United States House of Representatives elections, 1860

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1860
United States
1858 ←
August 6, 1860 - October 24, 1861
→ 1862

All 183 seats to the United States House of Representatives
92 seats were needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party Third party
  GalushaAaron.jpg SSCox.jpg Francis Thomas of Maryland - photo portrait seated.jpg
Leader Galusha Grow Samuel Cox Francis Thomas
Party Republican Democratic Constitutional Union
Leader's seat Pennsylvania-14th Ohio-12th Maryland-5th
Last election 116 seats 83 seats 0 seats
Seats won 108 44 30
Seat change Decrease 8 Decrease 39 Increase 30

Speaker before election

William Pennington
Republican

Elected Speaker

Galusha Grow
Republican

Elections among the 33 states to the 37th United States Congress of the House of Representatives were held August 1860 through September 1861. Following the presidential election of 1860, Electoral College vote and Inauguration swearing-in, their term would coincide with the first two years of Abraham Lincoln's first administration.

US Capitol Building, March 1861, Lincoln’s First Inaugural, and opening of the 37th Congress that would see members withdraw with their state Secessionist Conventions

Republican candidates won increasing percentages of the House in 1856, 1858 and, in 1860, after secessionist losses, they amounted to 59% of the House. In the same six-year period of political chaos running up to the American Civil War, the Democratic Party atrophied from holding the presidency and a two-third’s majority, to a minority caucus of less than one-third and loss of supporting presidential patronage.

This election forged Northern unity behind the pro-union Republican Party of 108 Representatives, and broad based pro-union majorities in the north and south border states among the mostly Douglas Democrats with 45 members and the Unionists and others amounting to another 28.

The last of a Democratic Party dominated by the slave-holding states was left to a remnant. The national party was destroyed by infighting over slavery, with minority cotton state delegates walking out in national conventions at Charleston and again at Baltimore. They were left with a rump session of cotton South delegates nominating John Breckinridge in Richmond. Those delegates returning to Congress withdrew, resigned, or were expelled. The nativist American Party completely collapsed in 1860.[1]

Election summaries[edit]

California was apportioned an additional seat for the 37th Congress,[2] increasing the total number of seats to 239. Due to the secession of the Southern states, 58 of the 66 total seats held collectively by those states were vacant, all but 3 of Tennessee's seats and 5 of Virginia's seats. The states of Arkansas, Florida, and South Carolina held elections for the 37th Congress, but seceded before the start of Congress, and so the winners of those elections never served. The rest of the secessionist states held no elections for 1860.

108 1 30 44
Republican I Unionist Democratic
State Type Date Total
seats
Republican Democratic Unionist[3] Others
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
1859 election
Kansas[4] At-large December 1, 1859 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
1860 elections
Delaware At-large November 6, 1860
(Election Day)[5]
1 0 Steady 0 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Illinois District 9 4 Steady 5 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Massachusetts District 11 10 Decrease 1 0 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Michigan District 4 4 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Minnesota At-large 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Jersey District 5 2 Decrease 1 3 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
New York District 33 23 Decrease 3 10[6] Increase 3 0 Steady 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 3 3 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Indiana District October 9, 1860 11 7 Steady 4 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Iowa District October 9, 1860 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maine District September 10, 1860 6 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri District August 6, 1860 7 1 Increase 1 5 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1[7]
Ohio District October 9, 1860 21 13 Decrease 2 8 Increase 2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Oregon[8] At-large June 4, 1860
November 6, 1860
1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District October 9, 1860 25 19 Decrease 1 6 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Vermont District September 4, 1860 3 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
1861 elections
California At-large September 4, 1861 3[9] 3 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Connecticut District April 1, 1861 4 2 Decrease 2 2 Increase 2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Kentucky District June 20, 1861 10 0 Steady 1 Decrease 4 9 Increase 9 0 Decrease 5[10]
Maryland District June 13, 1861 6 0 Steady 0 Decrease 3 6 Increase 6 0 Decrease 3[7]
New Hampshire District March 12, 1861 3 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Rhode Island District April 3, 1861 2 0 Decrease 2 0 Steady 2 Increase 2 0 Steady
Tennessee District August 1, 1861 10[11] 0 Steady 0 Decrease 3 3 Increase 3 0 Decrease 7[10]
Virginia District October 24, 1861 13[12] 0 Steady 0 Decrease 12 5 Increase 5 0 Decrease 1[10]
Secessionist States with no Representation
Alabama District 7 0 Steady 0 Decrease 7 0 Steady 0 Steady
Arkansas District August 6, 1860 2 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Florida At-large October 1, 1860 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia District 8 0 Steady 0 Decrease 6 0 Steady 0 Decrease 2[13]
Louisiana District 4 0 Steady 0 Decrease 3 0 Steady 0 Decrease 1[10]
Mississippi District 5 0 Steady 0 Decrease 5 0 Steady 0 Steady
North Carolina District 8 0 Steady 0 Decrease 5 0 Steady 0 Decrease 3[10]
South Carolina District October 8–9, 1860 6 0 Steady 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Texas District 2 0 Steady 0 Decrease 2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Total[14] 181
58 vacancies
108
59.7%
Decrease 6 45
24.9%
Decrease 56 28
15.5%
Increase 28 0
0.0%
Decrease 23[15]
House seats
Republican
  
59.02%
Democratic
  
24.04%
Unionist
  
16.39%
Other
  
0.55%

Impact of the secessionist movement[edit]

United States 37th Congress,1861.
Pro-union Free states: dark blue. Pro-Union Slave' states: light blue; (West Virginia abolished slavery with statehood.)
Secessionist Convention Slave states:red
The numbers in Congress are reduced by the 'vacant' seats

In the wake of the declared secession of South Carolina from the Union on December 20, 1860, many Southern House members, mostly Democrats, refused to take their seats, rejecting the election of Lincoln as illegitimate. Before 1872, different states held elections at various times; the first elections for the 37th Congress were held on August 6, 1860 in Arkansas and Missouri, while the last election took place in California on September 4, 1861, a year later. Three Southern states - Arkansas, Florida, and South Carolina - chose Representatives before the presidential election, electing seven Democrats and two independents. These were the only House elections from the seceding states to the 37th Congress. After South Carolina resolved disunion and the Confederate States of America was formed, other Southern states declared as well and elected Representatives to the new Congress of the Confederate States instead of the United States Congress.

Since the states not holding elections had many strong Democratic districts - in the previous 36th Congress their Representatives included a total of 46 Democrats, 14 Oppositionists, five independents, and one member of the American Party - when Congress was called into session on July 4, 1861 (five months earlier than usual at the time) the size of the Democratic House caucus had been drastically reduced, resulting in a huge Republican majority.

Of the 183 seats, 102 were held by Republicans, 44 by Democrats, 23 by Unionists, and five others by one party each. There were several vacancies, and California had not held its election when Congress assembled.

End of a Congressional era[edit]

US Congressional Party Transformation, 1857–1863[16]
Congress 35th
1857-59
36th
1859-61
37th
1861-63
United States House of Representatives
Seats (change) 237 (+3) 238 (+1) 183 (-55)
Republicans 90.38% 116.49% 108.59%
Unionists 0.0% 0.0% 31.17%
Americans (+) 14.6% 39.16% (4-way split) 0.0%
Democrats 133.56% 83.35% 44.24%
United States Senate
Seats (change) 66 (+4) 68 (+2) 50 (-18)
Republicans 20.30% 26.38% 31.62%
Unionists 0.0% 0.0% 3.6%
Americans 5.8% 2.3% 0.0%
Democrats 41.62% 38.58% 15.30%

In 1860, Lincoln’s campaign brought the Republicans the Presidency. Likewise, the congressional elections also marked the transition from one major era of political parties to another. In just six years, over the course of the 35th, 36th and 37th Congresses, a complete reversal of party fortunes swamped the Democrats.[17]

Columbia switches Stephen A. Douglas labeled with early election date 'news from Maine'.
Uncle Sam looks on approvingly.
Other early returns in PA, OH and IN showed good prospects for Republicans in the upcoming federal elections[18]

Elections for Congress were held from August 1860 to June 1861. They were held before, during and after the pre-determined Presidential campaign. And they were held before, during and after the secessionist campaigns in various states as they were reported throughout the country. Political conditions varied hugely from time to time during the course of congressional selection, but they had been shifting to a considerable extent in the years running up to the crisis.[19]

In the 1856 elections, the Democrats had taken the Presidency for the sixth time in the last 40 years, with James Buchanan's victory over John C. Fremont and Millard Fillmore. They held almost a two-thirds majority in both the US House and Senate. Democrats held onto the Senate during the midterm elections, but the four opposition parties then amounted to two-thirds of the House. The congressional elections in 1860 transformed Democratic fortunes: Republican and Unionist candidates won a two-thirds majority in both House and Senate.[20]

After the secessionist withdrawal, resignation and expulsion, the Democrats would have less than 25% of the House for the 37th Congress, and that minority divided further between pro-unionists (Stephen Douglas), and anti-war (Clement Vallandingham) factions.[21]

Results by region[edit]

The politics of these elections were distinctive in every region of the country. The more conventional listing of Members in their state delegations, alphabetically by state, can be found at the 37th Congress article.

Party Total seats Change Percentage
Republican Party 108 - 8 59.0%
Democratic Party 44 - 39 24.0%
Constitutional Unionist Party 30 + 30 16.3%
Independent 1 - 14 0.5%
Totals 183 - 55 100.0%

Each Region below lists the states composing it using Freehling's descriptions from 1860. The Representative's biographies are linked at their names. Each Congressional District has a link, named by its state abbreviation and its assigned number or noted At-large election. In a time before the Census Department published aggregate population data by Congressional District, the reader may have ready access to census data identifying the make up of those each district by referring to their respective articles.

The articles use different formats. The constituent counties of Congressional Districts are sometimes listed in a contents heading “List of representatives” within tables. These tables have a column naming the District’s counties for each election, such as (a) “District Area” for Massachusetts, or (b) “Area” for Illinois and Maryland. Virginia uses “Historical composition of the district” to describe composition at each reapportionment. Pennsylvania notes the home county of the elected representative, sometimes holding the largest population for respective districts. Minnesota makes a geographical allusion for its 1st District applicable to the 37th Congress. Michigan uses “History” since 1852 for its 4th district. In some states, previous district composition is not described.

New England[edit]

The twenty-nine seats in the House among these six states are divided 24 Republican, two Union Party, one Constitutional Union, and two Democratic. The region is important nationally in manufacturing and intellectually as the center of literature, Transcendentalism and the abolition movement.

Connecticut[edit]

Maine[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Maine 1 Daniel E. Somes Republican 1858 Retired
Republican Hold
Maine 2 John J. Perry Republican 1854 Retired
Republican Hold
Maine 3 Ezra B. French Republican 1858 Retired
Republican Hold
Maine 4 Freeman H. Morse Republican 1856 Retired
Republican Hold
Maine 5 Israel Washburn, Jr. Republican 1850 Retired to run for Governor
Republican Hold
  • John H. Rice (R) 59.81%
  • Samuel H. Blake (D) 38.69%
  • Ebenezer Hutchinson (I) 1.04%
Maine 6 Stephen C. Foster Republican 1856 Retired
Republican Hold

Massachusetts[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Massachusetts 1 Thomas D. Eliot Republican 1858 Re-elected
  • Thomas D. Eliot (R) 72.53%
  • Daniel Fisher (CU) 10.47%
  • Moses Bates (D) 8.66%
  • F. E. Sanford (Breckinridge Democrat) 8.34%
Massachusetts 2 James Buffington Republican 1854 Re-elected
Massachusetts 3 Charles Francis Adams, Sr. Republican 1858 Re-elected
Massachusetts 4 Alexander H. Rice Republican 1858 Re-elected
Massachusetts 5 Anson Burlingame Republican 1854 Lost re-election
Constitutional Union Gain
Massachusetts 6 John B. Alley Republican 1858 Re-elected
  • John B. Alley (D) 53.2%
  • Otis P. Lord (CU) 16.16%
  • Jefferson Knight (D) 14.39%
  • George B. Loring (Breckinridge Democrat) 4.72%
Massachusetts 7 Daniel W. Gooch Republican 1858 Re-elected
  • Daniel W. Gooch (R) 60.48%
  • Charles A. Welch (D) 35.79%
  • George Johnson (Breckinridge Democrat) 3.74%
Massachusetts 8 Charles R. Train Republican 1859 Re-elected
  • Charles R. Train (R) 64.88%
  • Alpheus R Brown (D) 16.72%
  • Winthrop E. Faulkner (CU) 15.67%
  • James C Abbott (Breckinridge Democrat) 2.74%
Massachusetts 9 Eli Thayer Constitutional Union 1856 Defeated
Republican Gain
Massachusetts 10 Charles Delano Republican 1858 Re-elected
  • Charles Delano (R) 75.39%
  • Josiah Allis (D) 19.02%
  • Benning Leavitt (Breckingridge Democrat) 5.59%
Massachusetts 11 Henry L. Dawes Republican 1856 Re-elected
  • Henry L. Dawes (R) 67.71%
  • Norman T Leonard (D) 28.60%
  • John M Cole (Breckinridge Democrat) 3.69%

New Hampshire[edit]

Rhode Island[edit]

Vermont[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Vermont 1 Eliakim P. Walton Republican 1856 Re-elected
  • Eliakim P. Walton (R) 73.60%
  • Silas Wilcox (D) 24.29%
  • U. M. Robinson (Breckinridge Democrat) 2.11%
Vermont 2 Justin S. Morrill Republican 1854 Re-elected
  • Justin S. Morrill (R) 74.81%
  • Charles N. Davenport (D) 19.63%
  • Asa M. Dickey (Breckinridge Democrat) 5.55%
Vermont 3 Homer E. Royce Republican 1856 Retired
Republican Hold
  • Portus Baxter (R) 72.48%
  • Arzo D. Chaffee (D) 22.53%
  • Wyllys Lyman (Breckinridge Democrat) 4.99%

North Central[edit]

The thirty-eight Representatives from this region will seat 25 Republicans and thirteen Democrats. This region had the closest commercial and social ties to the South due to its sea-going commerce and trans-shipping cotton to local textile plants and for export.

New Jersey[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New Jersey 1 John T. Nixon Republican 1858 Re-elected
New Jersey 2 John L. N. Stratton Republican 1858 Re-elected
New Jersey 3 Garnett Adrain Anti-Lecompton Democrat 1856 Retired
Democratic Hold
New Jersey 4 Jetur R. Riggs Anti-Lecompton Democrat 1858 Retired
Democratic Hold
New Jersey 5 William Pennington Republican 1858 Defeated
Democratic Gain

New York[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New York 1 Luther C. Carter Republican 1858 Defeated
Democratic Gain
New York 2 James Humphrey Republican 1858 Defeated
Democratic Gain
New York 3 Daniel Sickles Democratic 1856 Retired
Democratic Hold
  • Benjamin Wood (D) 52.83%
  • Amer J. Williamson (R) 41.11%
  • John Y. Savage (ID) 6.05%
New York 4 Thomas J. Barr Independent Democrat 1858 Retired
Independent Democrat Hold
  • James Kerrigan (ID) 41.30%
  • Michael Tuomy (D) 32.02%
  • John Commerford (R) 26.68%
New York 5 William B. Maclay Democratic 1856 Retired
Republican Gain
  • William Wall (R) 41.00%
  • Nelson Taylor (D) 40.61%
  • John Duffy (ID) 18.39%
New York 6 John Cochrane Democratic 1856 Lost Re-nomination
Republican Gain
New York 7 George Briggs Republican 1858 Retired
Democratic Gain
New York 8 Horace F. Clark Anti-Lecompton Democrat 1856 Retired
Democratic hold
New York 9 John B. Haskin Anti-Lecompton Democrat 1856 Retired
Democratic hold
New York 10 Charles Van Wyck Republican 1858 Re-elected
New York 11 William S. Kenyon Republican 1858 Retired
Democratic Gain
New York 12 Charles Lewis Beale Republican 1858 Retired
Republican hold
  • Stephen Baker (R) 51.99%
  • Ambrose Wager (D) 46.34%
  • John H. Overheister (Breckinridge Democrat) 1.67%
New York 13 Abram B. Olin Republican 1856 Re-elected
New York 14 John H. Reynolds Anti-Lecompton Democrat 1858 Retired
Democratic hold
New York 15 James B. McKean Republican 1858 Re-elected
New York 16 George W. Palmer Republican 1856 Retired
Republican hold
New York 17 Francis E. Spinner Republican 1854 Retired
Republican hold
New York 18 Clark B. Cochrane Republican 1856 Retired
Democratic Gain
New York 19 James H. Graham Republican 1858 Retired
Republican hold
New York 20 Roscoe Conkling Republican 1858 Re-elected
New York 21 R. Holland Duell Republican 1858 Re-elected
  • R. Holland Duell (R) 62.21%
  • Simon C. Hitchcock (D) 21.94%
  • Judson C. Nelson (Breckinridge Democrat) 15.86%
New York 22 M. Lindley Lee Republican 1858 Retired
Republican hold
New York 23 Charles B. Hoard Republican 1856 Retired
Republican hold
  • Ambrose W. Clark (R) 59.90%
  • James F. Starbuck (D) 38.21%
  • George C. Sherman (Breckinridge Democrat) 1.90%
New York 24 Charles B. Sedgwick Republican 1858 Re-elected
  • Charles B. Sedgwick (R) 60.42%
  • Lake Tefft (D) 32.92%
  • Luther Hay (Breckinridge Democrat) 6.67%
New York 25 Martin Butterfield Republican 1858 Retired
Republican hold
New York 26 Emory B. Pottle Republican 1856 Retired
Republican hold
New York 27 Alfred Wells Republican 1858 Retired
Republican hold
New York 28 William Irvine Republican 1858 Retired
Republican hold
New York 29 Alfred Ely Republican 1858 Re-elected
  • Alfred Ely (R) 59.41%
  • Mortimer F. Reynolds (D) 40.59%
New York 30 Augustus Frank Republican 1858 Re-elected
New York 31 Edwin R. Reynolds Republican 1860 Retired
Republican hold
  • Burt Van Horn (R) 58.81%
  • Phineas L. Ely (D) 39.94%
  • Jonathan L. Woods (Breckinridge Democrat) 1.26%
New York 32 Elbridge G. Spaulding Republican 1858 Re-elected
New York 33 Reuben Fenton Republican 1856 Re-elected

Border North[edit]

The 73 seats in this region were split 50 Republican, 23 Democratic. Illinois is the only state here with more Democrats than Republicans.

These are free-soil states, north of the Mason-Dixon Line. These states had either abolished slavery, or Congress had forbidden it in their Territory, and they had forbidden it at the beginning of their statehood.[22]

Illinois[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Illinois 1 Elihu B. Washburne Republican 1852 Re-elected
Illinois 2 John F. Farnsworth Republican 1856 Retired
Republican Hold
Illinois 3 Owen Lovejoy Republican 1856 Re-elected
  • Owen Lovejoy (R) 60.01%
  • Robert N. Murray (D) 38.20%
  • William N. Murry (I) 1.79%
Illinois 4 William Kellogg Republican 1856 Re-elected
Illinois 5 Isaac N. Morris Democratic 1856 Retired
Democratic Hold
Illinois 6 John A. McClernand Democratic 1859 Re-elected
Illinois 7 James C. Robinson Democratic 1858 Re-elected
Illinois 8 Philip B. Fouke Democratic 1858 Re-elected
  • Philip B. Fouke (D) 55.24%
  • Joseph Gillespie (R) 44.33%
  • Willis D. Green (I) 0.43%
Illinois 9 John A. Logan Democratic 1858 Re-elected

Indiana[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Indiana 1 William E. Niblack Democratic 1857 Retired
Democratic Hold
  • John Law (D) 55.67%
  • Lemuel Q. Debruler (R) 44.33%
Indiana 2 William H. English Democratic 1858 Retired
Democratic Hold
Indiana 3 William M. Dunn Republican 1858 Re-elected
Indiana 4 William S. Holman Democratic 1858 Re-elected
Indiana 5 David Kilgore Republican 1858 Retired
Republican Hold
Indiana 6 Albert G. Porter Republican 1858 Re-elected
Indiana 7 John G. Davis Anti-Lecompton Democrat 1858 Retired
Democratic Hold
  • Daniel W. Voorhees (D) 51.46%
  • Thomas H. Nelson (R) 47.28%
  • James A. Scott (Independent) 1.26%
Indiana 8 James Wilson Republican 1858 Retired
Republican Hold
Indiana 9 Schuyler Colfax Republican 1858 Re-elected
Indiana 10 Charles Case Republican 1858 Retired
Republican Hold
Indiana 11 John U. Pettit Republican 1856 Retired
Republican Hold

Michigan[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Michigan 1 William A. Howard Republican 1854 Retired
Republican Hold
Michigan 2 Henry Waldron Republican 1854 Retired
Republican Hold
Michigan 3 Francis W. Kellogg Republican 1858 Re-elected
Michigan 4 Dewitt C. Leach Republican 1858 Retired
Republican Hold

Ohio[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[23]
Ohio 1 George H. Pendleton Democratic 1856 Re-elected
Ohio 2 John A. Gurley Republican 1858 Re-elected
Ohio 3 Clement Vallandigham Democratic 1858 (s) Re-elected
Ohio 4 William Allen Democratic 1858 Re-elected
Ohio 5 James M. Ashley Republican 1858 Re-elected
Ohio 6 William Howard Democratic 1858 Retired
Democratic hold
Ohio 7 Thomas Corwin Republican 1858 Re-elected
  • Thomas Corwin (R) 69.95%
  • William B. Telfair (D) 20.16%
  • William Stokes (CU) 9.89%
Ohio 8 Benjamin Stanton Republican 1854 Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 9 John Carey Republican 1858 Lost Re-election
Democratic gain
Ohio 10 Carey A. Trimble Republican 1858 Re-elected
Ohio 11 Charles D. Martin Democratic 1858 Lost Re-election
Republican gain
Ohio 12 Samuel S. Cox Democratic 1856 Re-elected
Ohio 13 John Sherman Republican 1854 Re-elected
Ohio 14 Harrison G. O. Blake Republican 1859 (s) Re-elected
Ohio 15 William Helmick Republican 1858 Lost Re-election
Democratic gain
Ohio 16 Cydnor B. Tompkins Republican 1856 Lost Re-nomination
Republican hold
Ohio 17 Thomas C. Theaker Republican 1858 Lost Re-election
Democratic gain
Ohio 18 Sidney Edgerton Republican 1858 Re-elected
Ohio 19 Edward Wade Republican 1852 Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 20 John Hutchins Republican 1858 Re-elected
Ohio 21 John Bingham Republican 1854 Re-elected
  • John Bingham (R) 61.17%
  • George Wells (D) 33.71%
  • Blakely (I) 5.12%

Pennsylvania[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Pennsylvania 1 Thomas B. Florence Democratic 1848 Retired
Democratic Hold
Pennsylvania 2 Edward J. Morris People's 1856 Re-elected
Republican Gain
Pennsylvania 3 John P. Verree People's 1858 Re-elected
Republican Gain
Pennsylvania 4 William Millward People's 1858 Retired
Republican Gain
Pennsylvania 5 John Wood People's 1858 Retired
Republican Gain
Pennsylvania 6 John Hickman Democratic 1856 Re-elected
Republican Gain
  • John Hickman (R) 55.97%
  • John H. Brinton (D) 42.51%
  • Frazier Smith (D - Anti-Lecompton) 1.52%
Pennsylvania 7 Thomas Corwin Republican 1858 Re-elected
  • Thomas Corwin (R) 69.95%
  • William B. Telfair (D) 20.16%
  • William Stokes (CU) 9.89%
Pennsylvania 8 Jacob K. McKenty Democratic 1860 Retired
Democratic hold
Pennsylvania 9 Thaddeus Stevens People's 1858 Re-elected
Republican Gain
Pennsylvania 10 John W. Killinger People's 1858 Re-elected
Republican Gain
Pennsylvania 11 James H. Campbell People's 1858 Re-elected
Republican gain
Pennsylvania 12 George W. Scranton People's 1858 Re-elected
Republican gain
Pennsylvania 13 William H. Dimmick Democratic 1856 Retired
Democratic hold
Pennsylvania 14 Galusha A. Grow People's 1850 Re-elected
Republican gain
Pennsylvania 15 James Tracy Hale People's 1858 Re-elected
Republican gain
Pennsylvania 16 Benjamin F. Junkin People's 1858 Defeated
Democratic gain
Pennsylvania 17 Edward McPherson People's 1858 Re-elected
Republican gain
Pennsylvania 18 Samuel S. Blair People's 1858 Re-elected
Republican gain
Pennsylvania 19 John Covode People's 1854 Re-elected
Republican gain
Pennsylvania 20 William Montgomery Democratic 1856 Retired
Democratic Hold
Pennsylvania 21 James K. Moorhead People's 1858 Re-elected
Republican gain
Pennsylvania 22 Robert McKnight People's 1858 Re-elected
Republican gain
  • Robert McKnight (R) 66.26%
  • Lewis Z. Mitchell (Independent Democrat) 23.12%
  • George Case (D) 10.62%
Pennsylvania 23 William Stewart People's 1856 Retired
Republican gain
Pennsylvania 24 Chapin Hall People's 1858 Retired
Republican gain
Pennsylvania 25 Elijah Babbitt People's 1858 Re-elected
Republican gain

Wisconsin[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Wisconsin 1 John F. Potter Republican 1856 Re-elected
Wisconsin 2 Cadwallader C. Washburn Republican 1854 Retired
Republican Hold
Wisconsin 3 Charles H. Larrabee Democratic 1858 Defeated
Republican Gain

Border South and Middle South[edit]

Of the 47 Representatives in these six states, 24 are Union Party, 1 Constitutional Union, 6 Democratic, and 15 will be vacant in Virginia and Tennessee.

These were "slave holding" states, all south of the Mason-Dixon Line. The border south states had less than 2% to more than 19% of their 1860 population held as slaves, with an average of 13%; middle south states ranged from 25-33% slaves, with an average of 29%. (Deep south 43-57%, except Texas, with 30%.)[24]

Eight seats in Virginia and seven seats in Tennessee represented large numbers of citizens resisting the Lincoln administration of the United States government during the Civil War. They were declared vacant in 37th Congress documents.[25]

Delaware[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Delaware At-Large William G. Whiteley Democratic 1856 Retired
People's Gain

Kentucky[edit]

Maryland[edit]

Missouri[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Missouri 1 John Richard Barret Democratic 1858 Lost Re-election
Republican Gain
Missouri 2 Thomas L. Anderson Independent Democrat 1857 Retired
Constitutional Union Gain
Missouri 3 John Bullock Clark Democratic 1856 Re-elected
Missouri 4 James Craig Democratic 1856 Lost re-nomination[26]
Democratic Hold
Missouri 5 Samuel H. Woodson American 1856 Retired
Democratic Gain
Missouri 6 John S. Phelps Democratic 1844 Re-elected
  • John S. Phelps (D) 48.89%
  • J. S. Rains (CU) 40.02%
  • William C. Price (Independent Democrat) 11.09%
Missouri 7 John William Noell Democratic 1858 Re-elected

Tennessee[edit]

Virginia[edit]

Trans-Mississippi West[edit]

West of the Mississippi, there were 16 Representatives from states, and 9 Delegates from territories. The states elected nine Republicans and one Democrat. The Territories elected four Republicans, one Democrat and two Independents.

When California entered the Union, it broke the free soil - slave state tie in the Senate. Minnesota, and Oregon followed as free soil states. Once Congress was depleted of the secessionist Democrats, the lame duck 36th Congress admitted Kansas as a free state in January, 1861, in time for it to send a Representative to the 37th Congress in March. The Republican Congress elected in 1860 began funding the transcontinental railroad, July, 1862. Nevada was admitted before the end of the Civil War in the next, 38th, Congress.

California[edit]

From statehood to 1864, California's representatives were elected at-large, with the top two vote-getters winning election from 1849 to 1858. In the 1860 Census, California gained a seat in the House.

The top three vote-getters were elected, and travelled to Washington, DC. The first two were regularly seated at the beginning of session. When Congress authorized California a third seat, Frederick Low was seated June 3, 1861.

District Incumbents Status Candidates Winners
At-large seat A John C. Burch (Democratic) Retired Timothy Guy Phelps (Republican) 15.6%
Aaron A. Sargent (Republican) 15.3%
Frederick Low (Republican) 11.8%

Henry Edgerton (California) (Independent) 10.7%
Joseph C. McKibben (Independent) 10.7%
Frank Ganahl (Breck. Dem.) 10.2%
Henry P. Barber (Independent) 9.5%
D. O. Shattuck (Independent) 9.5%
John R. Gitchell (Union Dem.) 6.8%
Timothy Guy Phelps (Republican)
At-large seat B Charles L. Scott (Democratic) Retired Aaron A. Sargent (Republican)
At-large seat C New seat created Frederick Low[28] (Republican)

Iowa[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Iowa 1 Samuel R. Curtis Republican 1856 Re-elected
Iowa 2 William Vandever Republican 1858 Re-elected

Kansas[edit]

Minnesota[edit]

District Incumbents Status Candidates
At-large seat A Cyrus Aldrich (R) Re-elected Cyrus Aldrich (R) 31.75%
William Windom (R) 31.51%
John M. Gilman (D) 17.30%
James George (D) 17.24%
Alonzo Jay Edgerton (Breckingridge Democrat) 1.12%
James W. Taylor (Breckinridge Democrat) 1.09%
At-large seat B William Windom (R) Re-elected

Oregon[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Oregon 1 George K. Shiel Democratic 1860 Not Re-nominated
Democratic Hold
Election Challenged
George Shiel Later Seated

Non-voting members[edit]

All are trans-Mississippi west non-voting delegates in the 37th Congress. Nevada was admitted as a state in the next Congress.

Vacant state delegations[edit]

Forty-three seats represented large numbers of citizens in nine states resisting the Lincoln administration of the United States government during the Civil War. The following state delegations were entirely vacated.

Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia are accounted for in the “Border South and Middle South” section above.

Alabama[edit]

Arkansas[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Arkansas 1 Thomas C. Hindman Democratic 1858 Re-elected
Seat Later Vacated
Arkansas 2 Albert Rust Democratic 1858 Retired
Independent Gain
Seat Later Vacated
  • Edward W. Gantt (I) 54.38%
  • Charles Burton Mitchel (D) 42.69%
  • James A. Jones (I) 2.92%

Florida[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida At-Large George S. Hawkins Democratic 1856 Retired
Democratic Hold
Seat Later Vacated

Georgia[edit]

Louisiana[edit]

Mississippi[edit]

North Carolina[edit]

South Carolina[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 John McQueen Democratic 1844 Re-elected
Seat Later Vacated
South Carolina 2 William P. Miles Democratic 1856 Re-elected
Seat Later Vacated
South Carolina 3 Laurence M. Keitt Democratic 1853 Retired
Democratic Hold
Seat Later Vacated
  • Lewis Malone Ayer, Jr. (D) 73.77%
  • George P. Elliot (I) 26.23%
South Carolina 4 Milledge L. Bonham Democratic 1858 Re-elected
Seat Later Vacated
South Carolina 5 John D. Ashmore Democratic 1858 Re-elected
Seat Later Vacated
South Carolina 6 William W. Boyce Democratic 1853 Re-elected
Seat Later Vacated

Texas[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Martis, Kenneth C., et al, ‘The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989’, Macmillan Publishing Company, NY, 1989, ISBN 0-02-920170-5 p. 114-115
  2. ^ 12 Stat. 411
  3. ^ Includes Constitutional Unionists
  4. ^ Kansas was not admitted until January 29, 1861, near the end of the 36th Congress, the winner of this election served in both the 36th and 37th Congresses
  5. ^ In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform date for choosing electors. Congressional elections were unaffected by this law, but the date was gradually adopted by the states for Congressional elections
  6. ^ Including 1 Independent Democrat
  7. ^ a b Know-Nothings
  8. ^ Two elections were held in 1860, and controversy existed over which election was valid
  9. ^ 1 seat added
  10. ^ a b c d e Opposition
  11. ^ 7 vacancies
  12. ^ 8 vacancies
  13. ^ 1 Opposition and 1 Know-Nothing
  14. ^ Excludes states that seceded before the start of Congress
  15. ^ 17 Opposition and 6 Know-Nothings in previous election
  16. ^ Martis, Kenneth C., et al, ‘The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989’, Macmillan Publishing Company, NY, 1989, ISBN 0-02-920170-5, p. 111, 113, 115
  17. ^ Martis, Kenneth C., et al, ‘The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989’, Macmillan Publishing Company, NY, 1989, ISBN 0-02-920170-5 p. 31-35
  18. ^ Simon, Harold, 'Lincoln: President Elect. Abraham Lincoln and the Great Secession Winter 1860-1861', p. 12, 2008 Simon & Schuster ISBN 978-0-7432-8947-4
  19. ^ Martis, ibid., p. 36
  20. ^ Martis, ibid., p. 34
  21. ^ Martis, Ibid., p. 114, 115
  22. ^ Freehling, William W., 'The Road to Disunion. Vol. II: Secessionists Triumphant: 1854-1861", Oxford University Press 2007. ISBN 978-0-19- 505815-4 p. 2 map
  23. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 128, 129. 
  24. ^ Long, E.B.,"The Civil War Day By Day: An Almanac, 1861-1865", Da Capo Press, 1985. ISBN 978-0-306-80255-3. Appendix
  25. ^ Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress, (1774–2005), "Official Annotated Membership Roster by State with Vacancy and Special Election Information for the 37th Congress".
  26. ^ http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=C000857
  27. ^ a b Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress, (1774–2005), "Official Annotated Membership Roster by State with Vacancy and Special Election Information for the 37th Congress |Official Annotated Membership Roster" Joseph E. Segar was elected in Virginia on October 24, 1861.
  28. ^ Frederick F. Low, the candidate with the third highest vote in the at-large election for California’s Congressional delegation, was seated when Congress approved California’s third seat in the House of Representatives, from June 3, 1862.