United States House of Representatives elections in New York, 1812

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
United States House of Representatives elections in New York, 1812
New York
1810 ←
December 15-17, 1812
→ 1814

All 27[1] New York seats to the United States House of Representatives
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Federalist Democratic-Republican
Last election 5 12
Seats won 19 8
Seat change Increase 14 Decrease 4
Popular vote 74,401 65,350
Percentage 53.2% 46.8%

The 1812 United States House of Representatives elections in New York were held from December 15 to 17, 1812, to elect 27 U.S. Representatives to represent the State of New York in the United States House of Representatives of the 13th United States Congress. At the same time, a vacancy was filled in the 12th United States Congress.

Background[edit]

17 U.S. Representatives had been elected in April 1810 to a term in the 12th United States Congress beginning on March 4, 1811. The representatives' term would end on March 3, 1813. Although the U.S. Census of 1810 showed that New York would be entitled to more seats in the House, the New York State Legislature adjourned on March 27, 1812 without re-apportioning the congressional districts. Congressional elections were held, as usual, together with the State elections from April 28 to 30, 1812, but these were subsequently declared void.

1812 annulled United States House election result
District Democratic-Republican Federalist Clintonian
1
2 Gurdon S. Mumford Peter A. Jay
Silvanus Miller[2] Peter Mesier
3 Jonathan Fisk Richard Valentine Morris
4
5 Abraham J. Hasbrouck William Fraser[3]
6
7 William K. Fuller John Lovett
8 Melancton Smith Elisha I. Winter
9
10 Perley Keyes Moss Kent
11
12
13
14 J. L. Richardson Elijah Miller Ebenezer Hewitt[4]
15 Peter B. Porter Myron Holley Micah Brooks


On May 6, 1812, Robert Le Roy Livingston resigned his seat to fight in the War of 1812, leaving a vacancy in the 6th District.

The State Legislature reconvened on May 21, 1812, and re-apportioned the congressional district by an Act passed on June 10, 1812. The number of seats was increased to 27, and the date of the elections was set for December 15 to 17. At the same time the vacancy in the former 6th District was to be filled.

Congressional districts[edit]

Due to the increase in seats, the previously eliminated 16th and 17th D. were re-established, and four more districts were created. Six districts had two members, elected districtwide on a general ticket.

Note: There are now 62 counties in the State of New York. The counties which are not mentioned in this list had not yet been established, or sufficiently organized, the area being included in one or more of the abovementioned counties.

Result[edit]

19 Federalists and 8 Democratic-Republicans were elected to the 13th Congress, and one Federalist to fill the vacancy in the 12th Congress. The incumbents Sage and Avery were re-elected; the incumbent Van Cortlandt was defeated. Grosvenor was elected to fill the vacancy, and to succeed himself in the next Congress.

1812 United States House election result
District Federalist Democratic-Republican Federalist Democratic-Republican
1st Peter A. Jay 3,446 John Lefferts 3,515
Benjamin B. Blydenburgh 3,437 Ebenezer Sage 3,508
2nd Egbert Benson 3,938 John Ferguson 3,737
Jotham Post, Jr. 3,922 William Irving 3,732
3rd Richard V. Morris[5] 1,269 Peter Denoyelles 1,404 Pierre Van Cortlandt, Jr. 569
4th Thomas J. Oakley 1,995 Theodorus R. Van Wyck[6] 1,489
5th Thomas P. Grosvenor 1,856
6th John Bradner[7] 609 Jonathan Fisk 1,102 Anthony Davis[8] 431
7th Abraham T. E. De Witt[9] 1,486 Abraham J. Hasbrouck 1,631
8th Samuel Sherwood 2,303 John Ely 1,990
9th John Lovett 1,253
10th Hosea Moffitt 2,147
11th Samuel Stewart[10] 1,974 John W. Taylor 2,209
12th Zebulon R. Shipherd 3,981 Melancton Smith[11] 3,237 William Livingston 406
Elisha I. Winter 3,918 Roger Skinner 3,209
13th Alexander Boyd 1,722 John Gebhard 1,434 Jesse Shephard 208
14th Jacob Markell 2,490 James McIntyre[12] 1,987
15th Joel Thompson 4,479 Robert Roseboom[13] 3,946
William Dowse 4,418 Amos Patterson 3,924
16th Morris S. Miller 2,710 George Brayton[14] 1,573
17th William S. Smith 2,606 Hubbard Smith 1,971
18th Moss Kent 2,194 Jacob Brown 1,389
19th James Geddes 1,634 John Miller 1,297
20th Elijah Miller 2,359 Oliver C. Comstock 4,357
Vincent Mathews 2,356 Daniel Avery 4,323
21st Nathaniel W. Howell 4,428 Chauncey Loomis[15] 3,618 Micah Brooks 74
Samuel M. Hopkins 4,426 Stephen Bates[16] 3,511
Old 6th Special Thomas P. Grosvenor

Note: The Anti-Federalists called themselves "Republicans." However, at the same time, the Federalists called them "Democrats" which was meant to be pejorative. After some time both terms got more and more confused, and sometimes used together as "Democratic Republicans" which later historians have adopted (with a hyphen) to describe the party from the beginning, to avoid confusion with both the later established and still existing Democratic and Republican parties.

Aftermath, special elections and contested elections[edit]

Thomas P. Grosvenor took his seat in the 12th United States Congress on January 29, 1813.

William Dowse, elected in the 15th D., died on February 18, 1813, before the begin of the congressional term. A special election to fill the vacancy was held at the time of the annual State election from April 26 to 28, and John M. Bowers, of the same party, was declared elected.

1813 United States House special election result
District Federalist Democratic-Republican
15th John M. Bowers 4,287 Isaac Williams, Jr. 4,129 Isaac Williams 434

Note: One vote was given for "John M. Bowey", and 17 votes were scattered among other people. At the time, in the State of New York ballots with the name written by hand, or printed and distributed by the party machine men, were put in a box marked with the office the vote was intended for, like "Congress" or "Governor".

The House of Representatives of the 13th United States Congress met for the first time at the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C., on May 24, 1813, and Avery, Benson, Comstock, Denoyelles, Fisk, Geddes, Grosvenor, Kent, Lefferts, Lovett, Markell, Miller, Moffitt, Oakley, Post, Sage, Sherwood, Shiphard, Taylor, Thompson and Winter took their seats on this day. Boyd and Smith took their seats on May 25; Howell on May 26; Hopkins on June 4; Bowers on June 21; and Hasbrouck sometime before July 1.[17]

Two days after Bowers had taken his seat, on June 23, Jonathan Fisk presented a petition on behalf of Isaac Williams, Jr., contesting the election of John M. Bowers to fill the vacancy caused by the death of William Dowse. Williams, Jr., claimed that the votes returned for "Isaac Williams" were intended for him,[18] since there were only two candidates - Bowers and Williams, Jr. - and although there were two other men named Isaac Williams living in this district, neither of them was running for Congress. On July 2, the United States House Committee on Elections reported that it seemed the claim was justified, considering that in some towns apparently all votes were given for "Williams" and none for "Williams, Jr." Nevertheless, the Committee were "of the opinion that further evidence was necessary, to form a correct decision" and postponed the matter "until the first Wednesday of the next session."[19]

On July 7, 1813, a petition on behalf of Peter A. Jay and Benjamin B. Blydenburgh was presented to the House, contesting the election of Ebenezer Sage and John Lefferts in the 1st D. On July 13, the Committee on Elections postponed this case also to the next session, but no further action was taken.[20]

Egbert Benson resigned his seat on August 2, 1813, at the end of the first session of the 13th Congress. A special election to fill the vacancy was held in the 2nd District from December 28 to 30, and was won by William Irving, of the opposing party. Irving took his seat on January 22, 1814.

1813 United States House special election result
District Democratic-Republican Federalist
2nd William Irving 3,895 Peter A. Jay 3,518

The second session of the 13th Congress began on December 6, 1813, and on December 13, Fisk asked the Committee to submit its final report. On December 20, the Committee reported that in the towns of Exeter, Milford and Westford 322 votes were in fact given for "Isaac Williams, Jr.", but had been returned for "Isaac Williams" by the election inspectors "by mistake." The House declared unanimously Williams, Jr., entitled to the seat instead of Bowers. Williams, Jr., took his seat on January 24, 1814.[21]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ 10 new seats in reapportionment
  2. ^ Silvanus Miller, assemblyman 1808
  3. ^ William Fraser, of Greene Co., assemblyman 1814
  4. ^ Ebenezer Hewitt, of Cayuga Co., assemblyman 1808-09 and 1811; DeWitt Clinton ran later in 1812 for President on a "Peace Ticket" supported by Federalists and "Clintonians", i.e. the minority of the Democratic-Republican Party opposed to the War of 1812; Hewitt apparently ran as a third candidate, neither the regular Dem.-Rep. nor Fed. nominee, but had the highest number of votes in Cayuga Co.: Hewitt 953; Miller (F) 941; Richardson (D-R) 928
  5. ^ Richard Valentine Morris, assemblyman 1814
  6. ^ Theodorus R. Van Wyck, assemblyman 1803 and 1804
  7. ^ John Bradner, assemblyman 1786
  8. ^ Anthony Davis, assemblyman 1808-09, 1811 and 1818
  9. ^ Abraham Ten Eyck De Witt, assemblyman 1808
  10. ^ Samuel Stewart, of Waterford, state senator 1814-17
  11. ^ Melancton Smith (1780-1818), son of Melancton Smith, father of Melancton Smith (1810–1893)
  12. ^ James McIntyre, assemblyman 1804-05, 1806, 1811 and 1822
  13. ^ Robert Roseboom, of Otsego Co., assemblyman 1800, 1807, 1808, 1811, 1812 and 1814-15
  14. ^ George Brayton, assemblyman 1804-05, 1806, 1807 and 1818
  15. ^ Chauncey Loomis, of Genesee Co., assemblyman 1810 and 1811; state senator 1815-18
  16. ^ Stephen Bates, of Canandaigua, state senator 1816-19
  17. ^ Abridgment of the Debates in Congress (Vol. V; pages 15ff, 55 and 64)
  18. ^ Similar contested elections happened throughout the 19th century, until a ballot reform was finally enacted in 1890; see also New York state election, 1851#Contested election
  19. ^ Cases of Contested Elections in Congress 1789 to 1834 compiled by Matthew St. Clair Clarke and David A. Hall (Washington, D.C., 1834; Case XXXV, pages 263f)
  20. ^ Cases of Contested Elections in Congress 1789 to 1834 compiled by Matthew St. Clair Clarke and David A. Hall (Washington, D.C., 1834; Case XXXVI, page 265)
  21. ^ Journal of the House of Representatives of the United States (pages 43, 50, 207 and 217)

Sources[edit]