United States House of Representatives elections, 1836

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1836
United States
1834 ←
July 4, 1836 - November 7, 1837 → 1838

All 242 seats to the United States House of Representatives
122 seats were needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  James Knox Polk by GPA Healy, 1858.jpg JohnBellSecretaryofWar.png
Leader James K. Polk John Bell
Party Democratic Whig
Leader's seat Tennessee-9th Tennessee-7th
Last election 143 seats 75 seats
Seats won 128[1][Note 1] 100[1][Note 1]
Seat change Decrease 15 Increase 25

  Third party Fourth party
 
Leader Thomas Henry John K. Griffin
Party Anti-Masonic Nullifier
Leader's seat Pennsylvania-22nd South Carolina-9th
Last election 16 seats 8 seats
Seats won 7 6[Note 1]
Seat change Decrease 9 Decrease 2

Speaker before election

James K. Polk
Democratic

Elected Speaker

James K. Polk
Democratic

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 25th Congress were held in 1836 and 1837.

Although Democrat Martin Van Buren was elected president, the Democrats continued to lose seats in the House. The Whigs played off the unpopularity of Jackson's refusal to compromise with Congress or cooperate with the Supreme Court. Despite Whig gains, the Democrats held on to a majority. In addition, the 1836–1837 U.S. House elections saw the continuing decline of the single-issue Anti-Masonic (based on the distrust of Freemasonry) and Nullifier (based on the principle of states' rights) parties. Also, John Pope was elected as an Independent to Kentucky's 7th District.[2]

Election summaries[edit]

128 6 7 1 100
Democratic N AM I Whig
State Type Date Total
seats
Democratic[Note 2] Whig[Note 3] Anti-Masonic Nullifier
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Delaware At-large November 8, 1836 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia At-large October 3, 1836 9 8 Decrease1 1 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District (3) August 1, 1836 3 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Louisiana District (3) July 4–6, 1836 3 1 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maine District (8) September 12, 1836 8 6 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Massachusetts District (12) November 14, 1836 12 2 Increase1 10 Increase2 0 Decrease3 0 Steady
Missouri At-large August 1, 1836 2 2 Increase1 0 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Jersey At-large November 16, 1836 6 0 Decrease6 6 Increase6 0 Steady 0 Steady
New York District (33[Note 4]) November 7–9, 1836 40 30 Decrease1 10 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Ohio District (19) October 11, 1836 19 8 Decrease1 11 Increase2 0 Decrease1 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District (25[Note 5]) October 11, 1836 28 18 Increase1 3 Steady 7 Decrease1 0 Steady
South Carolina District (9) October 10–11, 1836 9 2 Increase1 1 Decrease1 0 Steady 6 Steady
Vermont District (5) September 6, 1836 5 1 Increase1 4 Increase1 0 Decrease2 0 Steady
1837 elections
Alabama District (5) August 8, 1837 5 3 Steady 2 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Decrease1
Arkansas At-large October 2, 1837 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Connecticut District[Note 6] (6) April 3, 1837 6 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Indiana District (7) August 7, 1837 7 1 Decrease5 6 Increase5 0 Steady 0 Steady
Kentucky[Note 7] District (13) August 7, 1837 13[Note 7] 1 Decrease3 11 Increase2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland District (7[Note 8]) July 26, 1837 8 4 Steady 4 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan At-large August 22, 1837 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Mississippi At-large July 17–18, 1837[Note 9]
November 6–7, 1837[Note 10]
2 2[Note 11] Increase1 0[Note 12] Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Hampshire At-large March 14, 1837 5 5 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
North Carolina District (13) August 10, 1837 13 5 Decrease2 8 Increase2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Rhode Island At-large August 29, 1837 2 0 Steady 2 Increase2 0 Decrease2 0 Steady
Tennessee District (13) August 3, 1837 13 3 Decrease1 10 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia District (21) April 27, 1837 21 15 Decrease1 6 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Total 242 128
52.9%
Decrease15 100
41.3%
Increase25 7
2.9%
Decrease9 6
2.5%
Decrease2
House seats
Democratic
  
52.89%
Whig
  
41.32%
Anti-Masonic
  
2.89%
Nullifier
  
2.48%
Independent
  
0.41%

The 1st session of the 25th Congress began on September 4, 1837, before Arkansas' and Mississippi's Congressional elections. In Mississippi, the governor issued writs for a special election for July 17–18. Initially, the Elections Committee accepted the winners of that election, John F. H. Claiborne (D) and Samuel J. Gholson (D) as holding their seats for the entirety of the 25th Congress. However, the regular November election was also held, and elected Sergeant S. Prentiss (W) and Thomas J. Word (W), and on February 5, 1838, the earlier decision was rescinded, and the winners of the November election were seated in the place of the July winners.

Complete returns[edit]

Pennsylvania[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[Note 13][3]
Pennsylvania 1 Joel B. Sutherland Jacksonian 1826 Lost re-election
Democratic hold
Lemuel Paynter (D) 55.3%
Joel B. Sutherland (W[Note 14]) 44.7%
Pennsylvania 2
Plural district with 2 seats
Joseph R. Ingersoll Anti-Jacksonian 1834 Retired
Whig hold
John Sergeant (W) 63.1%
George W. Toland (W) 63.0%

Read Longstreth (D) 37.7%
John M. Morris (D) 36.3%
James Harper Anti-Jacksonian 1832 Retired
Whig hold
Pennsylvania 3 Michael W. Ash Jacksonian 1834 Retired
Democratic hold
Francis J. Harper (D) 50.5%
Charles Naylor[Note 15] (W) 49.5%
Pennsylvania 4
Plural district with 3 seats
William Hiester Anti-Masonic 1830 Retired
Anti-Masonic hold
David Potts, Jr. (AM[Note 16]) 53.8%
Edward Darlington (AM[Note 16]) 53.6%
Edward Davies (AM[Note 16]) 53.6%

Samuel Leiper (D) 46.4%
John K. Findley (D) 46.3%
John W. Cunningham (D) 46.3%
Edward Darlington Anti-Masonic 1832 Re-elected
David Potts, Jr. Anti-Masonic 1830 Re-elected
Pennsylvania 5 Jacob Fry, Jr. Jacksonian 1834 Re-elected Jacob Fry, Jr. (D) 61.9%
Daniel M. Mulvaney (W) 38.1%
Pennsylvania 6 Mathias Morris Anti-Jacksonian 1834 Re-elected Mathias Morris (W) 51.4%
John Rockman (D) 48.6%
Pennsylvania 7 David D. Wagener Jacksonian 1832 Re-elected David D. Wagener (D) 73.7%
Jacob Weygandt (W) 26.3%
Pennsylvania 8 Edward B. Hubley Jacksonian 1834 Re-elected Edward B. Hubley (D) 54.2%
William Audenried (AM) 45.8%
Pennsylvania 9 Henry A. P. Muhlenberg Jacksonian 1828 Re-elected Henry A. P. Muhlenberg (D) 57.5%
Henry W. Smith (W) 42.5%
Pennsylvania 10 William Clark Anti-Masonic 1832 Retired
Democratic gain
Luther Reily (D) 50.8%
George W. Harris (W) 49.2%
Pennsylvania 11 Henry Logan Jacksonian 1834 Re-elected Henry Logan (D) 58.2%
Jacob Kirk (W) 41.8%
Pennsylvania 12 George Chambers Anti-Masonic 1832 Retired
Democratic gain
Daniel Sheffer (D) 50.5%
G. James McSherry (AM) 49.5%
Pennsylvania 13 Jesse Miller Jacksonian 1832 Retired
Democratic hold
Charles McClure (D) 57.5%
William Sharon (W) 42.5%
Pennsylvania 14 Joseph Henderson Jacksonian 1832 Retired
Democratic hold
William W. Potter (D) 59.6%
John Williamson (AM) 38.2%
John Ashman (AM) 2.2%
Pennsylvania 15 Andrew Beaumont Jacksonian 1832 Retired
Democratic hold
David Petrikin (D) 52.1%
John McReynolds (W) 47.9%
Pennsylvania 16 Joseph B. Anthony Jacksonian 1832 Retired
Democratic hold
Robert H. Hammond (D) 59.1%
Ebenezer Greenough (A) 40.9%
Pennsylvania 17 John Laporte Jacksonian 1832 Retired
Democratic hold
Samuel W. Morris (D) 60.2%
William Jessup (W) 39.8%
Pennsylvania 18 Job Mann Jacksonian 1832 Lost re-election
Anti-Masonic gain
Charles Ogle (AM) 51.7%
Job Mann (D) 48.3%
Pennsylvania 19 John Klingensmith, Jr. Jacksonian 1832 Re-elected John Klingensmith, Jr. (D) 58.0%
James Moorhead (W) 42.0%
Pennsylvania 20 Andrew Buchanan Jacksonian 1832 Re-elected Andrew Buchanan (D) 100%
Pennsylvania 21 Thomas M. T. McKennan Anti-Masonic 1830 Re-elected Thomas M. T. McKennan (AM) 52.2%
Thomas Ringland (D) 47.8%
Pennsylvania 22 Harmar Denny Anti-Masonic 1829 (special) Retired
Anti-Masonic hold
Richard Biddle (AM) 51.4%
Trevanion B. Dallas (D) 48.6%
Pennsylvania 23 Samuel S. Harrison Jacksonian 1832 Retired
Democratic hold
William Beatty (D) 56.5%
Joseph Buffington (W) 43.5%
Pennsylvania 24 Previous incumbent John Banks (AM) resigned April 2, 1836 Anti-Masonic hold Thomas Henry (AM) 56.1%
John R. Shannon (D) 43.9%
Pennsylvania 25 John Galbraith Jacksonian 1832 Retired
Democratic hold
Arnold Plumer (D) 54.4%
David Dick (W) 45.6%

There were two special elections to fill vacancies in Pennsylvania's representation during the 25th Congress. The first was in the 3rd district caused by Francis J. Harper (D)'s death on March 18, 1837, shortly after the official start of the 25th Congress, but before the first meeting. Said vacancy was filled by Charles Naylor (W). The second was in the 9th district when Henry A. P. Muhlenberg (D) resigned February 9, 1838, which vacancy was filled by George Keim (D)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Dubin (p. 119) records only 99 Whigs, with a vacancy in TN-04 (which was later filled by a Whig). Dubin also records 132 Democrats, and only 2 Nullifiers. Figures listed here defer to Martis (p. 94).
  2. ^ Previously Jacksonian
  3. ^ Previously Anti-Jacksonian
  4. ^ Includes 5 plural districts
  5. ^ Includes 3 plural districts
  6. ^ Changed from at-large
  7. ^ a b John Pope was elected as an Independent to KY-07, and so is not included in the figures here. Pope would run in later elections as a Whig.
  8. ^ Includes 1 plural district
  9. ^ Special election
  10. ^ Regular election
  11. ^ 0 after second election
  12. ^ 2 after second election
  13. ^ For plural districts, percent is based on assumption that each voter cast as many votes as there are seats
  14. ^ Changed parties
  15. ^ Won subsequent special election
  16. ^ a b c Joint Whig/Anti-Masonic ticket

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Martis, p. 94.
  2. ^ Dubin, p. 117; Martis, p. 94; Moore, p. 966.
  3. ^ Wilkes University Elections Statistics Project

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]