa Learned (P) 9.5%
Stephen M. Mitchell (P) 7.8%

Uriah Tracy[9] (P) 6.3%
Jonathan Ingersoll[9] 5.4%
Asher Miller 4.3%
Zephaniah Swift[9] (P) 4.3%
Tapping Reeve 3.0%
Amasa Learned Pro-Administration 1791 (Special) Re-elected
Jonathan Sturges Pro-Administration 1788 Re-elected
Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. Pro-Administration 1788 Re-elected
Jeremiah Wadsworth Pro-Administration 1788 Re-elected
None (Seat created) New seat
Pro-Administration gain
None (Seat created) New seat
Pro-Administration gain

Three special elections followed the 1792 elections in Connecticut after Representatives-elect Sturges and Huntington resigned before the start of Congress and Mitchell was elected to the Senate.

Delaware[edit]

Delaware's apportionment did not change following the Census of 1790. As in the 1st and 2nd Congresses, each voter cast votes for two separate candidates, at least one of whom had to be from a different county as the voter.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Delaware At-Large John M. Vining Pro-Administration 1789 Lost re-election
Anti-Administration hold
John Patten[10] (A) 38.8%
Henry Latimer[11] (P) 38.3%
Francis Many 11.7%
Edward Roche 7.9%
Andrew Barrett 3.3%

John Patten (A) was initially declared the winner, but the election was challenged by Henry Latimer. The results of the election were subsequently reversed and Henry Latimer (P) took Delaware's seat in the Third Congress

Georgia[edit]

Following the Census of 1790, Georgia's apportionment was decreased from 3 seats to 2 (the only state whose representation decreased after the Census of 1790). Georgia switched from separate districts to at-large seats.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Georgia At-large
2 seats on a general ticket
John Milledge
Redistricted from the 1st district
Anti-Administration 1792 (special) Lost re-election
Anti-Administration hold
Abraham Baldwin (A) 44.5%
Thomas P. Carnes (A) 29.5%

George Mathews 10.8%
John Milledge (A) 8.1%
Scattering 7.0%
Francis Willis (A) 0.3%
Abraham Baldwin
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Anti-Administration 1789 Re-elected
Francis Willis
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Anti-Administration 1791 Lost re-election
Anti-Administration loss

Kentucky[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Kentucky 1
Called the Southern District
Christopher Greenup Anti-Administration 1792 Re-elected Christopher Greenup[7] (A)
Kentucky 2
Called the Northern District
Alexander D. Orr Anti-Administration 1792 Re-elected Alexander D. Orr[7] (A)

Maryland[edit]

Maryland increased from 6 to 8 representatives after the Census of 1790. The previous mixed district/at-large system was replaced with a conventional district system.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Maryland 1 Philip Key Pro-Administration 1790 Lost re-election
Pro-Administration hold
George Dent (P) 44.7%
John Parnham (P) 29.8%
Philip Key (P) 25.5%
Maryland 2 John F. Mercer
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Anti-Administration 1791 (special) Re-elected John F. Mercer (A) 57.0%
John Thomas (P) 42.1%
Richard A. Contee 0.9%
Maryland 3 None (District created) New seat
Pro-Administration gain
Uriah Forrest (P) 71.8%
William Dorsey (A) 28.1%
Others 0.1%
Maryland 4 None (District created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
Thomas Sprigg (A) 100%
Maryland 5 None (District created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
Samuel Smith (A) 61.1%
Charles Ridgely (A) 38.9%
Maryland 6 None (District created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
Gabriel Christie (A) 63.6%
William Matthews (P) 36.4%
Maryland 7 Joshua Seney
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Anti-Administration 1789 Retired
Pro-Administration gain
William Hindman[12] (P) 51.7%
James Tilghman (A) 48.3%
Maryland 8 William V. Murray
Redistricted from the 5th district
Pro-Administration 1790 Re-elected William V. Murray (P) 93.8%
Littleton Dennis (P) 5.4%
Others 0.9%

John Francis Mercer (A) of the 2nd district resigned April 13, 1794 and was replaced in a special election by Gabriel Duvall (A).

Uriah Forrest (P) of the 3rd district resigned November 8, 1794 and was replaced in a special election by Benjamin Edwards (P).

Massachusetts[edit]

Following the Census of 1790, Massachusetts' representation increased from 8 to 14 Representatives and was redistricted into 4 plural districts, plus a single at-large district. The 4th district covered the District of Maine (the modern-day State of Maine). The plural districts were concurrent tickets rather than a single general ticket, though the 1st and 2nd districts appear to have also had a general ticket alongside the more specific tickets.

As before, a majority was required for election, in those districts where a majority was not achieved, additional ballots were required.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
First ballot Second ballot Third ballot
Massachusetts 1 None (District created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
Jonathan Jones 39.8%
William Heath 31.0%
James Bowdoin 23.2%
Theophilus Parsons 6.0%
Jonathan Jones 29.3%
Samuel Holten (A) 25.6%
James Bowdoin 17.1%
Samuel Sewall (P) 13.1%
William Heath 8.3%
Joseph Bradley Varnum (A) 3.8%
Elbridge Gerry (A) 2.8%
Samuel Holten (A) 69.9%
Benjamin Austin 30.1%
Massachusetts 1
Essex
Benjamin Goodhue
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Pro-Administration 1788 Re-elected Benjamin Goodhue (P) 100%
Massachusetts 1
Middlesex
Elbridge Gerry
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Anti-Administration 1788 Lost re-election
Pro-Administration gain
Samuel Dexter (P) 61.4%
Joseph Bradley Varnum (A) 26.2%
Elbridge Gerry (A) 12.4%
Massachusetts 1
Suffolk
Fisher Ames Pro-Administration 1788 Re-elected Fisher Ames (P) 62.4%
Benjamin Austin 37.6%
Massachusetts 2 None (District created) New seat
Pro-Administration gain
Samuel Lyman (P) 41.3%
Theodore Sedgwick (P) 37.9%
William Lyman (A) 6.7%
Samuel Moorhaus 6.2%
Simson Strong 4.%
Dwight Foster (P) 3.5%
Samuel Lyman (P) 35.4%
Dwight Foster (P) 25.1%
Thomson J. Skinner (A) 19.6%
William Lyman (A) 12.1%
Jonathan Grout (A) 4.0%
William Shepard (P) 3.8%
Dwight Foster (P) 55.3%
Samuel Lyman (P) 44.7%
Massachusetts 2
Berkshire
Theodore Sedgwick
Redistricted from the 4th district
Pro-Administration 1788 Re-elected Theodore Sedgwick (P) 63.8%
Thomson J. Skinner (A) 29.1%
John Bacon (A) 7.1%
Massachusetts 2
Hampshire
None (District created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
Samuel Lyman (P) 37.4%
William Lyman (A) 32.3%
Thomas Dwight (P) 16.8%
Samuel Hinshaur 6.7%
John Williams 3.6%
Dwight Foster (P) 3.1%
William Lyman (A) 38.0%
Samuel Lyman (P) 31.3%
William Shepard (P) 18.0%
Thomas Dwight (P) 12.7%
William Lyman (A) 53.1%
Samuel Lyman (P) 46.9%
Massachusetts 2
Worcester
Artemas Ward
Redistricted from the 7th district
Pro-Administration 1790 Re-elected Artemas Ward (P) 59.5%
Jonathan Grout (A) 36.8%
Dwight Foster (P) 3.8%
Massachusetts 3
Barnstable, Dukes, & Nantucket
George Leonard
Redistricted from the 6th district
Pro-Administration 1788 Lost re-election
Pro-Administration hold
Peleg Coffin, Jr. (P) 52.6%
George Leonard (P) 34.3%
Phanuel Bishop (A) 13.1%
Massachusetts 3
Bristol & Plymouth
Shearjashub Bourne
Redistricted from the 5th district
Pro-Administration 1790 Re-elected John Davis 49.2%
Shearjashub Bourne (P) 26.1%
James Warren 24.8%
Shearjashub Bourne (P) 53.0%
John Davis 40.6%
James Warren 6.4%
District 4
Cumberland
None (District created) New seat
Pro-Administration gain
Daniel Davis 40.0%
Peleg Wadsworth (P) 38.6%
Robert Southgate 11.7%
Josiah Thacker 9.8%
Peleg Wadsworth (P) 48.4%
Daniel Davis 42.2%
Robert Southgate 9.4%
Peleg Wadsworth (P) 58.0%
Daniel Davis 42.0%
Massachusetts 4
Lincoln, Hancock, & Washington
None (District created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
William Lithgow 49.98%
Henry Dearborn (A) 32.2%
Daniel Coney 11.8%
Alan Campbell 6.0%
Henry Dearborn (A) 60.9%
William Lithgow 39.1%
Massachusetts 4
York
George Thatcher
Redistricted from the 8th district
Pro-Administration 1788 Re-elected George Thatcher (P) 57.7%
Nathaniel Wells 35.4%
Tristan Jordan 6.9%
Massachusetts at-large None (District created) New seat
Pro-Administration gain
David Cobb (P) 52.6%
Charles Jarvis 9.6%
William Heath 6.9%
Theodore Sedgwick (P) 4.9%
Elbridge Gerry (A) 2.1%
Jonathan Jones 1.9%
Fisher Ames (P) 1.7%
James Sullivan (A) 1.5%
Samuel Horton 1.3%
Scattering 17.4%

New Hampshire[edit]

New Hampshire increased from 3 seats to 4 seats after the Census of 1790.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New Hampshire at-large
4 seats on a general ticket
Jeremiah Smith Pro-Administration 1790 Re-elected Jeremiah Smith (P) 24.1%
Nicholas Gilman (P) 16.3%
John Samuel Sherburne (A) 14.2%
Paine Wingate (P) 12.2%

Abiel Foster (P) 8.9%
James Sheafe (P) 8.2%
Nathaniel Peabody 7.7%
Timothy Walker 4.0%
William Page 2.3%
Joshua Atherton 2.3%
Samuel Livermore Pro-Administration 1788 Retired
Anti-Administration gain
Nicholas Gilman Pro-Administration 1788 Re-elected
None (Seat created) New seat
Pro-Administration gain

New Jersey[edit]

Following the Census of 1790, New Jersey's apportionment increased from 4 to 5 seats.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[13]
New Jersey At-Large
5 seats on a general ticket
Elias Boudinot Pro-Administration 1789 Re-elected John Beatty (P) 16.4%
Jonathan Dayton (P) 13.4%
Abraham Clark (P) 11.8%
Elias Boudinot (P) 10.8%
Lambert Cadwalader (P) 10.1%

Thomas Sinnickson (P) 48.7%
Aaron Kitchell[9] (P) 8.6%
James Linn 5.2%
Jonathan Elmer (P) 4.4%
Samuel Dick 4.1%
Thomas Henderson 2.9%
Abraham Clark Pro-Administration 1791 Re-elected
Jonathan Dayton Pro-Administration 1791 Re-elected
Aaron Kitchell Pro-Administration 1791 Lost re-election
Pro-Administration hold
None (Seat created) New seat
Pro-Administration gain

Abraham Clark (P) died on September 15, 1794. The resulting vacancy was filled in a special election by Aaron Kitchell (P)

New York[edit]

Due to re-apportionment following the Census of 1790, New York's congressional delegation grew from 6 to 10. Three incumbents ran for re-election, two of whom won, and the other three incumbents retired. With the increase following re-apportionment, this left seven open seats.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New York 1 Thomas Tredwell Anti-Administration 1791 (Special) Re-elected Thomas Tredwell (A) 50.1%
Joshua Sands (P) 26.6%
Harry Peters (P) 23.3%
New York 2 None (District created) New seat
Pro-Administration gain
John Watts (P) 72.6%
William S. Livingston (A) 27.3%
New York 3 None (District created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
Philip Van Courtlandt (A) 55.5%
Richard Hatfield (P) 44.5%
New York 4 Cornelius C. Schoonmaker Anti-Administration 1790 Lost re-election
Pro-Administration gain
Peter Van Gaasbeck (P) 47.3%
John Hathorn (A) 46.8%
John Carpenter (A) 2.3%
Cornelius C. Schoonmaker (A) 1.7%
William Thompson (A) 1.3%
Jesse Woodhull (A) 0.6%
New York 5 None (District created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
Theodorus Bailey (A) 53.6%
James Kent (P) 46.4%
New York 6 None (District created) New seat
Pro-Administration gain
Ezekiel Gilbert (P) 35.1%
Peter R. Livingston (A) 34.1%
Peter Van Ness (A) 30.8%
New York 7 None (District created) New seat
Pro-Administration gain
John E. Van Alen (P) 56.9%[14]
Henry K. Van Rensselaer (A) 42.5%
Thomas Sickles (A) 0.6%
New York 8 None (District created) New seat
Pro-Administration gain
Henry Glen (P) 63.8%
Jeremiah Van Rensselaer (A) 36.2%
New York 9 James Gordon
Redistricted from the 6th district
Pro-Administration 1790 Re-elected James Gordon (P) 46.0%
John Williams (A) 41.2%
John M. Thompson (A) 12.8%
New York 10 None (District created) New seat
Pro-Administration gain
Silas Talbot (P) 34.1%
William Cooper (P) 26.6%
John Winn (A) 25.7%
Andrew Fink (A) 11.3%
Josiah Crane (A) 2.4%

Silas Talbot (P) of the 10th district subsequently resigned from the House to take a Naval appointment June, 1794, no special election held so his seat was vacant for part of the Third Congress

North Carolina[edit]

Following the Census of 1790, North Carolina's apportionment increased from 5 to 10 seats.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
North Carolina 1 None (District created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
Joseph McDowell (A)[7]
North Carolina 2 None (District created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
Matthew Locke (A)[7]
Alexander[15] (P)
Montford Stokes
North Carolina 3 None (District created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
Joseph Winston (A)[7]
Jesse Franklin (A)
John Williams (A)
James Martin
Clarke[15]
North Carolina 4 None (District created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
Alexander Mebane (A) 44.8%
Stephen Moore (P) 39.0%
Ambrose Ramsay 16.2%
North Carolina 5 Nathaniel Macon
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Anti-Administration 1791 Re-elected Nathaniel Macon (A)[7]
North Carolina 6 None (District created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
James Gillespie (A)[7]
William Henry Hill (P)
Benjamin Smith
North Carolina 7 William B. Grove
Redistricted from the 5th district
Pro-Administration 1791 Re-elected William B. Grove (P) 100%[7]
North Carolina 8 None (District created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
William J. Dawson (A) 63.8%
Stephen Cabarrus (A) 36.1%
William Cumming 0.2%
North Carolina 9 John B. Ashe
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Anti-Administration 1790 Lost re-election
Anti-Administration hold
Thomas Blount (A)[7]
John B. Ashe (A)
John Leigh (P)
North Carolina 10 None (District created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
Benjamin Williams (A)[7]
William Maclure (A)

Pennsylvania[edit]

Pennsylvania switched from using districts to electing its representatives on an at-large basis for the 3rd Congress, just as it had done for the 1st Congress. This would be the last time that Pennsylvania would elect all of its Representatives at-large. Due to re-apportionment following the Census of 1790, Pennsylvania's delegation increased from 8 representatives to 13.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[16]
Pennsylvania At-Large
13 seats on a general ticket
Thomas Fitzsimons
Redistricted from the 1st district
Pro-Administration 1788 re-elected William Findley (A) 8.21%
Frederick Muhlenberg (A) 8.01%
Daniel Hiester (A) 7.96%
William Irvine (A) 7.67%
John W. Kittera (P) 7.39%
Thomas Hartley (P) 7.06%
Peter Muhlenberg (A) 5.40%
Thomas Fitzsimons (P) 4.46%
Andrew Gregg (A) 4.30%
James Armstrong (P) 4.29%
William Montgomery (A) 4.22%
John Smilie (A) 4.15%
Thomas Scott (P) 4.13%

Samuel Sitgreaves (P) 3.86%
Jonathan D. Sergeant (A) 3.74%
John Barclay (A) 3.70%
Charles Thomson (A) 3.68%
William Bingham (P) 3.59%
Henry Wynkoop (P) 3.55%
Israel Jacobs (P) 0.65%
Frederick Muhlenberg
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Anti-Administration 1788 re-elected
Israel Jacobs
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Pro-Administration 1791 lost re-election
Pro-Administration hold
Daniel Hiester
Redistricted from the 4th district
Anti-Administration 1788 re-elected
John W. Kittera
Redistricted from the 5th district
Pro-Administration 1791 re-elected
Andrew Gregg
Redistricted from the 6th district
Anti-Administration 1791 re-elected
Thomas Hartley
Redistricted from the 7th district
Pro-Administration 1788 re-elected
William Findley
Redistricted from the 8th district
Anti-Administration 1791 re-elected
None (Seat created) New seat
Pro-Administration gain
None (Seat created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
None (Seat created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
None (Seat created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
None (Seat created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain

Rhode Island[edit]

Rhode Island gained a second representative from the results of the Census of 1790. Rhode Island did not divide itself into districts, but elected two at-large representatives on separate tickets.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Rhode Island At-Large Seat A Benjamin Bourne Pro-Administration 1790 Re-elected Benjamin Bourne (P) 100%
Rhode Island At-Large Seat B None (Seat created) New seat
Pro-Administration gain
Francis Malbone (P)[7]
Paul Mumford

South Carolina[edit]

South Carolina gained one representative as a result of the Census of 1790, increasing from 5 to 6.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 William L. Smith Pro-Administration 1788 Re-elected William L. Smith (P) 61.5%
Thomas Tudor Tucker (A) 22.2%
Jacob Read (P) 16.4%
Thomas Tudor Tucker
Redistricted from the 5th district
Anti-Administration 1788 Lost re-election
Anti-Administration loss
South Carolina 2 None (District created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
John Hunter (A)[7]
South Carolina 3 None (District created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
Lemuel Benton (A)[7]
South Carolina 4 None (District created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
Richard Winn (A)[7]
South Carolina 5 None (District created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
Alexander Gillon (A)[7]
South Carolina 6 None (District created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
Andrew Pickens (A)[7]

On October 6, 1794, Alexander Gillon (A) of the 5th district died. A special election was held to fill the resulting vacancy, which elected Robert Goodloe Harper (P)

Vermont[edit]

Vermont's had no apportionment in the House of Representatives before the census of 1790 because it was not admitted to the Union until 1791. Vermont's election laws at the time required a majority to win election to the House of Representatives. If no candidate won a majority, a runoff election was held, which happened in Vermont's 1st district.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[13]
First ballot Second ballot
Vermont 1
Known as the Western District
Israel Smith Anti-Administration 1791 Re-elected Israel Smith (A) 44.2%
Matthew Lyon (A) 33.8%
Isaac Tichenor (P) 17.8%
Samuel Hitchcock 4.2%
Israel Smith (A) 51.0%
Matthew Lyon (A) 44.0%
Isaac Tichenor (P) 4.3%
Samuel Hitchcock 0.6%
Others[17] 0.1%
Vermont 2
Known as the Eastern District
Nathaniel Niles Anti-Administration 1791 Re-elected Nathaniel Niles (A) 60.3%
Elijah Paine (P) 14.0%
Stephen Jacob 7.7%
Paul Brigham (A) 4.4%
Samuel Cutler 3.9%
Daniel Buck (P) 3.5%
Isaac Tichenor (P) 2.2%
Others 4.0%

Virginia[edit]

Virginia gained 9 Representatives from the Census of 1790, and in addition, the old 2nd district was lost after its territory became the new State of Kentucky. There were, therefore, 10 new districts created for the 3rd Congress.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Virginia 1 Alexander White Pro-Administration 1789 Lost re-election
Anti-Administration gain
Robert Rutherford (A) 56.6%
John Smith (A) 25.8%
Alexander White (P) 17.6%
Virginia 2 Andrew Moore
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Anti-Administration 1789 Re-elected Andrew Moore (A)[7]
Virginia 3 None (District created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
Joseph Neville (A)[7]
George Jackson (A)
Jeremiah Jacobs
William MacCleery
Virginia 4 None (District created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
Francis Preston[7][18] (A)
Abraham Trigg
Virginia 5 None (District created) New seat
Pro-Administration gain
George Hancock (P) 60.5%
Charles Clay 34.0%
Calohill Minnis 5.5%
Virginia 6 None (District created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
Isaac Coles (A)[7]
Virginia 7 Abraham B. Venable
Redistricted from the 6th district
Anti-Administration 1790 Re-elected Abraham B. Venable (A)[7]
Joseph Wyatt
Thomas Scott (P)
Tarlton Woodson (P)
Virginia 8 None (District created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
Thomas Claiborne (A)[7]
Richard Kennon
Jesse Brown
J. Nicholson
Virginia 9 William B. Giles Anti-Administration 1790 Re-elected William B. Giles (A)[7]
Robert Bolling
Virginia 10 None (District created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
Carter B. Harrison (A)[7]
John H. Briggs
Virginia 11 Josiah Parker
Redistricted from the 8th district
Anti-Administration 1789 Re-elected
as Pro-Administration
Josiah Parker (P[19])[7]
John Neirson
Virginia 12 John Page
Redistricted from the 7th district
Anti-Administration 1789 Re-elected John Page (A)[7]
Virginia 13 Samuel Griffin
Redistricted from the 10th district
Anti-Administration 1789 Re-elected
as Pro-Administration
Samuel Griffin (P[20])[7]
Virginia 14 None (District created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
Francis Walker (A)[7]
Virginia 15 James Madison, Jr.
Redistricted from the 5th district
Anti-Administration 1789 Re-elected James Madison, Jr. (A)[7]
Virginia 16 None (District created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
Anthony New (A)[7]
John Roane (A)
Francis Corbin
Virginia 17 Richard Bland Lee
Redistricted from the 4th district
Pro-Administration 1789 Re-elected Richard Bland Lee (P)[7]
Virginia 18 None (District created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
John Nicholas (A)[7]
William Pickett
Virginia 19 None (District created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain
John Heath (A)[7]
Walter Jones (A)
Francis L. Lee

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stat. 253
  2. ^ a b Changed from district method
  3. ^ Changed from combined at-large/district method
  4. ^ 3 Plural districts plus 1 Representatives elected at-large
  5. ^ Majority required for election, two additional trials were held on January 14, 1793 and April 1, 1793
  6. ^ Majority required for election which was not met in one of the districts, a second trial was held on March 20, 1793
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai Source does not give numbers of votes or has incomplete data
  8. ^ http://artandhistory.house.gov/house_history/bioguide-front/2.pdf footnotes 12 and 13
  9. ^ a b c d Elected in subsequent special election
  10. ^ Election successfully contested
  11. ^ Successfully contested election
  12. ^ Also elected in a special election to fill vacancy left when Seney resigned his seat in December, 1792
  13. ^ a b Only candidates with at least 1% of the vote listed
  14. ^ Election was subsequently challenged by Van Rensselaer who claimed electoral irregularities, election was upheld by the House
  15. ^ a b source does not give full name
  16. ^ Wilkes University Elections Statistics Project
  17. ^ Four individuals received 1 vote each
  18. ^ Election unsuccessfully contested by Trigg
  19. ^ Had previously been Anti-Administration, but switched to Pro-Administration/Federalist from this point on
  20. ^ Had been Anti-Administration in the previous election

External links[edit]